# Fundamentele Informatica II

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1 Fundamentele Informatica II Answer to selected exercises 1 John C Martin: Introduction to Languages and the Theory of Computation M.M. Bonsangue (and J. Kleijn) Fall 2011 Let L be a language. It is clear from the definition that L + L. Under which circumstances are they equal? By definition L = i 0 Li = L 0 i 1 Li = {Λ} L + for any language L. Hence, it is clear that L + L. Moreover, we see immediately that L = L + if and only if Λ L +. We claim that Λ L + if and only if Λ L. This can be proved as follows: Clearly, if Λ L, then Λ L +. Now assume that Λ L +. Thus there exists an i 1 such that Λ L i. Hence Λ is the shortest word in L i. Since the length of any shortest word in L is i times the length of a shortest word in L, it follows that Λ L. The claim being proved, we have L = L + if and only if Λ L. Find a language L over {a, b} that is neither {Λ} nor {a, b} and satisfies L = L. First of all observe that L = L implies that Λ L. Moreover, in combination with L {Λ} it follows that L must be an infinite language. A good example is {a}, because {a} {Λ} and ({a} ) = {a}, since {a} {a} = {a}. Another example is {x {a, b} x is even}. Find an infinite language L over { a,b} for which L L. Observe that each finite language such that L {Λ} has the property that L L, even = {Λ} =. This follows from the fact that Λ L whatever L. Similarly: for very infinite language L such that Λ L, we have L L. Consequently, example languages as requested are, e.g., {a} +, {a, b} +, and {x {a, b} x is odd}; observe that {x {a, b} x is odd} contains not only Λ, but actually all even words: {x {a, b} x is odd} = {a, b}. 1

2 Give examples of languages L 1 and L 2 such that L 1 L 2 = L 2 L 1 and a. L 1 {Λ} = L 2 and neither language contains the other one: Take L 1 = {a}, and L 2 = {aa}. b. = L 1 L 2 and L 1 {Λ}: Take L 1 = {a} and L 2 = {Λ, a}. Show that for any language L, L = (L ) = (L + ) = (L ) +. Whatever the language L, it always holds that L L + L, by the definition of + and. Then exercise 1.33 implies that L (L + ) (L ). Moreover, L (L ) + (L ). Now assume that the inclusion (L ) L is always true. Then L = (L ) and all inclusions above are equalities: L = (L + ) = (L ) + = (L ). Thus the only thing left to prove is that the inclusion (L ) L is always true. Consider w (L ). Thus there exist a k 0 and words v 1,..., v k L such that w = v 1 v k (note that w = Λ if k = 0). Thus w is a concatenation of 0 or more words from L, in other words: w L If L is a finite set, then L denotes the number of elements (the cardinality) of L. Let L 1 and L 2 be two finite languages. Then, clearly, L 1 L 2 L 1 L 2 because every element of L 1 L 2 is obtained by combining an element from L 1 with one from L 2 and there are L 1 L 2 ways to do this. It is however not necessarily the case that L 1 L 2 = L 1 L 2, because different choices may still yield the same result. Let L 1 = L 2 = {a, a 2 } then L 1 L 2 = {aa, aaa, aaaa} and L 1 L 2 = 3 4. Another example are L 1 = {a, ab}, L 2 = {a, ba}. Then L 1 L 2 = {aa, aba, abba} Let L 1, L 2 {a, b}. a. Assume L 1 L 2. Then L 2 1 = L 1L 1 L 1 L 2 L 2 2 and in general Lk 1 = Lk 1 1 L 1 L k 1 1 L 2 L k 1 2 L 2 = L k 2 for all k 1. Consequently, L 1 = {Λ} L 1 L Lk 1... {Λ} L 2 L Lk 2... = L 2. b. L 1 L 2 (L 1 L 2 ) always holds, since L 1 L 1 L 2 which implies that L 1 (L 1 L 2 ) (see item a. above) and similarly L 2 (L 1 L 2 ). c. The inclusion L 1 L 2 (L 1 L 2 ) may be strict: for L 1 = {0} and L 2 = {1} we have {0} {1} {0, 1}. d. If L 1 L 2 then L 1 L 2 = L 2 and since L 1 L 1 L 2 also (L 1 L 2 ) (L 2 L 2) = L 2. Similarly, L 2 L 1 implies that L 1 L 2 = L 1 = (L 1 L 2 ). Next consider L 1 = {0 2, 0 5 } and L 2 = {0 3, 0 5 }. Then L 1 = {Λ, 02, 0 4, 0 5,...} = {0} {0, 0 3 } and 2

