# Boolean Design of Patterns

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1 123 Boolean Design of Patterns Basic weave structures interlacement patterns can be described in many ways, but they all come down to representing the crossings of warp and weft threads. One or the other is on top. This is represented in drawdowns by a grid in which the cells represent the intersections and (usually) a cell is black if the warp thread is on top but white if the weft thread is on top. See Figure Ω.1. Note: This material should be covered in the introduction to the book. Figure Ω.1. Drawdown From a computational point of view, 1s and 0s instead of colors are the natural representation of interlacement patterns. See Figure Ω.2, which corresponds to the drawdown of Figure Ω.1. A 1 corresponds to black for the warp thread on top and a 0 corresponds to white for the weft thread on top Figure Ω.2. Binary Interlacement Pattern

2 124 This binary representation suggests the use of Boolean operations for weave design. Boolean Operations George Boole invented the mathematical system named after him to describe logical operations on truth values true or false [1]. Although Boole was motivated by logic, his system applies equally well to contexts in which there are two mutually exclusive values, such as on and off. In the case of weave structures, the values are warp on top and weft on top, or alternatively, it is true that the warp is on top and it is false that the warp is on top. (The choice of warp rather than weft is arbitrary, as is the choice of 1 and 0 to represent truth values.) In Boolean algebra [2], variables, which are indicated by x, y, and so forth, can have only two values 1 or 0. Boolean operations produce values depend- George Boole George Boole grew up in poverty in England. He early exhibited intellectual powers and showed a special aptitude for mathematics. He was unable to pursue a formal education because he had to work to support his parents. He undertook to learn mathematics on his own and soon began to do original work His work attracted the attention of prominent mathematicians and he began to publish in mathematical journals. He eventually was awarded a gold medal by the Royal Society. He contributed to several areas of mathematics, but he is best known for his seminal work on the mathematics of logic. This work is the foundation for modern computing and information technology. Because of his need to work and lack of formal training in mathematics, he started late. Unfortunately, he died early. He had hereditary lung disease. Caught in a drenching rain and late to a lecture, he continued without changing to dry clothes. He subsequently contracted pneumonia. His wife, who thought the only way to cure a disease was to apply its cause, drenched him with cold water as he lay feverish in bed. He died shortly thereafter. We can only speculate as to what Boole might have accomplished had he had the opportunity to get a formal education and had lived longer. I m trying Gregg s suggestion of using a smaller type size for sidebars.

3 125 ing on the values of the variables to which they are applied. The operations, however, are not the familiar arithmetic ones, but rather logical operations like and and or. Boolean operations are described by truth tables that detail the results depending on the value of the variables to which the operators are applied. An example is not, also known as complement and negation, indicated by the symbol ~. This operation has the truth table not Other basic Boolean operations are or (+), also known as disjunction, and and ( ), also known as conjunction. Their truth tables are or and Note that ~(x + y) = (~x ~y) and ~(x y) = (~x + ~y). These are known as De Morgan s Laws, named after the 19 th century logician and mathematician Augustus De Morgan, who propounded them. A particularly interesting Boolean operation is exclusive or ( ), which has the truth table

4 126 exclusive or That is, x y has the value 1 if exactly one of x and y is 1 it excludes the case that both are. The + operation sometimes is called inclusive or to distinguish it from exclusive or. Exclusive or has an interesting and important property: (x y) y = x (x y) x = y That is, either x or y can be extracted from x ( y) by applying exclusive or with the other. The complement of exclusive or is equivalence ( ), which has the value 1 only if x and y are the same. PDF problem. equivalence Another important Boolean operation is implication ( ), which is based on modus ponens, one of the foundations of logical argument: If x implies y and x is true, then y is true. implication All together there are 16 Boolean operations of two variables, correspond-

