# Standards A complete list of the standards covered by this lesson is included in the Appendix at the end of the lesson.

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Standards A complete list of the standards covered by this lesson is included in the Appendix at the end of the lesson."

## Transcription

1 Lesson 3: Albedo Time: approximately minutes, plus 30 minutes for students to paint pop bottles Materials: Text: Albedo (from web site 1 per group) Small thermometers, at least 0ºC to 100ºC range (2 per group) If performed outdoors: Plastic 2-liter soda pop bottles (2 per group) 1 can of flat white spray paint 1 can of flat black spray paint If performed indoors: Ring stand (1 per group) Small lamp with outdoor floodlight or 100W light bulb (1 per group) Black construction paper (2 sheets per group) White construction paper (2 sheets per group) Overview Students explore the effect of bond albedo on a planet s surface temperature. They will measure the temperature of the air under black and white bottles and use this information to draw conclusions about how the amount of energy reflected away from a planet affects its average surface temperature. Purpose Students will learn that light colors reflect more energy than dark colors. As a planet s albedo increases, its average surface temperature will decrease. Students should learn that they can influence the average surface temperature of their planets by manipulating their planet s bond albedo. Standards A complete list of the standards covered by this lesson is included in the Appendix at the end of the lesson. Procedure Have the groups read the introduction to the lesson and make a prediction. Does the surface of a planet affect how warm or cold it is? If so, how? This lesson will explore these questions. Not all the energy that arrives at a planet actually warms the planet. Some of it is reflected back into space. The measure of the amount of energy reflected back into space is called the ALBEDO of the planet. (Albedo can be measured different ways. For this unit we will be using a particular type of measurement called BOND ALBEDO. ) Rocky surfaces can vary in color, but are usually dark. Icy surfaces can be very light or very dark depending on how much dust is mixed in with the ice

2 the more dust mixed in, the darker the ice. Liquid surfaces tend to be less dark than rocky surfaces. Before we do the experiment, discuss the following question with your group and make a prediction: Will a dark-colored surface reflect more or less heat away from a planet than a light-colored surface? Prediction: A dark colored surface will reflect heat. (more or less) Instructors should decide whether to prepare the painted 2-liter pop bottles themselves or to let the students prepare them. It is important that flat paint is used. Gloss or semi-gloss paint may give ambiguous results. One can of spray paint is usually enough to paint 8 to 10 bottles, both inside and out. Painting both inside and outside will give the best results. Set the bottles on the ground to paint the inside and then wait at least 15 minutes for them to dry to the touch. While drying, hammer a 3 to 4 long stake or stick into the ground. After 15 minutes, place the bottle upside down over the stick and spray paint the outside. Wait 5 minutes and then check that bottles are evenly covered. It is probably a good idea to prepare the bottles a day in advance, although the bottles should be useable within 1 hour after painting with most types of flat spray paint. Experiment: Testing the Effect of Albedo on Temperature You will need: This worksheet 2 plastic two liter pop bottles 2 small thermometers Flat black paint Flat white paint Step 1: Cut off the top of the two plastic pop bottles at the top of the label. Remove the labels. Step 2: Paint the outside of one of the bottles black and the other bottle white. You should also paint the inside of the bottles if you have enough paint. This lesson can be done in lightly overcast weather, but the results will be more noticeable in full sunlight. On a sunny day: Step 3: Place both thermometers in a refrigerator for at least 5 minutes (longer is fine). Step 4: Remove the thermometers from the refrigerators. Bring this worksheet, both thermometers and the two painted bottles outside into the Sun.

3 The thermometers do not have to be expensive. They must be short enough to fit under the bottles. If they are short enough to lie flat under the bottles then care must be taken to ensure that the thermometers record the temperature of the air under the bottles and not the temperature of the surface that they are lying on. On very warm or very cold days the temperature of the ground may be very different from the air temperature. This can create inaccurate measurements. The problem can be remedied by having groups bring out a book large enough to place both bottles on. The groups can place both thermometers on the book and then cover the thermometers with the bottles. Teachers should caution students to be careful where they stand during the test so that their shadows are not falling on either of the bottles. Step 5: Place the thermometers on the ground. Cover one with the white bottle and the other with the black bottle. (If the thermometer is longer than the diameter of the bottle you will need to stand the thermometer up inside the bottle.) Wait at least three minutes. Step 6: Lift up the white bottle and check the temperature on the thermometer. Record the temperature here: º F / C (circle). Note: Circle F if you recorded the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit. Circle C if you recorded it in degrees Celsius. Make sure to use the same temperature scale throughout this experiment. Step 7: Lift up the black bottle and check the temperature on the thermometer. Record the temperature here: º F / C (circle). Inexpensive classroom thermometers can be inaccurate. By switching the thermometers and repeating the test any inaccuracies will be canceled out. Teachers may consider eliminating the explanation below from the student copies of the assignment and asking students how they might compensate for any potential inaccuracies. Because there might be small differences in the thermometers, we need to swap the thermometers between the two bottles and repeat the experiment, so continue on to Steps Step 8: Take the thermometer that was under the white bottle and place it under the black bottle. Put the thermometer that was under black bottle under the white bottle. Wait at least three minutes. Step 9: Lift up the white bottle and check the temperature on the thermometer. Record the temperature here: º F / C (circle). Step 10: Lift up the black bottle and check the temperature on the thermometer. Record the temperature here: º F / C (circle).

