# Design of Experiments (DOE) Tutorial

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Design of Experiments (DOE) Tutorial Design of Experiments (DOE) techniques enables designers to determine simultaneously the individual and interactive effects of many factors that could affect the output results in any design. DOE also provides a full insight of interaction between design elements; therefore, it helps turn any standard design into a robust one. Simply put, DOE helps to pin point the sensitive parts and sensitive areas in designs that cause problems in Yield. Designers are then able to fix these problems and produce robust and higher yield designs prior going into production. Here is a simple and practical example that walks you through the basic ideas behind DOE. This example is meant to illustrate the concept in a very easy way to understand DOE and enables you to go on and expand your knowledge on DOE further. DOE Example: Let us assume that we have designed an amplifier and we need to design an experiment to investigate the sensitivity of this amplifier to process variation. In other words, we would like to find out if there are any elements in the design that largely affect the output response due to their high sensitivities to the output measure. In ADS, the DOE tool comes with full supporting plots that enable designers to determine simultaneously the individual and interactive effects of many factors that could affect the output results in any design. Pareto plots, main effects and Interactions plots can be automatically displayed from the Data Display tool for study and investigation. However, in this example DOE is illustrated using a manual calculations approach in order to allow you to observe how the analysis and results are calculated, and what these results mean.

2 Let us start with our amplifier example: In this example, let us chose three elements where we want to see their effects on the Gain of the amplifier. These elements are: W (the width of the microstrip lines), a resistor (R), and a Capacitor (C). Since we chose three elements, we must construct 8 experiments (2^3) for a Full factorial experiment. We assign a -1 and +1 values to each of the elements. For example the nominal value of the Resistor is described with a 0. A -1 represents a -5% variation from its nominal value and a +1 represents a +5% variation from its nominal value. Therefore if our resistor s nominal value is 20 ohms, a -1 represents a 19 ohms value, and a +1 represents a 21 ohms value. Step 1 Start by choosing variables that affect the response Choose three variables with their +1 and -1 : Width of lines (W) W=W_nominal ±.5 um Resistors (R) R = R_nominal ± 5% Capacitors (C) C = C_nominal ± 5% Example: For W -1 corresponds to 9.5 µm +1 corresponds to 10.5 µm 0 corresponds to nominal value, 10µm

3 Step 2 Next, we run the simulation eight times to get the gain (our output measure) for all the combination of +1 s and -1 s of the three elements and this is what we get:

4 Step 3 From the results above, let us extract the main effects of Capacitor, C on the Gain. We calculate the average Gain when C is -1 and when C is +1 and determine the total gain variation due to the Capacitor. The table below shows that this gain variation (due to C) is.044 db. Main Effect of Capacitors, C on Gain Average gain for C= db (yellow) Average gain for C= db (blue) Slope=.044 Next we do the same thing for the Resistor. Notice that the gain variation due to the Resistor is.85 db, which is much higher than that of the Capacitor. (See table below). This already tells us that the resistor is a trouble component and causes higher variation in the gain.

5 Main Effect of Resistors, R on Gain Average gain for R= db (blue) Average gain for R= db (green) Slope =.85 The main effects can be plotted for easier view of the components sensitivities to Gain. Below is the main effects plot of the Capacitor and the resistor (calculated above) on the Gain variation.

6 Plotting Main Effects of C and R Step 4 DOE is also very useful in getting information on the interactions between the elements in a design and how these interactions affect the variation in the output measure (Gain, in our example) The table below calculates the interaction effect between W and R. The interaction is very small and negligible (.0088 db).

7 Interaction Effect of (W and R) on Gain Average gain for W*R= db (blue) Average gain for W*R= db (pink) Slope =.0088 Plotting Interaction Effects of W and R, Vs Main Effect due to R

8 Step 5 Doing the same procedure for all elements and their interactions, we obtain the following results. Obtaining the Rest of the Coefficients Term Coefficient Constant (nominal gain) 13.8 W.09 R.85 C.044 W*R.0088 W*C.0013 R*C.0050 W*R*C We calculated these three coefficients above Construct a linear equation to represent the experiment results: Gain= W +.85R +.044C WR +. Etc. Step 6 Pareto Charts are very useful in DOE. The above results can be plotted on a Pareto type chart in order to make it much easier to visualize the main and interaction effects of all components to the Gain variation.

