# Propositional Logic. A proposition is a declarative sentence (a sentence that declares a fact) that is either true or false, but not both.

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1 irst Order Logic

2 Propositional Logic A proposition is a declarative sentence (a sentence that declares a fact) that is either true or false, but not both. Are the following sentences propositions? oronto is the capital of Canada. Read this carefully. (No) 1+2=3 (Yes) x+1=2 (No) What time is it? (No) (Yes) Propositional Logic the area of logic that deals with propositions 2

3 Propositional Variables Propositional Variables variablesthat represent propositions: p, q, r, s E.g. Proposition p oday is riday. ruth values, 3

4 Negation DEINIION 1 Let p be a proposition. he negation of p, denoted by p, is the statement It is not the case that p. he proposition p is read not p. he truth value of the negation of p, p is the opposite of the truth value of p. Examples ind the negation of the proposition oday is riday. and express this in simple English. Solution: he negation is It is not the case that today is riday. In simple English, oday is not riday. or It is not riday today. ind the negation of the proposition At least 10 inches of rain fell today in Miami. and express this in simple English. Solution: he negation is It is not the case that at least 10 inches of rain fell today in Miami. In simple English, Less than 10 inches 4 of rain fell today in Miami.

5 ruth able ruth table: he ruth able for the Negation of a Proposition. p p Logical operators are used to form new propositions from two or more existing propositions. he logical operators are also called connectives. 5

6 Conjunction DEINIION 2 Let p and q be propositions. he conjunction of p and q, denoted by p Λ q, is the proposition p and q. he conjunction p Λ q is true when both p and q are true and is false otherwise. Examples ind the conjunction of the propositions p and q where p is the proposition oday is riday. and q is the proposition It is raining today., and the truth value of the conjunction. Solution: he conjunction is the proposition oday is riday and it is raining today. he proposition is true on rainy ridays. 6

7 Disjunction DEINIION 3 Let p and q be propositions. he disjunction of p and q, denoted by p ν q, is the proposition p or q. he conjunction p ν q is false when both p and q are false and is true otherwise. Note: inclusive or : he disjunction is true when at least one of the two propositions is true. E.g. Students who have taken calculus or computer science can take this class. those who take one or both classes. exclusive or : he disjunction is true only when one of the proposition is true. E.g. Students who have taken calculus or computer science, but not both, can take this class. only those who take one of them. Definition 3 uses inclusive or. 7

8 Exclusive DEINIION 4 Let p and q be propositions. he exclusive or of p and q, denoted by p q, is the proposition that is true when exactly one of p and q is true and is false otherwise. he ruth able for the Conjunction of wo Propositions. p q p Λ q he ruth able for the Disjunction of wo Propositions. p q p ν q he ruth able for the Exclusive Or (XOR) of wo Propositions. p q p q 8

9 Conditional Statements DEINIION 5 Let p and q be propositions. he conditional statement p q, is the proposition if p, then q. he conditional statement is false when p is true and q is false, and true otherwise. In the conditional statement p q, p is called the hypothesis (or antecedent or premise) and q is called the conclusion (or consequence). A conditional statement is also called an implication. Example: If I am elected, then I will lower taxes. implication: elected, lower taxes. not elected, lower taxes. not elected, not lower taxes. elected, not lower taxes. p q 9

10 Conditional Statement (Cont ) Example: Let p be the statement Maria learns discrete mathematics. and q the statement Maria will find a good job. Express the statement p q as a statement in English. Solution: Any of the following - find a If Maria learns discrete mathematics, then she will good job. Maria will find a good job when she learns discrete mathematics. or Maria to get a good job, it is sufficient for her to learn discrete mathematics. 10

11 Conditional Statement (Cont ) Other conditional statements: Converse of p q : q p Contrapositive of p q : q p Inverse of p q : p q 11

12 Biconditional Statement DEINIION 6 Let p and q be propositions. he biconditional statement p q is the proposition p if and only if q. he biconditional statement p q is true when p and q have the same truth values, and is false otherwise. Biconditional statements are also called bi-implications. p q has the same truth value as (p q) Λ (q p) if and only if can be expressed by iff Example: Let p be the statement You can take the flight and let q be the statement You buy a ticket. hen p q is the statement You can take the flight if and only if you buy a ticket. Implication: If you buy a ticket you can take the flight. If you don t buy a ticket you cannot take the flight. 12

13 Biconditional Statement (Cont ) he ruth able for the Biconditional p q. p q p q 13

14 ruth ables of Compound Propositions We can use connectives to build up complicated compound propositions involving any number of propositional variables, then use truth tables to determine the truth value of these compound propositions. Example: Construct the truth table of the compound proposition (p ν q) (p Λ q). he ruth able of (p ν q) (p Λ q). p q q p ν q p Λ q (p ν q) (p Λ q) 14