5 7) If all other conditions were the same, you would expect a planet with a high albedo to have a (higher / lower) average surface temperature than a planet with a low albedo. 8) If all other conditions were the same, a planet with a dark-colored surface would have a (higher / lower) average surface temperature than a planet with a light-colored surface. 9) Much of the Earth s north and south Polar Regions are covered by ice caps. This ice is very light-colored, almost white. This means that the ice caps have a (higher / lower) albedo than the rest of Earth s surface. As the ice caps melt and become smaller the Earth s albedo (increases / decreases) and the Earth becomes (cooler / warmer). If the ice caps start increasing the Earth s albedo would (increase / decrease) and the Earth would become (cooler / warmer). 10) In your own words, explain how the average surface temperature of a planet changes as its BOND ALBEDO changes. 11) Now think about the average surface temperature of the planet you are exploring. Based on what you have discovered with the Planet Temperature Calculator, is the average surface temperature of your planet too hot, too cold or about right?. Do you want your planet to have a high or a low albedo? Look at question 5 of the Planet Preference Survey to find the type of surface you selected for your planet. The surface you chose will restrict the range of numbers that you may enter for BOND ALBEDO in the planet temperature program. If you chose Liquid choose a number between 15 and 25. If you chose Solid choose a number between 1 and 15 for a rocky surface, 50 and 80 for a fresh ice covered surface, or 10 and 50 for an old, dirty ice covered surface. If you chose Mixture decide whether your planet is mostly rock, mostly liquid or mostly ice. You should choose a number close to the allowable range for that surface (check the ranges listed above) but it can be a little higher or lower, depending on what else is on your planet s surface. Our planet has a BOND ALBEDO of. The groups should use this value for BOND ALBEDO for the remaining lessons of this unit. While it is recommended that this activity be performed outdoors, it is possible to modify it so that it can be done indoors if the weather does not cooperate. The following is the procedure for a similar indoor activity:

6 1) Suspend the lamp upside down in the ring stand so that the floodlight or 100W light bulb is pointing downward. 2) Adjust the ring stand so that the floodlight bulb is approximately 6 (15 cm) above the table top, or 4 (10 cm) if using a 100W bulb. 3) Place one sheet of white paper and one sheet of black paper side-by-side under the light bulb. Adjust the ring stand so that the center of the bulb is directly over the line where the two sheets of paper meet. 4) Place one thermometer on the white paper approximately 3 (8 cm) from the line where the 2 sheets of paper meet and the other thermometer in the same relative position on the black paper. If desired, teachers can have students measure and mark the positions on the papers where the thermometers will be placed beforehand, although this is not critical. It is important, however, that both thermometers are about the same distance from the bulb. 5) Cover the thermometer on the white paper with the 2 nd sheet of white paper and the thermometer on the black paper with the 2 nd black paper. The top and bottom papers should all meet at the same line. 6) Turn on the light bulb and wait approximately 3 minutes if using the floodlight or 5 minutes if using the 100W bulb. 7) Uncover the thermometer on the white paper and record the temperature. 8) Uncover the thermometer on the black paper and record the temperature. 9) Switch the thermometers and repeat. Students will need a different worksheet if performing this activity indoors. A modified worksheet is available in Appendix B

7 Appendix A Standards Addressed Benchmarks (Grades 3 through 5) 1B Scientific Inquiry Scientific investigations may take many different forms, including observing what things are like or what is happening somewhere, collecting specimens for analysis, and doing experiments. Investigations can focus on physical, biological, and social questions. Results of scientific investigations are seldom exactly the same, but if the differences are large, it is important to try to figure out why. One reason for following directions carefully and for keeping records of one's work is to provide information on what might have caused the differences. 3A Technology and Society Measuring instruments can be used to gather accurate information for making scientific comparisons of objects and events and for designing and constructing things that will work properly. 4E Energy Transformation Some materials conduct heat much better than others. Poor conductors can reduce heat loss. 11A Systems In something that consists of many parts, the parts usually influence one another. 11B - Models Seeing how a model works after changes are made to it may suggest how the real thing would work if the same were done to it. 12D Communication Skills Use numerical data in describing and comparing objects and events. 12E Critical-Response Skills Recognize when comparisons might not be fair because some conditions are not kept the same. Seek better reasons for believing something than "Everybody knows that..." or "I just know" and discount such reasons when given by others. Benchmarks (Grades 6 through 8) 1C The Scientific Enterprise Accurate record-keeping, openness, and replication are essential for maintaining an investigator's credibility with other scientists and society. 3A Technology and Society

8 Technology is essential to science for such purposes as access to outer space and other remote locations, sample collection and treatment, measurement, data collection and storage, computation, and communication of information. 4F Motion Light from the sun is made up of a mixture of many different colors of light, even though to the eye the light looks almost white. Other things that give off or reflect light have a different mix of colors. 11A Systems A system can include processes as well as things. Thinking about things as systems means looking for how every part relates to others. The output from one part of a system (which can include material, energy, or information) can become the input to other parts. Such feedback can serve to control what goes on in the system as a whole. 11B Models Models are often used to think about processes that happen too slowly, too quickly, or on too small a scale to observe directly, or that are too vast to be changed deliberately, or that are potentially dangerous. 12A Values and Attitudes Know that hypotheses are valuable, even if they turn out not to be true, if they lead to fruitful investigations. 12C Manipulation and Observation Read analog and digital meters on instruments used to make direct measurements of length, volume, weight, elapsed time, rates, and temperature, and choose appropriate units for reporting various magnitudes. Benchmarks (Grades 9 through 12) 1A The Scientific World View Scientists assume that the universe is a vast single system in which the basic rules are the same everywhere. The rules may range from very simple to extremely complex, but scientists operate on the belief that the rules can be discovered by careful, systematic study. 1B Scientific Inquiry Investigations are conducted for different reasons, including to explore new phenomena, to check on previous results, to test how well a theory predicts, and to compare different theories. National Standards (Grades 5-8) Understandings about Scientific Inquiry Technology used to gather data enhances accuracy and allows scientists to analyze and quantify results of investigations. Transfer of Energy