9 Display All Effects on a Pareto Chart It is very clear from the results above that the Resistor R has the most contribution to the Gain variability and sensitivity. The effects plot (shown earlier) for the resistor tell us how much is this variability due to the resistor and that was.85 db. The designer will then focus his / her efforts in reducing that variation due to the resistor. One way to do that in Board or MIC designs is to buy a screened part that has +/- 1% tolerance instead of a +/- 5% tolerance. In MMIC design, the designer would want to either use a different resistive layer of lower sensitivity, or make the resistor as wide as possible since this would reduce its sensitivity. What we have shown was a very simple example with three elements in order to illustrate the concept of DOE. The following section expands on this introductory material and shows few examples from the Design of Experiments tool in ADS.

10 Example: Ku-band LNA The following one stage LNA has three sub-networks. We ran DOE analysis on five variables: o Line widths: +/-.5 microns o Input Matching Network: C1 and R1 (+/- 5%) o Output Matching Network: C1 and R1 (+/- 5%) A five elements full factorial DOE requires 32 experiments (2^5 = 32). These 32 simulations cover all possible combinations of +1 and -1 on each component. Let us see some of the output results:

11 Pareto Plot for the Gain Main Effect Plot for R1 on Gain

12 Pareto Plot for Noise Figure This shows that the variation in Noise Figure is equally caused by the input matching network microstrip line width and the Output Resistor, R1. Below is shown the Pareto Plot for S22. Please read on, because I want to illustrate in this plot the concept of interactions between the elements in DOE. Notice that 54% of the variation in S22 is caused by the variation effects of OMN_C1, followed by a 32% caused by the output matching network lines widths, and followed by an interaction effect from the Output R1 with the line widths.

13 The plot above is the main effect plot of OMN_C1 and line widths.

14 Let us now see what we can learn from the interaction plot between R1 and line widths. OMN_R1 The DOE experiment on this simple LNA example helped us to fix the design prior to manufacturing and make it less sensitive to process variation. The plots below show the LNA response before DOE and after DOE. Notice that the output response variations (Gain, NF, and S22) after DOE are much smaller than before DOE. Before After

15 Real Life Examples Here are a couple of real life designs that were fabricated on the same wafer and at the same time. The results speak for itself. It is very clear that the designs that went through DOE analysis came out much better and more consistent in their output measures. K-Band Up converter Wafer Probed Results Mixer Mixer X-band K-band X-band K-band Ku-band LO Ku-band LO U/C 1 Macrocell / Standard Design U/C 2 Macrocell / DOE Based Design Wide 10 db Variation - Sensitive Consistent Results 1.3 db variation

16 Conclusion Design of Experiments (DOE) techniques enable designers to determine simultaneously the individual and interactive effects of many factors that could affect the output results in any design. DOE also provides a full insight of interaction between design elements; therefore, helping turn any standard design into a robust one. Simply put, DOE helps to pin point the sensitive parts and sensitive areas in your designs that cause problems in Yield. Designers then are able to fix them and produce robust and higher yield designs prior going into production.

### Symbol Parameters Units Frequency Min. Typ. Max. 850 MHz 14.8 16.3 17.8

Product Description Sirenza Microdevices SGC-689Z is a high performance SiGe HBT MMIC amplifier utilizing a Darlington configuration with a patented active-bias network. The active bias network provides

### Microwave Transistor Bias Considerations. Application Note 944-1

Microwave Transistor Bias Considerations Application Note 944-1 Introduction Often the least considered factor in microwave transistor circuit design is the bias network. Considerable effort is spent in

### S-Band Low Noise Amplifier Using the ATF-10136. Application Note G004

S-Band Low Noise Amplifier Using the ATF-10136 Application Note G004 Introduction This application note documents the results of using the ATF-10136 in low noise amplifier applications at S band. The ATF-10136

### MEASUREMENT OF RESISTORS

MEASUREMENT OF RESISTORS Richard G. Lupa Benjamin M. Cadieux 9/17/2007 Objectives: Learn how to utilize and code with the resistor color code system Learn how to use a digital multimeter (DMM) and an analog

### Analog Devices Welcomes Hittite Microwave Corporation NO CONTENT ON THE ATTACHED DOCUMENT HAS CHANGED

Analog Devices Welcomes Hittite Microwave Corporation NO CONTENT ON THE ATTACHED DOCUMENT HAS CHANGED www.analog.com www.hittite.com THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v3.51 HMC519LC AMPLIFIER, 1-31 GHz