15 Precedence of Logical Operators We can use parentheses to specify the order in which logical operators in a compound proposition are to be applied. o reduce the number of parentheses, the precedence order is defined for logical operators. Precedence of Logical Operators. Operator Precedence 1 E.g. p Λ q = ( p ) Λ q p Λ q ν r = (p Λ q ) ν r p ν q Λ r = p ν (q Λ r) Λ ν

16 ranslating English Sentences English (and every other human language) is often ambiguous. ranslating sentences into compound statements removes the ambiguity. Example: How can this English sentence be translated into a logical expression? You cannot ride the roller coaster if you are under 4 feet tall unless you are older than 16 years old. Solution: Let q, r, and s represent You can ride the roller coaster, You are under 4 feet tall, and You are older than 16 years old. he sentence can be translated into: (r Λ s) q. 16

17 ranslating English Sentences Example: How can this English sentence be translated into a logical expression? You can access the Internet from campus only if you are a computer science major or you are not a freshman. Solution: Let a, c, and f represent You can access the Internet from campus, You are a computer science major, and You are a freshman. he sentence can be translated into: a (c ν f). 17

18 Logic and Bit Operations Computers represent information using bits. A bit is a symbol with two possible values, 0 and 1. By convention, 1 represents (true) and 0 represents (false). A variable is called a Boolean variable if its value is either true or false. Bit operation replace true by 1 and false by 0 in logical operations. able for the Bit Operators OR, AND, and XOR. x y x ν y x Λ y x y

19 Logic and Bit Operations DEINIION 7 A bit string is a sequence of zero or more bits. he length of this string is the number of bits in the string. Example: ind the bitwise OR, bitwise AND, and bitwise XOR of the bit string and Solution: bitwise OR bitwise AND bitwise XOR 19

20 Propositional Equivalences DEINIION 1 A compound proposition that is always true, no matter what the truth values of the propositions that occurs in it, is called a tautology. A compound proposition that is always false is called a contradiction. A compound proposition that is neither a tautology or a contradiction is called a contingency. Examples of a autology and a Contradiction. p p p ν p p Λ p 20

21 Logical Equivalences DEINIION 2 he compound propositions p and q are called logically equivalent if p q is a tautology. he notation p q denotes that p and q are logically equivalent. Compound propositions that have the same truth values in all possible cases are called logically equivalent. Example: Show that p ν q and p q are logically equivalent. ruth ables for p ν q and p q. p q p p ν q p q 21

22 Logical Equivalence wo statements have the same truth table De Morgan s Law De Morgan s Law

23 Constructing New Logical Equivalences Example: Show that (p q ) and p Λ q are logically equivalent. Solution: (p q ) ( p ν q) ( p) Λ q p Λ q Example: Show that (p Λ q) (p ν q) is a tautology. by example on earlier slide by the second De Morgan law by the double negation law Solution: o show that this statement is a tautology, we will use logical equivalences to demonstrate that it is logically equivalent to. (p Λ q) (p ν q) (p Λ q) ν (p ν q) by example on earlier slides ( p ν q) ν (p ν q) by the first De Morgan law ( p ν p) ν ( q ν q) by the associative and communicative law for disjunction ν Note: he above examples can also be done using truth tables. 23

24 Important Logic Equivalence

25 Predicates Statements involving variables are neither true nor false. E.g. x > 3, x = y + 3, x + y = z x is greater than 3 x : subject of the statement is greater than 3 : the predicate We can denote the statement x is greater than 3 by P(x), where P denotes the predicate and x is the variable. Once a value is assigned to the variable x, the statement P(x) becomes a proposition and has a truth value. 25

26 Predicates Example: Let P(x) denote the statement x > 3. What are the truth values of P(4) and P(2)? Solution: P(4) 4 > 3, true P(3) 2 > 3, false Example: Let Q(x,y) denote the statement x = y + 3. What are the truth values of the propositions Q(1,2) and Q(3,0)? Solution: Q(1,2) 1 = 2 + 3, false Q(3,0) 3 = 0 + 3, true 26

27 Predicates Example: Let A(c,n) denote the statement Computer c is connected to network n, where c is a variable representing a computer and n is a variable representing a network. Suppose that the computer MAH1 is connected to network CAMPUS2, but not to network CAMPUS1. What are the values of A(MAH1, CAMPUS1) and A(MAH1, CAMPUS2)? Solution: A(MAH1, CAMPUS1) MAH1 is connect to CAMPUS1, false A(MAH1, CAMPUS2) MAH1 is connect to CAMPUS2, true 27

28 Propositional unction (Predicate) A statement involving n variables x 1, x 2,, x n can be denoted by P(x 1, x 2,, x n ). A statement of the form P(x 1, x 2,, x n ) is the value of the propositional function P at the n-tuple (x 1, x 2,, x n ), and P is also called a n-place predicate or a n-ary predicate. 28