9 The sun is a major source of energy for changes on the earth's surface. The sun loses energy by emitting light. A tiny fraction of that light reaches the earth, transferring energy from the sun to the earth. The sun's energy arrives as light with a range of wavelengths, consisting of visible light, infrared, and ultraviolet radiation. Nature of Science Scientists formulate and test their explanations of nature using observation, experiments, and theoretical and mathematical models. Although all scientific ideas are tentative and subject to change and improvement in principle, for most major ideas in science, there is much experimental and observational confirmation. Those ideas are not likely to change greatly in the future. Scientists do and have changed their ideas about nature when they encounter new experimental evidence that does not match their existing explanations. National Standards (Grades 9-12) Understandings about Scientific Inquiry Scientists rely on technology to enhance the gathering and manipulation of data. New techniques and tools provide new evidence to guide inquiry and new methods to gather data, thereby contributing to the advance of science. The accuracy and precision of the data, and therefore the quality of the exploration, depends on the technology used. Energy in the Earth System Global climate is determined by energy transfer from the sun at and near the earth's surface. This energy transfer is influenced by dynamic processes such as cloud cover and the earth's rotation, and static conditions such as the position of mountain ranges and oceans. Indiana Standards Grade 5 English/Language Arts Comprehension Analyze text that is organized in sequential or chronological order. Science Communication Skills Read and follow step-by-step instructions when learning new procedures. Matter and Energy Investigate that some materials conduct heat much better than others, and poor conductors can reduce heat loss. Numbers Make precise and varied measurements and specify the appropriate units. Grade 6 Mathematics Measurement Select and apply appropriate standard units and tools to measure length, area, volume, weight, time, temperature, and the size of angles.

10 Science Interdependence of Life and Evolution Describe how life on Earth depends on energy from the sun. Grade 7 Mathematics Data Analysis and Probability Make predictions from statistical data. Science Manipulation and Observation Read analog and digital meters on instruments used to make direct measurements of length, volume, weight, elapsed time, rates, or temperatures, and choose appropriate units. Matter and Energy Explain that the sun loses energy by emitting light. Note that only a tiny fraction of that light reaches Earth. Understand that the sun s energy arrives as light with a wide range of wavelengths, consisting of visible light and infrared and ultraviolet radiation. Grade 8 Science Communication Participate in group discussions on scientific topics by restating or summarizing accurately what others have said, asking for clarification or elaboration, and expressing alternative positions.

11 Appendix B Build Your Own Planet Lesson 3: Albedo Group: Does the surface of a planet affect how warm or cold it is? If so, how? This lesson will explore these questions. Not all the energy that arrives at a planet actually warms the planet. Some of it is reflected back into space. The measure of the amount of energy reflected back into space is called the ALBEDO of the planet. (Albedo can be measured different ways. For this unit we will be using a particular type of measurement called BOND ALBEDO. ) Rocky surfaces can vary in color, but are usually dark. Icy surfaces can be very light or very dark depending on how much dust is mixed in with the ice the more dust mixed in, the darker the ice. Liquid surfaces tend to be less dark than rocky surfaces. Before we do the experiment, discuss the following question with your group and make a prediction: Will a dark-colored surface reflect more or less heat away from a planet than a light-colored surface? Prediction: A dark colored surface will reflect heat. (more or less) Experiment: Testing the Effect of Albedo on Temperature You will need: This worksheet 2 small thermometers Ring stand Small lamp with outdoor floodlight or 100W light bulb 2 sheets of black construction paper 2 sheets of white construction paper Step 1: Place both thermometers in a refrigerator for at least 5 minutes (longer is fine).

12 Step 2: Place the lamp upside down in the ring stand so that the floodlight or 100W light bulb is pointing downward. Step 3: Adjust the ring stand so that the floodlight bulb is approximately 6 (15 cm) above the table top, or 4 (10 cm) if using a 100W bulb. Step 4: Place one sheet of white paper and one sheet of black paper side-by-side under the light bulb. Adjust the ring stand so that the center of the bulb is directly over the line where the two sheets of paper meet. Step 5: Remove the thermometers from the refrigerator. Place one thermometer on the white paper about 3 (8 cm) from the line where the 2 sheets of paper meet and the other thermometer in the same position on the black paper. Step 6: Cover the thermometer on the white paper with the 2 nd sheet of white paper and the thermometer on the black paper with the 2 nd black paper. The top and bottom papers should all meet at the same line. Step 7: Turn on the light bulb and wait 3 minutes if using the floodlight or 5 minutes if using the 100W bulb. Step 8: Uncover the thermometer under the white paper and note the temperature. Record the temperature here: º F / C (circle). Note: Circle F if you recorded the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit. Circle C if you recorded it in degrees Celsius. Make sure to use the same temperature scale throughout this experiment. Step 9: Uncover the thermometer under the black paper and note the temperature. Record the temperature here: º F / C (circle). Because there might be small differences in the thermometers, we need to swap the thermometers between the two bottles and repeat the experiment, so continue on to Steps Step 10: Take the thermometer that was under the white paper, place it on the black paper and cover it with the 2 nd sheet of black paper. Put the thermometer