### In modern electronics, it is important to be able to separate a signal into different

Introduction In modern electronics, it is important to be able to separate a signal into different frequency regions. In analog electronics, four classes of filters exist to process an input signal: low-pass,

### How to make a Quick Turn PCB that modern RF parts will actually fit on!

How to make a Quick Turn PCB that modern RF parts will actually fit on! By: Steve Hageman www.analoghome.com I like to use those low cost, no frills or Bare Bones [1] type of PCB for prototyping as they

### A 3.0 V Front-End GaAs Receiver MMIC for the CDMA/AMPS Dual Mode Cellular Phones

Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 33, No., November 1998, pp. S333 S337 A 3.0 V Front-End GaAs Receiver MMIC for the CDMA/AMPS Dual Mode Cellular Phones Kwang-Jun Youn, Jae-Kyoung Mun, Min-Gun

### GaN Industrial Offer for Multipurpose Power MMIC Design G. CALLET

GaN Industrial Offer for Multipurpose Power MMIC Design G. CALLET - 2014 Outline UMS Foundry position Gallium Nitride processes at UMS Foundry service Global presentation Foundry offers Foundry process

### BIASING MMIC AMPLIFIERS (e.g., ERA SERIES) (AN )

Introduction BIASING MMIC AMPLIFIERS (e.g., ERA SERIES) (AN-60-010) The Mini-Circuits family of microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) Darlington amplifiers offers the RF designer multi-stage performance

### 11: AUDIO AMPLIFIER I. INTRODUCTION

11: AUDIO AMPLIFIER I. INTRODUCTION The properties of an amplifying circuit using an op-amp depend primarily on the characteristics of the feedback network rather than on those of the op-amp itself. A

### BIASING OF CONSTANT CURRENT MMIC AMPLIFIERS (e.g., ERA SERIES) (AN-60-010)

BIASING OF CONSTANT CURRENT MMIC AMPLIFIERS (e.g., ERA SERIES) (AN-60-010) Introduction The Mini-Circuits family of microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) Darlington amplifiers offers the RF designer

### Analog Devices Welcomes Hittite Microwave Corporation NO CONTENT ON THE ATTACHED DOCUMENT HAS CHANGED

Analog Devices Welcomes Hittite Microwave Corporation NO CONTENT ON THE ATTACHED DOCUMENT HAS CHANGED www.analog.com www.hittite.com THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v2.61 Typical Applications This is

### Analog Devices Welcomes Hittite Microwave Corporation NO CONTENT ON THE ATTACHED DOCUMENT HAS CHANGED

Analog Devices Welcomes Hittite Microwave Corporation NO CONTENT ON THE ATTACHED DOCUMENT HAS CHANGED www.analog.com www.hittite.com THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK HMC93LP3E v.214 GaAs phemt MMIC LOW

### Example #1: Controller for Frequency Modulated Spectroscopy

Progress Report Examples The following examples are drawn from past student reports, and illustrate how the general guidelines can be applied to a variety of design projects. The technical details have

### APPLICATION NOTES: Dimming InGaN LED

APPLICATION NOTES: Dimming InGaN LED Introduction: Indium gallium nitride (InGaN, In x Ga 1-x N) is a semiconductor material made of a mixture of gallium nitride (GaN) and indium nitride (InN). Indium

### Analog Devices Welcomes Hittite Microwave Corporation NO CONTENT ON THE ATTACHED DOCUMENT HAS CHANGED

Analog Devices Welcomes Hittite Microwave Corporation NO CONTENT ON THE ATTACHED DOCUMENT HAS CHANGED www.analog.com www.hittite.com THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK HMC311SC7 / 311SC7E v.1 MMIC AMPLIFIER,

### Lab 3 Ohm s Law and Resistors

` Lab 3 Ohm s Law and Resistors What You Need To Know: The Physics One of the things that students have a difficult time with when they first learn about circuits is the electronics lingo. The lingo and

### Final Project: Operational Amplifier

Martin Lizarde Jr. Susanna Guerrero Dung Huynh Final Project: Operational Amplifier June 9, 2005 Professor: Roger Lake TA: Angelo Ledesma Introduction: An operational amplifier is designed. Several tests

