Classical conditioning

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1 Classical conditioning Video clips / 2 and a half men clip WHk Big Bang theory clip positive reinforcement

2 htm pavlov cloze view/20088/ recreation of Pavlov s dogs boy and bbgun videos/view/20218/ basic CC John Watson Little Albert htm match quiz Pavlov

3 Atypical Behaviour Core Theory The Behaviourist Theory What was the weirdest phobia you could find?

4 BATs Outline the behaviourist theory of phobias (D+) Explain how classical and operant conditioning can start and maintain a phobia (B+) Homework 1. Describe Classical Conditioning in relation to a phobia of your choice. (5 marks) 2. Explain how the idea of Operant Conditioning can explain why the phobia continues and isn t extinguished. (3 marks)

5 The Behaviourist Theory Behaviourists are Psychologists who believe that behaviours are LEARNED not NATURAL. They believe we learn to be PHOBIC. Many people can link their phobia to a bad experience Children often have similar phobias to parents

6 Classical Conditioning Learning by Association people learn to associate a particular response with a particular stimulus. e.g. When asked a question (stimulus) in class you have learnt to automatically put your hand up (response)

7 Classical Conditioning Behaviourists accept that some behaviours are not learnt, but INSTINCTIVE e.g. responses like vomiting, sexual arousal and anxiety They called these UNCONDITIONED RESPONSES (UCR) These responses are triggered by UNCONDITIONED STIMULI (UCS) Objects and events that naturally cause the reaction e.g. poison, stimulating genitals and a threat

8 Classical Conditioning BUT sometimes these responses happen because of a NEUTRAL STIMULUS (NS) one that normally doesn t cause a reaction. e.g. NS = burger. You may once have been sick after eating one. you then ASSOCIATE the burger(ns) with the response (vomiting) Next time you have a burger it makes you feel sick!! You have been Classically Conditioned

9 Classical Conditioning The Neutral Stimulus (e.g. burger)is now known as a CONDITIONED STIMULUS (CS) because it triggers a learnt response The response itself doesn t change (i.e. vomiting), but as it is a response to a CS It is now known as a CONDITIONED RESPONSE (CR) boy and bbgun see also African Land snails

10 Over to you Do activities 5.4 and 5.5 p66-67 use the worksheet. videos/view/20088/ recreation of Pavlov s dogs Copy diagrams on p67 to illustrate Pavlov s experiment EXTENSION Activity 5.6 p67 What does Stimulus Generalisation mean? Breaktime!

11 Classical Conditioning Pavlov s Experiment UCS FOOD UCR SALIVATION NS BELL CS BELL CR SALIVATION

12 How can Classical Conditioning be used to explain the start of Phobias? Phobias are the result of a negative experience with a feared object, context or activity Fear is the Unconditioned Response (UR) Feared object, action e.t.c is the US A NS can be associated with the feared action/object e.t.c Here is an example see p68

13 Apiphobia a fear of bees UCS (sting) + NS (bee) CS (bee) association UCR FEAR CR FEAR This can happen after one bad experience ONE TRIAL LEARNING

14 How can Classical Conditioning be used to explain how Phobias continue? 1. Stimulus generalisation associate CR with stimuli similar to the original stimulus (e.g. apiphobics may also fear wasps) 2. Extinction associations between stimulus and response gradually disappear but why don t people stop being phobic if they have not encountered the stimulus that causes their phobia for a while?

15 How can Classical Conditioning be used to explain how Phobias continue? 3. Operant Conditioning learning by consequences. If consequence of an action is rewarding we learn to do it again (positive reinforcement) If the consequence is negative we do not repeat the action (negative reinforcement - punishment)

16 How can Classical Conditioning be used to explain how Phobias continue? 3. Operant Conditioning.. A phobia is also about avoiding the object or situation (Stimulus) Avoidance feel relieved REWARDING keep avoiding the stimulus to get more relief Facing fear (e.g. bee) ANXIETY PUNISHING don t want to face fear again Big Bang theory clip positive reinforcement

17 Behaviourist theory of phobias All behaviours, including phobias, are learnt. In other words, phobias are conditioned. Phobias start because of classical conditioning. Phobias are maintained (kept going) by operant conditioning.

18 Over to you Copy the definition of Operant conditioning into your Glossary, plus extinction, stimulus generalisation and one trial learning Create a Classical Conditioning diagram like the one on p68 for a phobia other than Apiphobia Extension Storyboard or role play a situation when a phobia might be started and maintained using the ideas of CC and Operant Conditioning

19 Homework 1. Describe Classical Conditioning in relation to a phobia of your choice. (5 marks) 2. Explain how the idea of Operant Conditioning can explain why the phobia continues and isn t extinguished. (3 marks)

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