13 that was under black paper on the white paper and cover it with the 2nd white paper. Wait at least three minutes if using the floodlight or 5 minutes if using the 100W bulb. Step 11: Uncover the thermometer under the white paper and note the temperature. Record the temperature here: º F / C (circle). Step 12: Uncover the thermometer under the black paper and note the temperature. Record the temperature here: º F / C (circle). Step 11: Add together the two temperature readings under the white paper recorded in Steps 8 & 11. Total temperature under the white paper: º F / C (circle). Add together the two temperature readings under the black paper recorded in Steps 9 & 12. Total temperature under the black paper: º F / C (circle). Questions: 1) Which color paper had the thermometers with higher total temperature?. 2) Which color paper had the lower total temperature?. 3) Which color paper reflected away more heat?. 4) Since albedo is the measure of how much energy is reflected away, which color paper had the higher albedo?.

14 5) Was the difference in total temperature between the two papers great or small?. 6) Do you think albedo has a great effect or a small effect on a planet s surface temperature?. Based on what you just discovered about the black and white papers, circle the correct answers to the next three questions. 7) If all other conditions were the same, you would expect a planet with a high albedo to have a (higher / lower) average surface temperature than a planet with a low albedo. 8) If all other conditions were the same, a planet with a dark-colored surface would have a (higher / lower) average surface temperature than a planet with a light-colored surface. 9) Much of the Earth s north and south Polar Regions are covered by ice caps. This ice is very light-colored, almost white. This means that the ice caps have a (higher / lower) albedo than the rest of Earth s surface. As the ice caps melt and become smaller the Earth s albedo (increases / decreases) and the Earth becomes (cooler / warmer). If the ice caps start increasing the Earth s albedo would (increase / decrease) and the Earth would become (cooler / warmer). 10) In your own words, explain how the average surface temperature of a planet changes as its BOND ALBEDO changes. 11) Now think about the average surface temperature of the planet you are exploring. Based on what you have discovered with the Planet Temperature Calculator, is the average surface temperature of your planet too hot, too cold or about right?. Do you want your planet to have a high or a low albedo?

15 Look at question 5 of the Planet Preference Survey to find the type of surface you selected for your planet. The surface you chose will restrict the range of numbers that you may enter for BOND ALBEDO in the planet temperature program. If you chose Liquid choose a number between 15 and 25. If you chose Solid choose a number between 1 and 15 for a rocky surface, 50 and 80 for a fresh ice covered surface, or 10 and 50 for an old, dirty ice covered surface. If you chose Mixture decide whether your planet is mostly rock, mostly liquid or mostly ice. You should choose a number close to the allowable range for that surface (check the ranges listed above) but it can be a little higher or lower, depending on what else is on your planet s surface. Our planet has a BOND ALBEDO of.

### Albedo Laboratory Teacher Guide

Albedo Laboratory Teacher Guide Driving Question: What effect does albedo have on surface temperature? Albedo Laboratory Teacher Guide In this activity your students will: 1. Understand how light reflection

### The Sun and Water Cycle

reflect Have you ever jumped in a puddle or played in the rain? If so, you know you can get very wet. What you may not know is that a dinosaur could have walked through that same water millions of years

### Standards A complete list of the standards covered by this lesson is included in Appendix A at the end of the lesson.

Lesson 1: The Sun s Habitable Zone Time: approximately 40-50 minutes Materials: Text: Lesson 1 Determining Our Sun s Habitable Zone (from web site - 1 per group) Habitable Zone Table (included with students

Grade Stand Sub-Strand Standard Benchmark OF OF OF A. Scientific World View B. Scientific Inquiry C. Scientific Enterprise understand that science is a way of knowing about the world that is characterized

### Earth, Moon, and Sun Inquiry Template Eclipses

One Stop Shop For Educators The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved

### What Causes Climate? Use Target Reading Skills

Climate and Climate Change Name Date Class Climate and Climate Change Guided Reading and Study What Causes Climate? This section describes factors that determine climate, or the average weather conditions

### Notebook Set Up Packet

A Science Notebook Set Up Packet for Primary Grades By Nancy VandenBerge Firstgradewow.blogspot.com Graphics By Thistle Girl, scrappindoodles This little unit is intended to be an aid in setting up a science

### Comparing heat absorption in different soil types

Comparing heat absorption in different soil types Hypothesis Sand will absorb heat at a different rate than potting soil. A dark surface will absorb heat at a different rate than a light surface. Primary

### The Greenhouse Effect

By conducting a simple experiment, students are introduced to the natural greenhouse effect of Earth s atmosphere. A clear plastic bottle and lamp simulate the interactions between the Earth and incoming

### Heat and Temperature: Teacher s Guide

Heat and Temperature: Teacher s Guide Grade Level: 6-8 Curriculum Focus: Physical Science Lesson Duration: Two class periods Program Description Humans have always been feverish about temperature. But

### How does the angle and area of incident sunlight change as you move away from the Equator towards the poles?

Environmental Literacy Framework Flashlights on Earth Focus Questions: How does the angle and area of incident sunlight change as you move away from the Equator towards the poles? Have you ever wondered

### Instruction Manual and Experiment Guide F. Basic Calorimetry Set TD-8557A

Instruction Manual and Experiment Guide 012-03060F Basic Calorimetry Set TD-8557A Al Cu W Table of Contents Introduction......................................................................... 1 Notes

### Heat Energy FORMS OF ENERGY LESSON PLAN 2.7. Public School System Teaching Standards Covered

FORMS OF ENERGY LESSON PLAN 2.7 Heat Energy This lesson is designed for 3rd 5th grade students in a variety of school settings (public, private, STEM schools, and home schools) in the seven states served

### The Earth, Sun, and Moon

reflect The Sun and Moon are Earth s constant companions. We bask in the Sun s heat and light. It provides Earth s energy, and life could not exist without it. We rely on the Moon to light dark nights.