### Yet More On Decoupling, Part 1: The Regulator s Interaction with capacitors Kendall Castor-Perry

Page 1 of 6 Yet More On Decoupling, Part 1: The Regulator s Interaction with capacitors Kendall Castor-Perry In Know the sometimes-surprising interactions in modelling a capacitor-bypass network (http://www.planetanalog.com/showarticle.jhtml?articleid=202402836,

### Equations of Lines Derivations

Equations of Lines Derivations If you know how slope is defined mathematically, then deriving equations of lines is relatively simple. We will start off with the equation for slope, normally designated

### New GaN FETs, Amplifiers and Switches Offer System Engineers a Way to Reduce RF Board Space and System Prime Power

New GaN FETs, Amplifiers and Switches Offer System Engineers a Way to Reduce RF Board Space and System Prime Power By: TriQuint Semiconductor, Inc. Dean White, Defense Products & Foundry Services, Business

### ISSCC 2003 / SESSION 10 / HIGH SPEED BUILDING BLOCKS / PAPER 10.5

ISSCC 2003 / SESSION 10 / HIGH SPEED BUILDING BLOCKS / PAPER 10.5 10.5 Broadband ESD Protection Circuits in CMOS Technology Sherif Galal, Behzad Razavi Electrical Engineering Department, University of

### 30. Bode Plots. Introduction

0. Bode Plots Introduction Each of the circuits in this problem set is represented by a magnitude Bode plot. The network function provides a connection between the Bode plot and the circuit. To solve these

### Lab 8: Basic Filters: Low- Pass and High Pass

Lab 8: Basic Filters: Low- Pass and High Pass Names: 1.) 2.) 3.) Beginning Challenge: Build the following circuit. Charge the capacitor by itself, and then discharge it through the inductor. Measure the

### CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction Antenna design has become one of the most active fields in the communication studies. In the early years when radio frequency was found, simple antenna design

### Small Signal Amplifier with Bipolar Junction Transistor

mall ignal Amplifier with Bipolar Junction Transistor This tutorial will teach you in very easy steps how to design class-a amplifiers tarting with the results of bias point design we get the following

### Output Ripple and Noise Measurement Methods for Ericsson Power Modules

Output Ripple and Noise Measurement Methods for Ericsson Power Modules Design Note 022 Ericsson Power Modules Ripple and Noise Abstract There is no industry-wide standard for measuring output ripple and

### Experiment 3 ~ Ohm's Law, Measurement of Voltage, Current and Resistance

Experiment 3 ~ Ohm's Law, Measurement of Voltage, Current and Resistance Objective: In this experiment you will learn to use the multi-meter to measure voltage, current and resistance. Equipment: Bread

### Lecture 24. Inductance and Switching Power Supplies (how your solar charger voltage converter works)

Lecture 24 Inductance and Switching Power Supplies (how your solar charger voltage converter works) Copyright 2014 by Mark Horowitz 1 Roadmap: How Does This Work? 2 Processor Board 3 More Detailed Roadmap

### PHYSICS 111 LABORATORY Experiment #3 Current, Voltage and Resistance in Series and Parallel Circuits

PHYSCS 111 LABORATORY Experiment #3 Current, Voltage and Resistance in Series and Parallel Circuits This experiment is designed to investigate the relationship between current and potential in simple series

### Calibration Report W7ZOI Power Meter built by W2GNN. Clifton Laboratories Jack Smith K8ZOA 12 March 2010

Calibration Report W7ZOI Power Meter built by W2GNN Clifton Laboratories Jack Smith K8ZOA 12 March 2010 Overview of W7ZOI Power Meter Designed by W7ZOI and published in June 2001 QST. Uses an AD 8307 log

### Enhancement Mode phemt

Freescale Semiconductor Technical Data Enhancement Mode phemt Technology (E -phemt) Low Noise Amplifier The MML09212H is a 2--stage low noise amplifier (LNA) with active bias and high isolation for use

### Analog Devices Welcomes Hittite Microwave Corporation NO CONTENT ON THE ATTACHED DOCUMENT HAS CHANGED

Analog Devices Welcomes Hittite Microwave Corporation NO CONTENT ON THE ATTACHED DOCUMENT HAS CHANGED www.analog.com www.hittite.com THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v3.514 AMPLIFIER, 5 - GHz Typical