29 Quantifiers Quantification: express the extent to which a predicate is true over a range of elements. Universal quantification: a predicate is true for every element under consideration Existential quantification: a predicate is true for one or more element under consideration A domain must be specified. 29

30 Universal Quantifier he universal quantification of P(x) is the statement P(x) for all values of x in the domain. he notation xp(x) denotes the universal quantification of P(x). Here is called the Universal Quantifier. We read xp(x) as for all xp(x) or for every xp(x). An element for which P(x) is false is called a counterexample of xp(x). Example: Let P(x) be the statement x + 1 > x. What is the truth value of the quantification xp(x), where the domain consists of all real numbers? Solution: Because P(x) is true for all real numbers, the quantification is true. 30

31 Universal Quantification A statement xp(x) is false, if and only if P(x) is not always true where x is in the domain. One way to show that is to find a counterexample to the statement xp(x). Example: Let Q(x) be the statement x < 2. What is the truth value of the quantification xq(x), where the domain consists of all real numbers? Solution: Q(x) is not true for every real numbers, e.g. Q(3) is false. x = 3 is a counterexample for the statement xq(x). hus the quantification is false. xp(x) is the same as the conjunction P(x 1 ) Λ P(x 2 ) Λ. Λ P(x n ) 31

32 Universal Quantifier Example: What does the statement xn(x) mean if N(x) is Computer x is connected to the network and the domain consists of all computers on campus? Solution: Every computer on campus is connected to the network. 32

33 Existential Quantification DEINIION 2 he existential quantification of P(x) is the statement here exists an element x in the domain such that P(x). We use the notation xp(x) for the existential quantification of P(x). Here is called the Existential Quantifier. he existential quantification xp(x) is read as here is an x such that P(x), or here is at least one x such that P(x), or or some x, P(x). 33

34 Existential Quantification Example: Let P(x) denote the statement x > 3. What is the truth value of the quantification xp(x), where the domain consists of all real numbers? Solution: x > 3 is sometimes true for instance when x = 4. he existential quantification is true. xp(x) is false if and only if P(x) is false for every element of the domain. Example: Let Q(x) denote the statement x = x + 1. What is the true value of the quantification xq(x), where the domain consists for all real numbers? Solution: Q(x) is false for every real number. he existential quantification is false. 34

35 Existential Quantification If the domain is empty, xq(x) is false because there can be no element in the domain for which Q(x) is true. he existential quantification xp(x) is the same as the disjunction P(x 1 ) V P(x 2 ) V VP(x n ) Quantifiers Statement When rue? When alse? xp(x) xp(x) xp(x) is true for every x. here is an x for which P(x) is true. here is an x for which xp(x) is false. P(x) is false for every x. 35

36 Uniqueness Quantifier Uniqueness quantifier! or 1!xP(x) or 1 P(x) states here exists a unique x such that P(x) is true. Quantifiers with restricted domains Example: What do the following statements mean? he domain in each case consists of real numbers. x < 0 (x 2 > 0): or every real number x with x < 0, x 2 > 0. he square of a negative real number is positive. It s the same as x(x < 0 x 2 > 0) y 0 (y 3 0 ): or every real number y with y 0, y 3 0. he cube of every nonzero real number is non-zero. It s the same as y(y 0 y 3 0 ). z > 0 (z 2 = 2): here exists a real number z with z > 0, such that z 2 = 2. here is a positive square root of 2. It s the same as z(z > 0 Λ z 2 = 2): 36

37 Precedence of Quantifiers Precedence of Quantifiers and have higher precedence than all logical operators. E.g. xp(x) V Q(x) is the same as ( xp(x)) V Q(x) 37

38 ranslating from English into Logical Expressions Example: Express the statement Every student in this class has studied calculus using predicates and quantifiers. Solution: If the domain consists of students in the class xc(x) where C(x) is the statement x has studied calculus. If the domain consists of all people x(s(x) C(x) where S(x) represents that person x is in this class. If we are interested in the backgrounds of people in subjects besides calculus, we can use the two-variable quantifier Q(x,y) for the statement student x has studies subject y. hen we would replace C(x) by Q(x, calculus) to obtain xq(x, calculus) 38 or x(s(x) Q(x, calculus))

39 ranslating from English into Logical Expressions Example: Consider these statements. he first two are called premises and the third is called the conclusion. he entire set is called an argument. All lions are fierce. Some lions do not drink coffee. Some fierce creatures do not drink coffee. Solution: Let P(x) be x is a lion. Q(x) be x is fierce. R(x) be x drinks coffee. x(p(x) Q(x)) x(p(x) Λ R(x)) x(q(x) Λ R(x)) 39

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