### Can Gases Act Like a Greenhouse?

Can Gases Act Like a Greenhouse? Activity 1 Following a discussion that enables student to express what they already know about the greenhouse effect, students conduct a controlled experiment to confirm

### Green Heating. Pupil Research Brief. Teachers Notes. Syllabus Coverage Subject Knowledge and Understanding. Route through the Brief UPIL ESEARCHER

R P UPIL ESEARCHER Green Heating I NITIATIVE Pupil Research Brief Teachers Notes Syllabus Coverage Subject Knowledge and Understanding all types of electromagnetic radiation form a continuous spectrum

### Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Covered with Water 6 th Grade Subject Area: Science Grade: 6

One Stop Shop For Educators The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved

### Overview of Chapter. Working Scientifically Skills. The aim of this chapter is for children to investigate and test the effect of the sun s energy.

: Energy in our Lives Aim The aim of this chapter is for children to investigate and test the effect of the sun s energy. Overview of Chapter The lessons in this chapter explore further the sun s role

### The Water Cycle Now You See It, Now You Don t

The Water Cycle Now You See It, Now You Don t Unit: Salinity Patterns & the Water Cycle l Grade Level: Elementary l Time Required: Introduction - 30 min. - Activity as groups 45min Wrap Up 20 min l Content

### Safety Considerations:

Lesson Title How do you keep an ice cube from melting?: The Penguin Problem Grade Band 3 rd Heat Energy Submitted by Donna Barrett & Denise Huddlestun, Metro RESA Georgia Performance Standards: S3P1. Students

### Show-Me Standards Students will: Classify matter as a solid, liquid or gas, using physical properties

Class: Science Grade 5 Learner Objective (to know) Activity (to do) Assessment Show-Me Standards Classify matter as a solid, liquid or gas, using physical properties Classify assorted objects that are

### 1. At which temperature would a source radiate the least amount of electromagnetic energy? 1) 273 K 3) 32 K 2) 212 K 4) 5 K

1. At which temperature would a source radiate the least amount of electromagnetic energy? 1) 273 K 3) 32 K 2) 212 K 4) 5 K 2. How does the amount of heat energy reflected by a smooth, dark-colored concrete

### Transferring Solar Energy

activity 14 Transferring Solar Energy BROWARD COUNTY ELEMENTARY SCIENCE BENCHMARK PLAN Grade 4 Quarter 2 Activity 14 SC.B.1.2.2 The student recognizes various forms of energy (e.g., heat, light, and electricity).

### Energy Pathways in Earth s Atmosphere

BRSP - 10 Page 1 Solar radiation reaching Earth s atmosphere includes a wide spectrum of wavelengths. In addition to visible light there is radiation of higher energy and shorter wavelength called ultraviolet

### Thermal Energy and Heat Transfer

Thermal Energy and Heat Transfer You will explore thermal energy, thermal equilibrium, and three different modes of heat transfer through five hands-on activities aided by the thermal vision provided by

### Measuring Water Temperature

Science Tools Measuring Water Temperature In almost every task in life, people use tools. Doctors cut with scalpels, construction workers dig with shovels, and artists paint with brushes. Science is no

### Activity 7 Greenhouse Gas in a Jar. Atmosphere CHANGE IS IN THE AIR

Activity 7 Greenhouse Gas in a Jar Atmosphere CHANGE IS IN THE AIR Forces of Change» Atmosphere» Activity 7» Page 1 Greenhouse Gas in a Jar Overview Students create a greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, through

### Sunshine on My Shoulders

Sunshine on My Shoulders Description Learners conduct simple experiments to find out what makes mystery beads change color outdoors. They discover that invisible rays of UV (ultraviolet) light cause the

### Scientist Guide. Let s Talk About the Weather. Introduction

Scientist Guide Let s Talk About the Weather Introduction Agriculture is highly dependent on the weather. Ever since the first seed was sown, farmers have been watching the sky and hoping for good weather.

### Sue Cascio (Coyote Valley School), Valerie Duncan (Upper lake Middle School), Paul McGuire (Mountain Vista Middle School)

TEACHING LEARNING COLLABORATIVE (TLC) PHYSICAL SCIENCE Convection Grade 6 Created by: Sandra Cornell (Terrace Heights School), Stacy Holland (Terrace Heights School), Sue Cascio (Coyote Valley School),

### FIRST GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FIRST GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WATER CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FIRST GRADE WATER WEEK 1. PRE: Investigating the water cycle. LAB: Experiencing surface tension. POST: Discovering how water

### The Environmental Literacy Framework (ELF) was made possible through financial support provided by

The Environmental Literacy Framework (ELF) was made possible through financial support provided by Energy Geosphere As part of NOAA Environmental Literacy Grant #NA09SEC490009 to the University of Nebraska

### CONVECTION. cold water (red)

CONVECTION Name(s) PART 1 Convection and Density The physical world around us is constantly changing. The activities in this section of the unit will introduce a new model (convection) which is very powerful

### The Water Cycle and the Influence of Global Warming

The Water Cycle and the Influence of Global Warming Almost three-fourths of Earth s surface is covered by water. Over 96% of this water is in the oceans. The polar ice caps and glaciers hold another 2%

### Earth s Atmosphere. Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere. 3. All the energy from the Sun reaches Earth s surface.