### Using NTC Temperature Sensors Integrated into Power Modules

Using NTC Temperature Sensors Integrated into Power Modules Pierre-Laurent Doumergue R&D Engineer Advanced Power Technology Europe Chemin de Magret 33700 Mérignac, France Introduction Most APTE (Advanced

### Power Dissipation of Embedded Resistors

Power Dissipation of Embedded Resistors Jiangtao Wang, Mark K. Davis, Rocky Hilburn and Sid Clouser Gould Electronics, Inc. 34929 Curtis Blvd., Eastlake, Ohio 44095 Abstract Increasing component density

### Chapter 3. Simulation of Non-Ideal Components in LTSpice

Chapter 3 Simulation of Non-Ideal Components in LTSpice 27 CHAPTER 3. SIMULATION OF NON-IDEAL COMPONENTS IN LTSPICE 3.1 Pre-Lab The answers to the following questions are due at the beginning of the lab.

### FREQUENCY RESPONSE AND PASSIVE FILTERS LABORATORY. We start with examples of a few filter circuits to illustrate the concept.

FREQUENCY RESPONSE AND PASSIVE FILTERS LABORATORY In this experiment we will analytically determine and measure the frequency response of networks containing resistors, AC source/sources, and energy storage

### Tutorial www.loudsoft.com

Tutorial www.loudsoft.com In this tutorial we show several examples of simple and advanced X-over designs, using FINE X- over. In the first example we create the x-over for two drivers we have previously

### Understanding Power Impedance Supply for Optimum Decoupling

Introduction Noise in power supplies is not only caused by the power supply itself, but also the load s interaction with the power supply (i.e. dynamic loads, switching, etc.). To lower load induced noise,

### Simple Method of Changing the Frequency Range of a Power Amplifier Circuit

Freescale Semiconductor Application Note AN4859 Rev. 0, 8/2014 Simple Method of Changing the Frequency Range of a Power Amplifier Circuit Amplifier designers often face the challenge of modifying an existing

### First and Second Order Filters

First and Second Order Filters These functions are useful for the design of simple filters or they can be cascaded to form high-order filter functions First Order Filters General first order bilinear transfer

### etape Continuous Fluid Level Sensor Operating Instructions and Application Notes

etape Continuous Fluid Level Sensor Operating Instructions and Application Notes TM 1 Table of Contents 1.0 Specifications... 3 2.0 Theory of Operation... 3 3.0 Connection and Installation... 4 4.0 Technical

### R Ω. II. Experimental Procedure. Ohm's Law

I. Theory Ohm's Law In this lab we will make detailed measurements on a resistor to see if it obeys Ohm's law. We will also check the rules for combining resistors in series and parallel. Ohm's law describes

### MOSFET DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER (TWO-WEEK LAB)

page 1 of 7 MOSFET DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER (TWO-WEEK LAB) BACKGROUND The MOSFET is by far the most widely used transistor in both digital and analog circuits, and it is the backbone of modern electronics.

### ADS Tutorial Stability and Gain Circles ECE145A/218A

ADS Tutorial Stability and Gain Circles ECE145A/218A The examples in this tutorial can be downloaded from xanadu.ece.ucsb.edu/~long/ece145a as the file: stab_gain.zap The first step in designing the amplifier

### Making Accurate Voltage Noise and Current Noise Measurements on Operational Amplifiers Down to 0.1Hz

Author: Don LaFontaine Making Accurate Voltage Noise and Current Noise Measurements on Operational Amplifiers Down to 0.1Hz Abstract Making accurate voltage and current noise measurements on op amps in

ADC-20/ADC-24 Terminal Board User Guide DO117-5 Issues: 1) 8.11.05 Created by JB. 2) 13.12.05 p10: added 0V connection to thermocouple schematic. 3) 22.3.06 p11: removed C1. 4) 20.8.07 New logo. 5) 29.9.08

### Experiment 15: Ohm s Law

Experiment 15: Ohm s Law Figure 15.1: Simple Series Circuit EQUIPMENT Universal Circuit Board Power Supply (2) DMM s 150 Resistor (R 1 ) 330 Resistor (R 2 ) 560 Resistor (R 3 ) Miniature Light Bulb and

### Harmonic Balance. ADS 2009 (version 1.0) Copyright Agilent Technologies Slide 7-1

Harmonic Balance Slide 7-1 Harmonic Balance Simulation You define the tones, harmonics, and power levels You get the spectrum: Amplitude vs. Frequency Use only Frequency domain sources Data can be transformed