5 127 ing to the 16 possible patterns of 0 and 1 for the four possible combinations of the variable values. If we use the order of the values of x and y as given in the truth tables above, we can represent the 16 Boolean operations of two variables by the patterns of the values they produce. For example, or and and have the value patterns 1110 or 1000 and It is possible to use only a small functionally complete set of Boolean operations from which all 16 can be composed. Two functionally complete sets are {~, +} and {~, }. There are several other small functionally complete sets. In fact, there are single operations from which all others can be composed. See the side-bar Sheffer Strokes on the next page. PDF problem. So far, we have identified Boolean operations by names and operator symbols. We can also identify them by the hexadecimal characters for their value patterns. For example, or has the hexadecimal identification e and and has the hexadecimal identification 8. The complete list of 2-variable Boolean operations, with hexadecimal identifications and names and symbols for common operations is exclusive or x y and x y equivalence x y 1010 a 1011 b implication x y 1100 c 1101 d 1110 e (inclusive) or x + y 1111 f It is worth looking critically at this list. In the first place, eight of the operations are complements of the others. For example,

6 128 x y = ~(x y) Since complementation only changes 0s to 1s and vice versa, it can be done as a simple operation on the result. In addition, the result of applying the operation 0, which has the value pattern 0000, is 0, regardless of the values of x and y. This operation therefore is of no use in design based on two values. The same is true of its complement, f. Furthermore, the operation c, which has the value patterns 1100, always produces x regardless of the value of y. Similarly, the operation a, which has the value pattern 1010, always produces y regardless of the value of x. The comple- Sheffer Strokes In a 1913 paper [1], Henry M. Sheffer showed that one of the 16 Boolean operations constitutes a functionally complete set in itself. This operation, called the Sheffer Stroke and designated by the symbol, has the value pattern 0111 and the hexadecimal identification 7. This operation can be described as not both x and y. It can be shown that and ~x = x y x + y = (x y) (y x) PDF problem. Since it is well known that {~, +} constitutes a functionally complete set, then { } does also. The second Sheffer Stoke, designated by the symbol, has the value pattern 0001 and the hexadecimal identification 1. It also constitutes a functionally complete set. While it may be interesting to know that only one operation is necessary to form all Boolean operations of two variables, using just one operation is complicated and unintuitive. These operations are, however, good for making up homework problems. Reference 1. A Set of Five Independent Postulates for Boolean Algebras, with Application to Logical Constants, Transactions of the American Mathematical Society, Vol. 14 (1913), pp

7 129 ments of these operations produce ~x and ~y, respectively. Eliminating all the operations whose results do not depend on both x and y leaves 10 operations, of which five are complements of the other five. The question then is what five operations to choose for design. It really doesn t matter, as long is none is the complement of another. Four that are considered most fundamental and add one other, reverse implication, x y, will do. x y x + y x y x y x y Thus, a functionally complete design set is {~,, +,,, }. Boolean Operations on Arrays In the examples above, Boolean operations are applied to individual variables, such as x and y. The operations also can be applied to arrays of Boolean variables, denoted by X, Y, and so forth. When an operation is applied to two arrays, it is applied to all the values in corresponding positions of the two arrays to give a new array. Figure Ω.3 shows an example. X Y Z = Figure Ω.3. Boolean Operation on Arrays Boolean operations on arrays are the basis for the methods of weave design described here. Boolean operations can be performed on interlacement patterns cast in the form of arrays of Boolean values, as shown in Figure Ω.2. For example, Figure Ω.3 shows the result of applying exclusive or to a small plain weave and a 2/2 twill to produce a new interlacement pattern (which is just a shifted 2/2 twill). An Application Diversified Weaves Oelsner, whose well-known book was first published in 1915 [3], includes a chapter on what he calls diversified weaves. The chapter opens as follows:

8 130 Very attractive patterns can be obtained by adding or removing risers from a ground weave. These alterations are made according to a previously selected motif. Many of his examples classify as spot weaves, but he goes beyond that. The most common ground weave is plain weave, although others can be used. Figure Ω.4 shows a spot weave obtained by applying or to a plain weave and a repeated motif. + = Figure Ω.4. A Spot Weave Other Boolean operations produce different patterns. The result of applying exclusive or is shown in Figure Ω.5. = Figure Ω.5. Exclusive Or Spot Weave Other weaves can be used for the ground. Figure Ω.6 shows a 2/2 twill in place of the plain weave in Figure Ω.5. = Figure Ω.6. Twill-Based Spot Weave Other Applications The concept of combining figure and ground implies a fundamental distinction between the two. Boolean operations can, of course, be applied to any two weaves. The question is what kinds of weave and which operations produce good results. Figure Ω.7 shows the result of combining a 2/2 twill with a basket weave.

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