CHAPTER 12 LESSON 2 Earth s Atmosphere Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Key Concepts How does energy transfer from the Sun to Earth and to the atmosphere? How are air circulation patterns within the atmosphere

### 5th Grade Band Theme: Interconnections within Systems Earth and Space Science (ESS)

5th Grade Band Theme: Interconnections within Systems Science Inquiry and Application During the years of grades 5-8, all students must use the following scientific processes, with appropriate laboratory

### PEAK Lab: Insulation Keeping Heat In and Keeping Heat Out. PEAK Student Energy Action Activity: Insulation Audit

PEAK Lab: Insulation Keeping Heat In and Keeping Heat Out Lesson Description: Students build model hot water heaters and examine the role insulation plays in blocking the flow of heat energy. Student Learning

### 8. Mercury, the planet nearest to the Sun, has extreme surface temperatures, ranging from 465 C in sunlight to 180 C in darkness.

6.E.1 Unit Test DO NOT WRITE ON THIS QUIZ!!! 1. The largest body in our solar system is Earth. the Sun. Jupiter. the Moon. 4. What do the four planets closest to the Sun have in common? Their solid, rocky

### Greenhouse Effect Laboratory Teacher Guide

Greenhouse Effect Laboratory Teacher Guide Greenhouse Effect Laboratory Teacher Guide Driving Question: What impact does the greenhouse effect have on atmospheric temperature? In this activity your students

### 2.0 Heat affects matter in different ways

2.0 Heat affects matter in different ways 2.1 States of Matter and The Particle Model of Matter Matter is made up of tiny particles and exists in three states: solid, liquid and gas. The Particle Model

### Partnerships Implementing Engineering Education Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester Public Schools Supported by: National Science Foundation

Temperature: 6.D.3 Temperature and Heat Transfer Grade Level 6 Sessions Seasonality Instructional Mode(s) Team Size WPS Benchmarks MA Frameworks Key Words 1 Approximately 1.5 hours (10 minutes for cleanup)

### Introducing Measurements in the Laboratory

Introducing Measurements in the Laboratory Objectives The objectives of this laboratory are: a) To use a metric ruler to measure the dimensions of regular geometric shapes, and to use these measurements

### THE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF DRY ICE ON THE TEMPERATURE OF WATER

THE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF DRY ICE ON THE TEMPERATURE OF WATER Justin Tunley Cary Academy ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to find out how much the temperature of water would change over time after

### Seasons (Observable Patterns)

Seasons (Observable Patterns) E Q U I T A B L E S C I E N C E C U R R I C U L U M Lesson 3 i N T E G R A T I N G A R T S i n P U B L I C E D U C A T I O N NGSS Science Standard: 5-ESS1-2 Represent data

### Climate Change is Underway Lesson Plan

Climate Change is Underway Lesson Plan For Teachers: The following is a lesson plan designed to be used with section of the Climate Change material entitled Climate Change is Underway from the After Earth

### The Effect of Tilt Angle on Solar Panels

The Effect of Tilt Angle on Solar Panels Objectives Students become familiar with the concept of solar insolation: radiant energy that strikes the planet. They explore the relationship between the angle

### Lesson Plan Simulating the Greenhouse Effect in a Terrarium.

Lesson Plan Simulating the Greenhouse Effect in a Terrarium. Content Standards: 1. Matter and Energy in the Earth System Central Concepts 1.1 Identify Earth s principal sources of internal and external

### As the Sun Burns. Supplemental science materials. for grades 2-4

As the Sun Burns Supplemental science materials for grades 2-4 These supplemental curriculum materials are sponsored by the Standford SOLAR (Solar On-Line Activity Resources) Center. In conjunction with

Convection, Conduction & Radiation There are three basic ways in which heat is transferred: convection, conduction and radiation. In gases and liquids, heat is usually transferred by convection, in which

### I can build a model to simulate parts of the water cycle. I will be able to recognize and explain the essential elements of the water cycle.

The Water Cycle I can build a model to simulate parts of the water cycle. I will be able to recognize and explain the essential elements of the water cycle. Background Water, in its different forms, cycles

### Using Spectrophotometers to Examine Photosynthetic Rates Under Various Qualities of Light

Purdue GK-12 Lesson Plan 2006-07 Using Spectrophotometers to Examine Photosynthetic Rates Under Various Qualities of Light Purdue University GK-12 2006-2007 Lead developer and contact: Amanda Deering Purdue

### NAEP released item, grade 4

One hot, sunny day Sally left two buckets of water out in the sun. The two buckets were the same except that one was black and one was white. At the end of the day, Sally noticed that the water in the

### But, could we force these clouds to create rain in the desert?

Clouds Exploration Phase How do clouds form? Above are fair weather cumulus (heaped/cotton ball) clouds. They do not form a single layer, as stratus clouds. They do not resemble wisps of hair, as cirrus.