### SIMULATIONS OF PARALLEL RESONANT CIRCUIT POWER ELECTRONICS COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY

SIMULATIONS OF PARALLEL RESONANT CIRCUIT POWER ELECTRONICS COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY Page 1 of 25 PURPOSE: The purpose of this lab is to simulate the LCC circuit using MATLAB and ORCAD Capture CIS to better

### 77 GHz Flip-Chip Low Noise Amplifier. TriQuint Semiconductor: www. triquint.com (972) Fax (972) November 2009 Rev D

Gain, IRL, ORL (db) NF (db) 77 GHz Flip-Chip Low Noise Amplifier Key Features Frequency Range: 72-8 GHz Noise Figure: 5 db at 77 GHz Gain: 23 db Bias: Vd = 2.5 V, Id = 6 ma, Vg = +.18 V Typical Technology:.13

### UNIVERSITY of PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT of ELECTRICAL and SYSTEMS ENGINEERING ESE206 - Electrical Circuits and Systems II Laboratory.

UNIVERSITY of PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT of ELECTRICAL and SYSTEMS ENGINEERING ESE06 - Electrical Circuits and Systems II Laboratory. Objectives: Transformer Lab. Comparison of the ideal transformer versus

### The George Washington University School of Engineering and Applied Science Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

The George Washington University School of Engineering and Applied Science Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Final Design Report Dual Channel Stereo Amplifier By: Kristen Gunia Prepared

### Microwave Sensor Technology. Microwave Sensor Technology

Microwave Sensor Technology Microwave Sensor Technology Gunn Transceivers Fixed MO86728 - MO9096 2 Gunn Transceivers Voltage Controlled MO87127 - MO9140 Features Electronic Control High Doppler Sensitivity

### Name: Lab Partner: Section:

Chapter 6 Capacitors and RC Circuits Name: Lab Partner: Section: 6.1 Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the physics of capacitors in circuits. The charging and discharging of a capacitor

### CTCSS REJECT HIGH PASS FILTERS IN FM RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AN EVALUATION. Virgil Leenerts WØINK 8 June 2008

CTCSS REJECT HIGH PASS FILTERS IN FM RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AN EVALUATION Virgil Leenerts WØINK 8 June 28 The response of the audio voice band high pass filter is evaluated in conjunction with the rejection

### S-parameter Simulation and Optimization

S-parameter Simulation and Optimization Slide 5-1 S-parameters are Ratios Usually given in db as 20 log of the voltage ratios of the waves at the ports: incident, reflected, or transmitted. S-parameter

### Development of Ultra-fast Silicon Switches for Active X-Band High Power RF Compression Systems

SLAC-PUB-11732 Development of Ultra-fast Silicon Switches for Active X-Band High Power RF Compression Systems Jiquan Guo and Sami Tantawi Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA Abstract.

### RFTECHNOLOGY. European Microwave Week Conference Preview and Technical Program Highlights INSIDE THIS ISSUE: DESIGN NEWS RF FUNDAMENTALS

RFTECHNOLOGY I N T E R N A T I O N A L www.rfti.com A worldwide forum for engineering ideas and information September 2012 INSIDE THIS ISSUE: European Microwave Week Conference Preview and Technical Program

### 5W X-Band GaN Power Amplifier Using a Commercially Available Discrete Plastic Packaged SMT Transistor

Sheet Code RFi0612 White Paper 5W X-Band GaN Power Amplifier Using a Commercially Available Discrete Plastic Packaged SMT Transistor This paper describes the design of a single stage 5W X-Band GaN Power

### MAS.836 HOW TO BIAS AN OP-AMP

MAS.836 HOW TO BIAS AN OP-AMP Op-Amp Circuits: Bias, in an electronic circuit, describes the steady state operating characteristics with no signal being applied. In an op-amp circuit, the operating characteristic

### A Simple Current-Sense Technique Eliminating a Sense Resistor

INFINITY Application Note AN-7 A Simple Current-Sense Technique Eliminating a Sense Resistor Copyright 998 A SIMPE CURRENT-SENSE TECHNIQUE EIMINATING A SENSE RESISTOR INTRODUCTION A sense resistor R S,

