# CHAPTER 1. Logic, Proofs Propositions

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1 CHAPTER 1 Logic, Proofs 1.1. Propositions A proposition is a declarative sentence that is either true or false (but not both). For instance, the following are propositions: Paris is in France (true), London is in Denmark (false), 2 < 4 (true), 4 = 7 (false). However the following are not propositions: what is your name? (this is a question), do your homework (this is a command), this sentence is false (neither true nor false), x is an even number (it depends on what x represents), Socrates (it is not even a sentence). The truth or falsehood of a proposition is called its truth value Connectives, Truth Tables. Connectives are used for making compound propositions. The main ones are the following (p and q represent given propositions): Name Represented Meaning Negation p not p Conjunction p q p and q Disjunction p q p or q (or both) Exclusive Or p q either p or q, but not both Implication p q if p then q Biconditional p q p if and only if q The truth value of a compound proposition depends only on the value of its components. Writing F for false and T for true, we can summarize the meaning of the connectives in the following way: 6

2 1.1. PROPOSITIONS 7 p q p p q p q p q p q p q T T F T T F T T T F F F T T F F F T T F T T T F F F T F F F T T Note that represents a non-exclusive or, i.e., p q is true when any of p, q is true and also when both are true. On the other hand represents an exclusive or, i.e., p q is true only when exactly one of p and q is true Tautology, Contradiction, Contingency. 1. A proposition is said to be a tautology if its truth value is T for any assignment of truth values to its components. Example: The proposition p p is a tautology. 2. A proposition is said to be a contradiction if its truth value is F for any assignment of truth values to its components. Example: The proposition p p is a contradiction. 3. A proposition that is neither a tautology nor a contradiction is called a contingency. p p p p p p T F T F T F T F F T T F F T T F tautology contradiction Conditional Propositions. A proposition of the form if p then q or p implies q, represented p q is called a conditional proposition. For instance: if John is from Chicago then John is from Illinois. The proposition p is called hypothesis or antecedent, and the proposition q is the conclusion or consequent. Note that p q is true always except when p is true and q is false. So, the following sentences are true: if 2 < 4 then Paris is in France (true true), if London is in Denmark then 2 < 4 (false true),

3 1.1. PROPOSITIONS 8 if 4 = 7 then London is in Denmark (false false). However the following one is false: if 2 < 4 then London is in Denmark (true false). In might seem strange that p q is considered true when p is false, regardless of the truth value of q. This will become clearer when we study predicates such as if x is a multiple of 4 then x is a multiple of 2. That implication is obviously true, although for the particular case x = 3 it becomes if 3 is a multiple of 4 then 3 is a multiple of 2. The proposition p q, read p if and only if q, is called biconditional. It is true precisely when p and q have the same truth value, i.e., they are both true or both false Logical Equivalence. Note that the compound propositions p q and p q have the same truth values: p q p p q p q T T F T T T F F F F F T T T T F F T T T When two compound propositions have the same truth values no matter what truth value their constituent propositions have, they are called logically equivalent. For instance p q and p q are logically equivalent, and we write it: p q p q Note that that two propositions A and B are logically equivalent precisely when A B is a tautology. Example: De Morgan s Laws for Logic. The following propositions are logically equivalent: (p q) p q (p q) p q We can check it by examining their truth tables:

4 1.1. PROPOSITIONS 9 p q p q p q (p q) p q p q (p q) p q T T F F T F F T F F T F F T T F F F T T F T T F T F F F T T F F T T F T T F T T Example: The following propositions are logically equivalent: p q (p q) (q p) Again, this can be checked with the truth tables: p q p q q p (p q) (q p) p q T T T T T T T F F T F F F T T F F F F F T T T T Exercise: Check the following logical equivalences: (p q) p q p q q p (p q) p q Converse, Contrapositive. The converse of a conditional proposition p q is the proposition q p. As we have seen, the biconditional proposition is equivalent to the conjunction of a conditional proposition an its converse. p q (p q) (q p) So, for instance, saying that John is married if and only if he has a spouse is the same as saying if John is married then he has a spouse and if he has a spouse then he is married. Note that the converse is not equivalent to the given conditional proposition, for instance if John is from Chicago then John is from Illinois is true, but the converse if John is from Illinois then John is from Chicago may be false.

5 1.1. PROPOSITIONS 10 The contrapositive of a conditional proposition p q is the proposition q p. They are logically equivalent. For instance the contrapositive of if John is from Chicago then John is from Illinois is if John is not from Illinois then John is not from Chicago.

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