### What Is Heat? What Is Heat?

What Is Heat? Paul shivered inside the wood cabin. It was cold outside, and inside the cabin it wasn t much warmer. Paul could hear the rain beating down on the roof. Every few minutes there would be a

### Weather and climate. reflect. what do you think? look out!

reflect You re going on vacation in a week and you have to start thinking about what clothes you re going to pack for your trip. You ve read the weather reports for your vacation spot, but you know that

### teaching materials Here s Lookin at You, Kids!

1 S U M M A R Y With the increase in digital image technology, cameras are becoming increasingly present in modern society. When developing and improving cameras, scientists and inventors have used the

### Related Standards and Background Information

Related Standards and Background Information Earth Patterns, Cycles and Changes This strand focuses on student understanding of patterns in nature, natural cycles, and changes that occur both quickly and

### Round and Round Post-Visit Materials Grade 2 Howard B. Owens Science Center

Round and Round Post-Visit Materials Grade 2 Howard B. Owens Science Center Round and Round Reference: Materials: Scott-Foresman Volume 2 Teacher s Edition Unit D Space and Technology o Chapter 12 Directed

### 1/2/3. Finding out about the Water Cycle

The Water Cycle 1/2/3. Finding out about the Water Cycle Aims: To enable pupils to learn and understand what happens at each stage of the Water Cycle To introduce specific vocabulary related to the Water

### !"#! \$#%&'(&!!!!)'*!+"#!,#%&'(& Studying the effects of direct and indirect sunlight

!"#! \$#%&'(&!!!!)'*!+"#!,#%&'(& Studying the effects of direct and indirect sunlight Designed by: Betsy Mills, UCLA NSF GK-12 Fellow Title of Lesson: Reasons for the Seasons! Grade Level: 8th Subject(s):

### Climate Change: A Theme to Teach Across the Science Disciplines

Climate Change: A Theme to Teach Across the Science Disciplines Sunshine State Stards & Benchmarks that Help Students Underst Climate Change K-2 Compare describe changing patterns in nature that repeat

### Planetary Energy Balance

Planetary Energy Balance Electromagnetic Spectrum Different types of radiation enter the Earth s atmosphere and they re all a part of the electromagnetic spectrum. One end of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum

### Project TECHNOcean Lesson/Activity Plan

Heat Transfer Hayley Vatcher Anna Reh-Gingerich Murray Middle, 7th Objective: Students should be able to: Define and describe conduction Define and describe convection List some good conductors, and poor

### Weather and Climate. What is weather? What are some characteristics of weather? When we talk about weather, we mean the daily conditions in the

Weather and Climate You re going on vacation in a week and you have to start thinking about what clothes you re going to pack for your trip. You ve read the weather reports for your vacation spot, but

### Activity 1.2: Understanding the Greenhouse Effect

Activity 1.2: Understanding the Greenhouse Effect Grades 5 6 Description: In Part 1: Modeling the Greenhouse Effect, students will complete a lab that demonstrates the greenhouse effect and will discuss

### Topographic Maps. By: Nancy Volk VOCABULARY. Inside This Packet MATERIALS NEEDED. Students should be able to: Directions:

Topographic Maps By: Nancy Volk Making a Topographic Map What is a topographic map? what is an isoline or contour line? What type of characteristics does a topographic map show us? If you are wondering

### Water to Vapor; Water to Ice The Process Is Amazing

Science Project Idea 8 th -Grade Energy Water to Vapor; Water to Ice The Process Is Amazing Setting the Scene: Holding On To Heat If you leave a cup of cold water on a counter, it will warm up very quickly.

### Lesson Title: Why Does it Appear that there are Phases of the Moon?

Lewis & Clark Graduate School of Education and Counseling EC-EL Lesson Plan Format Lesson Title: Why Does it Appear that there are Phases of the Moon? Intern s name: Marilee Scoones and Laela Rae Lesson

### Activity Title: How is Coastal Temperature Influenced by the Great Lakes and the Ocean?

BEST OF COSEE HANDS-ON ACTIVITIES Activity Title: How is Coastal Temperature Influenced by the Great Lakes and the Ocean? Learning Objectives The ocean is a major influence on weather and climate. With

data conclusion predict describe observe record identify investigate evidence recycle dispose reuse goggles air cloud precipitation temperature weather wind precipitation property season temperature weather

### AIMS Education Foundation

Developed and Published by AIMS Education Foundation This book contains materials developed by the AIMS Education Foundation. AIMS (Activities Integrating Mathematics and Science) began in 1981 with a

### Lab Activity on Density, Buoyancy and Convection

Lab Activity on Density, Buoyancy and Convection 2002 Ann Bykerk-Kauffman, Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences, California State University, Chico * Introduction One of the four themes for this

### Grade 4 Standard 1 Unit Test Water Cycle. Multiple Choice. 1. Where is most water found on Earth? A. in glaciers B. in lakes C. in rivers D.

Grade 4 Standard 1 Unit Test Water Cycle Multiple Choice 1. Where is most water found on Earth? A. in glaciers B. in lakes C. in rivers D. in oceans 2. What source of energy evaporates the most water from

### STUDY GUIDE: Earth Sun Moon

The Universe is thought to consist of trillions of galaxies. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, has billions of stars. One of those stars is our Sun. Our solar system consists of the Sun at the center, and all

Water Cycle T ABLE OF CONTENTS ABOUT DELTA SCIENCE MODULES Program Introduction................... iii Teacher s Guide..................... iv Delta Science Readers............... vi Equipment and Materials

### [4] SA1.2 The student demonstrates an understanding of the processes of science by observing,

Frost Depth Levels Overview: In this lesson, students explore the active layer above permafrost and begin a long-term investigation of frost depth. (NOTE: This lesson requires a frost tube in your community.

### The States of Matter

The States of Matter The audience is invited to stretch their minds about the expanding and contracting world of temperature. Solid, liquid or gas - everyone will see, it s all a matter of degree! Balloons

### Chapter 5 Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos

Chapter 5 Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos Messages Interactions of Light and Matter The interactions determine everything we see, including what we observe in the Universe. What is light?