### Portable Cell Phone Charger: Design and Manufacturing

Portable Cell Phone Charger: Design and Manufacturing Miguel Contreras Junior Electrical Engineering California Polytechnic State University 1926 Canyon Circle San Luis Obispo, CA 93410-1710 (408) 655-5010

### Specifying Resistors Tutorial

APPLICATION NOTE Contact us: sales@ohmcraft.com 585-624-2610 Specifying Resistors Tutorial The resistor is the most common and well-known passive electrical component. A resistor is a device connected

### Designing 4 to 20 ma Current Loops

This document describes how to manage the voltage drops in a 4 to 20 ma current loop, and how to determine the proper power supply voltage for the loop. 4 to 20 ma Current Loop Overview The 4 to 20 ma

### Chapter 7 Direct-Current Circuits

Chapter 7 Direct-Current Circuits 7. Introduction...7-7. Electromotive Force...7-3 7.3 Resistors in Series and in Parallel...7-5 7.4 Kirchhoff s Circuit Rules...7-7 7.5 Voltage-Current Measurements...7-9

### LABORATORY 1 WRITEUP - PHYSICS 517/617. Prof. L. S. Durkin July 5, 1992

LABORATORY 1 WRITEUP - PHYSICS 517/617 Prof. L. S. Durkin July 5, 1992 DISCLAIMER: There are many ways to write up a lab report, none of them superior to any other. Below is an example of an acceptable

### First Order Transient Response

First Order Transient Response When non-linear elements such as inductors and capacitors are introduced into a circuit, the behaviour is not instantaneous as it would be with resistors. A change of state

### Planar Inter Digital Capacitors on Printed Circuit Board

1 Planar Inter Digital Capacitors on Printed Circuit Board Ajayan K.R., K.J.Vinoy Department of Electrical Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India 561 Email {ajayanr jvinoy}

### Basic Ohm s Law & Series and Parallel Circuits

2:256 Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error: whoever rejects evil and believes in Allah hath grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold that never breaks. And Allah heareth

### This paper reports control circuits suit-

From February 2005 Copyright 2005 Summit Technical Media, LLC Broadband SiGe Monolithic Microwave Control Circuits By R. Tayrani Raytheon Space & Airborne Systems This paper reports A current SiGe process

### LAB ELEC 25.CALC From Physics with Calculators, Vernier Software & Technology, 2003

OHM S LAW LAB ELEC 25.CALC From Physics with Calculators, Vernier Software & Technology, 2003 INTRODUCTION The fundamental relationship among the three important electrical quantities current, voltage,

### What is an Amplifier?

Bipolar Junction Transistor Amplifiers Semiconductor Elements 1 What is an Amplifier? An amplifier is a circuit that can increase the peak-to-peak voltage, current, or power of a signal. It allows a small

### Curriculum and Concept Module Development in RF Engineering

Introduction Curriculum and Concept Module Development in RF Engineering The increasing number of applications students see that require wireless and other tetherless network solutions has resulted in

### Card electrical characteristic, Parallelism & Reliability. Jung Keun Park Willtechnology

Description of the MEMS CIS Probe Card electrical characteristic, Parallelism & Reliability Jung Keun Park Willtechnology Background Overview Design limitation, Things to consider, Trend CIS Probe Card

### CS4525 Power Calculator

1. OVERVIEW CS4525 Power Calculator The CS4525 Power Calculator provides many important application-specific performance numbers for the CS4525 based on user-supplied design parameters. The Power Calculator

### Yesterday s discrete. Ordinary Vector Network Analyzers Get Differential Port Measurement Capability DIFFERENTIAL MEASUREMENTS

From November 2003 High Frequency Electronics Copyright 2003 Summit Technical Media, LLC Ordinary Vector Network Analyzers Get Differential Port Measurement Capability By Dale D. Henkes Applied Computational

### Core Power Delivery Network Analysis of Core and Coreless Substrates in a Multilayer Organic Buildup Package

Core Power Delivery Network Analysis of Core and Coreless Substrates in a Multilayer Organic Buildup Package Ozgur Misman, Mike DeVita, Nozad Karim, Amkor Technology, AZ, USA 1900 S. Price Rd, Chandler,

### Tutorial #2: RC Circuit

Tutorial #2: RC Circuit In this tutorial, we will build and simulate the RC circuit shown in Figure 1. For simplicity, wires are referred to as w1-w5. Figure 1: Circuit to be simulated Step 1. Open the