3 L 2 = {Λ, 03, 0 5, 0 6, 0 8, 0 9,...} = {0} {0, 0 2, 0 4, 0 7 }. Thus neither L 1 L 2 nor L 2 L 1. However, L 1 L 2 = {0} {0} and also (L 1 L 2 ) = {0 2, 0 3, 0 5 } = {Λ, 0 2, 0 3, 0 4, 0 5,...} = {0} {0}. List some elements of {a, ab} and give a proposition describing all and only these elements. Further try to find a procedure to test if a word x satisfies your proposition. {a, ab} contains (among others) the following words: Λ, a, ab, aab, aba, aa, abab, aaa, aaab, aaba, etc. a. {a, ab} is precisely the set of strings in which every b is preceded by at least one a or alternatively {a, ab} is precisely the set of strings which do not start with b and do not have a subword bb. b. Hence a procedure to test whether a word belongs to {a, ab} is to simply go from left to right through the string, symbol by symbol: it should not begin with b and after every occurrence of b either the next letter is an a or the end of the string has been reached L consists of all strings from {a, b} that do not end with b and do not have a subword bb. a. L = {a, ba}. b. Consider now the language K consisting of all strings from {a, b} that do not have a subword bb. Assume that K = S for a finite set S. Then b K = S. Since S = S S, it follows that bb S S = S = K, a contradiction. Hence there cannot exist a finite S such that K = S Let L 1, L 2, L 3 Σ for some alphabet Σ. a. L 1 (L 2 L 3 ) L 1 L 2 L 1 L 3, because w L 1 (L 2 L 3 ) implies that w = xy with x L 1 and y L 2 L 3. Consequently, w L 1 L 2 and w L 1 L 3. Equality does not necessarily hold. Let L 1 = {a, ab}, L 2 = {ba}, and L 3 = {a}. Then L 1 (L 2 L 3 ) = {aba} = {aba, abba} {aa, aba} = L 1 L 2 L 1 L 3, b. L 1 L 2 (L 1 L 2 ), because w (L 1 L 2 ) implies that w is a concatenation of 0 or more words from L 1 L 2. Consequently, w L 1 and w L 2. Equality does not necessarily hold. Let L 1 = {a} and L 2 = {aa}. Then L 1 L 2 = {a} {aa} = {aa} {Λ} = = (L 1 L 2 ). c. L 1 L 2 and (L 1L 2 ) are not necessarily included in one another. Let L 1 = {a} and L 2 = {b}. Then L 1 L 2 = {a} {b} consisting of words with a number of a s followed by some number of b s and (L 1 L 2 ) = {ab} consisting of words with alternating a s and b s. These two languages are incomparable: aab L 1 L 2 (L 1L 2 ) and abab (L 1 L 2 ) L 1 L 2. 3

4 Let x, y Σ for some alphabet Σ. Whereas in general xy and yx are two different words, equality is possible, for instance if x = Λ or y = Λ. Can this still happen if x and y are both nonnull? Describe the precise conditions when this can happen. Assume that x Λ and y Λ and xy = yx holds. Before giving a characterization of the conditions allowing this situation, we first informally explore what is going on. If x = y, then it must be the case that x = y. If x = y we may assume that x > y ; the other case follows by symmetry. x > y in combination with xy = yx implies that there exists a non-empty word z such that x = yz = zy. Since y Λ, we have yz = x < yx and we may use induction to prove the following Claim For all s, t Σ such that s Λ t: st = ts if and only if there exists a word u and natural numbers p, q such that s = u p and t = u q. Proof of claimthe if-direction is obvious: st = u p u q = u p+q = u q u p = ts. For the only-if-direction we use induction on st : If s = 1 = t, then s = a and t = b for some a, b Σ. From st = st it follows that a = b. Hence we let u = a and p = q = 1 and we are done. Next assume that s > t 1. Then as argued above, there exists a word z such that s = tz = zt. Since tz = tz < st = ts we can apply the induction hypothesis: there exists a word u and natural numbers r, q such that z = u r and t = u q. Consequently, s = u r+q and we are done with p = r + q. Show that there is no language L so that L = {aa, bb} {ab, ba}. We prove by contradiction that exists no language L such that L = {aa, bb} {ab, ba}. Suppose that L is such that L = {aa, bb} {ab, ba}. Consequently, aa L and ab L which implies that abaa L. However, abaa is not an element of {aa, bb} {ab, ba}. Let L = {x {0, 1} x = yy for some string y}. Prove or disprove that there exist two languages L 1 {Λ} and L 2 {Λ} such that L 1 L 2 = L. We prove by contradiction that the statement is not true: Suppose L 1 and L 2 are such that L 1 L 2 = L. Observe that {00} and {11} are both subsets of L = L 1 L 2. If 0 i L 1 and 1 j L 2 for some i, j 1, then 0 i 1 j L 1 L 2 = L, a contradiction. Similarly, we arrive at a contradiction if 1 i L 1 and 0 j L 2 for some i, j 1. Hence it must be the case that either L 1 or L 2 contains only mixed strings with at least one occurrence of a 0 and at least one occurrence of a 1. We 4

5 only consider the case that L 1 has this property. The case that it would be L 2 is symmetrical. Let w = x 1 0x 2 1x 3 be such a word. Consider 1 j L 2 with j w. Then x 1 0x 2 1x 3 1 j L 1 L 2, but it cannot be an element of L, a contradiction. The remaining case (w = x 1 1x 2 0x 3 ) is dealt with in an analogous way. Hence we arrive in all cases at a contradiction and the assumed languaes L 1, L 2 cannot exist. version 2 September

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