### Evaporation. Unit Written By: Emily Ericson Jennifer Throndsen

Evaporation Unit Written By: Emily Ericson Jennifer Throndsen Science Methods EDUC 342 Spring 2003 Jennifer Throndsen Emily Ericson Spring 2003 Introduction to Evaporation Abstract: During the introductory

### Buoyancy and Density: Middle School Unit Plan

Buoyancy and Density: Middle School Unit Plan Questioning Strategies to Promote Critical Thinking Using a Conceptual Change Model (Integration of mathematics & physical science) Delena Norris-Tull and

### BRSP-7 Page 1. A Open B Covered C Covered / Water. Two different experiments are presented, each experiment using a different pair of models:

BRSP-7 Page 1 Perhaps you have heard of the greenhouse effect. In a greenhouse, short-wave radiation from sunlight passes freely through the glass and is converted to long-wave radiation inside. But the

### Infrared Thermometer Guidance

Infrared Thermometer Guidance Infrared thermometers can be used to answer a range of questions, including: - What is the temperature of the clouds? - What is the greenhouse effect? - If it is sunny, how

### 4 TH GRADE AIR AND AIR PRESSURE

4 TH GRADE AIR AND AIR PRESSURE Summary: Students experiment with air by finding that it has mass and pressure. Warm air is less dense than cool air and this is tested using a balance. Students experiment

### WHO S THE COOLEST? A 5 th Grade Inquiry-Based Lesson Investigating Surface Area and the Rate of Cooling. Judy Kasabian El Camino College

WHO S THE COOLEST? A 5 th Grade Inquiry-Based Lesson Investigating Surface Area and the Rate of Cooling Judy Kasabian El Camino College This lesson was designed by a Science FEST faculty and used as a

### Miami-Dade County Public Schools Curriculum and Instruction (Science)

Miami-Dade County Public Schools Curriculum and Instruction (Science) Required GRADE 5 ESSENTIAL SCIENCE Laboratory Activities QUARTER 2 LABORATORIES LAB # 8: AROUND AND AROUND IT GOES! Grade 5 Essential

### GETTING TO THE CORE: THE LINK BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND CARBON DIOXIDE

DESCRIPTION This lesson plan gives students first-hand experience in analyzing the link between atmospheric temperatures and carbon dioxide ( ) s by looking at ice core data spanning hundreds of thousands

### Interaction at a Distance

Interaction at a Distance Lesson Overview: Students come in contact with and use magnets every day. They often don t consider that there are different types of magnets and that they are made for different

### Lesson Overview Students will analyze the relationship between four different soil coverings and its effect on soil temperature. Grouping Groups of 4

Discovering How Reflection of Sun s Rays Effects Soil Temperature Adapted from: Discovering Albedo found at: http://www.scienceteacher.org/k12resources/lessons/lessona27.htm Focus on Inquiry The student

### Table of contents. Introduction...ix. The National Science Education Standards...1. Features of Inquiry in Action investigations and activities...

Table of contents Introduction...ix The National Science Education Standards...1 Inquiry... 1 Selected science teaching standards... 4 Inquiry content standards... 6 Physical science content standards...

### CHANGING EARTH K 12 Educator s Guide

CHANGING EARTH K 12 Educator s Guide HOW ARE WE A PART OF OUR CHANGING EARTH? Since its formation, the Earth has undergone dramatic changes. The powerful forces behind these changes are present today

### Kinesthetic Astronomy: Longer Days, Shorter Nights

GRADE LEVEL 3 rd -8 th ; California Content Standards for 3 rd, 5 th, 6 th 8 th SUBJECTS Earth & Space Science, Using Models DURATION Preparation: 20 minutes Activity: 60 minutes SETTING Classroom Objectives

### Geology 1347 Meteorology

Geology 1347 Meteorology Exam 1 Review 1. Carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere: a. mainly through the decay of vegetation b. volcanic eruptions c. exhalations of animal life d. burning of fossil fuels

### Weather Maps and Prediction 2 nd Grade Bret Underwood

Weather Maps and Prediction 2 nd Grade Bret Underwood Benchmarks: (2 nd ) SLC 13: A. Students will be able to read simple weather maps using weather symbols. Purpose: To help students recognize and use

### How Strong Is It? The earth's gravity pulls any object on or near the earth toward it without touching it. 4G/E1*

How Strong Is It? Lesson Overview: Overview: Students frequently use Post-it Notes but seldom give thought to using a Post-it Notes to learn and practice the skills of inquiry. Post-it Notes readily stick

### Temperature affects water in the air.

KEY CONCEPT Most clouds form as air rises and cools. BEFORE, you learned Water vapor circulates from Earth to the atmosphere Warm air is less dense than cool air and tends to rise NOW, you will learn How

### Science Standard 3 Energy and Its Effects Grade Level Expectations

Science Standard 3 Energy and Its Effects Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 3 Energy and Its Effects The flow of energy drives processes of change in all biological, chemical, physical, and geological

### ELECTRICITYt. Electromagnetism

ELECTRICITYt Electromagnetism Subject area : Physics Topic focus : magnetic properties, magnetic field, the Earth s magnetic field, magnetic field of an electric wire. Learning Aims : Polarity of bar magnets

### HEAT OF FUSION MECHANICAL EQUIVALENT OF HEAT AND PART A. HEAT OF FUSION

HEAT OF FUSION AND MECHANICAL EQUIVALENT OF HEAT CAUTION: Please handle thermometers gently. Broken mercury-filled thermometers should be taken to Rm. B-31 for disposal as mercury is very toxic. If a red-liquid