AD8495 Thermocouple Amplifier Date: 08/01/14 Version: 1.0 By: Matt Little This Thermocouple Amplifier Kit is based upon the AD8495 precision K-type thermocouple amplifier. This can be used to measure very

### Design and Analysis of Stepped Impedance Microstrip Low Pass Filter Using ADS Simulation Tool for Wireless Applications

International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 3, Issue 8, August 2013 1 Design and Analysis of Stepped Impedance Microstrip Low Pass Filter Using ADS Simulation Tool for Wireless

### Lab 4 Op Amp Filters

Lab 4 Op Amp Filters Figure 4.0. Frequency Characteristics of a BandPass Filter Adding a few capacitors and resistors to the basic operational amplifier (op amp) circuit can yield many interesting analog

### These help quantify the quality of a design from different perspectives: Cost Functionality Robustness Performance Energy consumption

Basic Properties of a Digital Design These help quantify the quality of a design from different perspectives: Cost Functionality Robustness Performance Energy consumption Which of these criteria is important

### Fox-2 MPPT Unit Testing

P13271 Fox-2 MPPT Unit Testing Final Engineering Specifications Testing Author: Brenton Salmi P13271 Team Members: Brenton Salmi, Bryce Salmi, Ian MacKenzie, Daniel Corriero 5/10/2013 This test document

### Lab #9: AC Steady State Analysis

Theory & Introduction Lab #9: AC Steady State Analysis Goals for Lab #9 The main goal for lab 9 is to make the students familar with AC steady state analysis, db scale and the NI ELVIS frequency analyzer.

### RESISTOR COLOR CODE GUIDE

RESISTOR COLOR CODE GUIDE - Band Code. KΩ % st th nd rd Color st Band st nd Band rd Band nd rd Decimal Multiplier K, K, K, M,, M,,,,,,,.. th th % % % % % - Band Code Ω % Resistor Lead Left Calculation

### Reading: HH Sections 4.11 4.13, 4.19 4.20 (pgs. 189-212, 222 224)

6 OP AMPS II 6 Op Amps II In the previous lab, you explored several applications of op amps. In this exercise, you will look at some of their limitations. You will also examine the op amp integrator and

### AS Systems & Control Study Notes Part 2: Electronic Materials. E.Clarvis Conductors. Materials

Part 1 Learning Objectives Know the properties of Semiconductors. Know the properties and functions of: Resistors s Materials There are three main types of materials used in electronic and electrical systems:

### Physics 260 Calculus Physics II: E&M. RC Circuits

RC Circuits Object In this experiment you will study the exponential charging and discharging of a capacitor through a resistor. As a by-product you will confirm the formulas for equivalent capacitance

### How to design a dimming fluorescent electronic ballast

How to design a dimming fluorescent electronic ballast By Tom Ribarich, Director, Lighting Design Center, International Rectifier Power Management DesignLine (01/29/2006 11:04 PM EST) Dimming fluorescent

### Laboratory #5: RF Filter Design

EEE 194 RF Laboratory Exercise 5 1 Laboratory #5: RF Filter Design I. OBJECTIVES A. Design a third order low-pass Chebyshev filter with a cutoff frequency of 330 MHz and 3 db ripple with equal terminations

### Capacitor Self-Resonance

Capacitor Self-Resonance By: Dr. Mike Blewett University of Surrey United Kingdom Objective This Experiment will demonstrate some of the limitations of capacitors when used in Radio Frequency circuits.

### Lab 7: Operational Amplifiers Part I

Lab 7: Operational Amplifiers Part I Objectives The objective of this lab is to study operational amplifier (op amp) and its applications. We will be simulating and building some basic op amp circuits,

### A New Programmable RF System for System-on-Chip Applications

Vol. 6, o., April, 011 A ew Programmable RF System for System-on-Chip Applications Jee-Youl Ryu 1, Sung-Woo Kim 1, Jung-Hun Lee 1, Seung-Hun Park 1, and Deock-Ho Ha 1 1 Dept. of Information and Communications

### Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997

Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997 1 Purpose To measure and understand the common emitter transistor characteristic curves. To use the base current gain

CADENCE LAYOUT TUTORIAL Creating Layout of an inverter from a Schematic: Open the existing Schematic Page 1 From the schematic editor window Tools >Design Synthesis >Layout XL A window for startup Options