3.2 Measures of Central Tendency

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1 3. Measures of Central Tendency outlier an element of a data set that is very different from the others mean a measure of central tendency found by dividing the sum of all the data by the number of pieces of data The purpose of this section is to enable you to describe a set of numeric data using a single value. The value you calculate will describe the centre of the set of data. There are various ways to describe this notion of centre. For example, a car dealer might claim that the average selling price of a two-year-old used car is \$1 5. What does this average tell you? Does this average take into account the number of each type of car sold? What if the dealer doesn t sell very many used cars, but occasionally sells a very expensive car? The influence an outlier such as this can have must be taken into consideration. It is important to know what kind of average is being used. You are already familiar with the mean, the median, and the mode. The examples that follow outline situations in which each measure of central tendency is most useful. THE MEAN The formula for the mean of a set of values, x i, is given as x x i or x x n The Greek letter (sigma) indicates that all the individual values of x i from i 1 to n are added together. The sum is divided by the number of values in the set, n. The mean of the set of values {5, 7, 9, 1, 5} is calculated as In what way does this value describe the centre of the set of values? The value reported by this calculation may be better understood by examining the following situation involving weights and balances. 15 cm cm 1 cm 5 cm If three identical blocks were placed on a ruler as shown one at the -cm mark, one at the 1-cm mark, and one at the 5-cm mark where should the triangular fulcrum be placed so that the ruler and blocks balance? The location of the fulcrum is called the centre of gravity and is the same as the arithmetic mean; in this case, 15 cm. At this location, the block on the left is 13 cm from the fulcrum and the two blocks on the right are 3 cm and 1 cm from the fulcrum, respectively. The sum of the distances from the fulcrum is the 15 CHAPTER 3 TOOLS FOR ANALYZING DATA

2 deviation the difference between a data value and the mean same on the left and right side. In statistics, this distance is called the deviation from the mean. If you consider distances to the left of the fulcrum as negative, then the mean is the value that makes the sum of the deviations from the mean equal to zero. WEIGHTED MEAN Suppose that the individual blocks from the previous situation have different masses: the block at cm is 1 g, the block at 1 cm is 15 g, and the block at 5 cm is 1 g. Where would you place the fulcrum now? The simplest way to approach this is to imagine that you have a total of 37 identical 1-g blocks: 1 stacked at cm, 15 stacked at 1 cm, and 1 stacked at 5 cm. To find the average, multiply the number of blocks by the distance to determine the sum, and then divide by the total number of blocks. Distance Number Distance Number Total The weighted mean is calculated as x Therefore, you would place the fulcrum at 15.9 cm. In general, the weighted mean can be calculated as x n x i or xw w where x i represents each data value and represents its weight, or frequency. Example 1 Calculating Weighted Means A teacher weights student marks in her final calculation as follows: Knowledge and Understanding, 5%; Application, 15%; Problem Solving, %; Communication, 1%; and the Final Exam, 3%. A student s marks in these categories are 7, 75,, and 5, respectively. The final exam, has not, as yet, been written. (a) Calculate the student s term mark before the final exam. (b) What mark must the student achieve on the final exam to earn a final grade of? 3. MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY 153

3 Solution 1 Without technology (a) Using the formula the term mark is calculated as t t 7.9 x Solution Using a TI-3 Plus calculator (a) First, enter the four term values in L 1 and the weights in L. Next, return to the home screen and press yy to retrieve the mean function. Enter the list names by pressing y and y separated by a comma, and then press u. (b) The term mark of 7.9 is worth a total of 7% and the final exam is worth 3%. The final exam mark, E, may be calculated algebraically as.7(7.9).3e 7 (.5) 75 (.15) (.) 5 (.1) ( ) n.7(7.9).3 E E 9. USING GROUPED DATA Suppose your data have already been organized into a frequency table with a class interval not equal to 1. You no longer have actual data values, so you must then use the midpoint of each class to estimate a mean weighted by the frequency. x i Example Finding the Mean for Grouped Data A sample of car owners was asked how old they were when they got their first car. The results were then reported in a frequency distribution. Calculate the mean. Age Solution Finding the average of grouped data is the same as finding a weighted average; that is, using the interval midpoint as the data value. 15 CHAPTER 3 TOOLS FOR ANALYZING DATA

4 Age, f Midpoint (Age), m f m = = = = = 7 The mean can now be calculated as x ( f m) f x x 5. median the middle value of an ordered data set THE MEDIAN The median value is the middle data point in an ordered set dividing the set into two sets of equal size. If the set has an even number of data points, then the median is halfway between the two middle-most values. Think about? Finding the Median Does it matter whether the data are arranged in descending or ascending order? Example 3 Finding the Median Monthly rents downtown and in the suburbs are collected from the classified section of a newspaper. Calculate the median rent in each district. Downtown: \$5, \$75, \$15, \$1, \$, \$11, \$3 Suburbs: \$75, \$55, \$9, \$55, \$, \$5, \$5, \$ Solution Downtown: The set 75,, 5, 1, 11, 15, 3 has seven elements, so the median is the th element. The median rent downtown is \$1/month. Suburbs: The ordered set {, 5, 55, 55, 5, 75,, 9} has eight elements, so the median is halfway between the th and 5 th elements; in this case, halfway between 55 and 5. The Value of Coins in a Collection median rent in the suburbs is \$5/month. mode the most frequent value or interval THE MODE The mode is simply the most frequent value or range of values in a data set. It is easy to determine the mode from a histogram as it is the highest column. In the histogram shown here, the modal interval is \$ to \$ Value (\$) 3. MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY 155

5 If there are two or more measurements that occur most often, the data set is called bimodal (or trimodal or multimodal). If no measurement is repeated, the data set has no mode. Example Analyzing Qualitative Data The graph to the right represents the results when A Youth Has Lots of Friends Ontario youths were asked 7 if they have a lot of friends. Which measure of central 5 tendency can be used to represent these data? 3 Solution The mode is the only appropriate measure of central False False True False Mostly Sometimes Mostly tendency for qualitative data such as this. The modal interval is the one where the youths answered true. Since the mean and median depend on quantitative data that can be measured numerically, it is not meaningful to calculate a mean or median for these data. 5. True right skew a distribution where the mean is skewed to the right (median < mean) left skew a distribution where the mean is skewed to the left (mean < median) Example 5 Exploring Distributions and Central Tendency Compare the following data sets. What is the relationship between the shape of the distribution and the mean, median, and mode? (a) Mode Median Mean Quiz Score 1 1 (b) 1 1 Mode Median Mean Quiz Score 1 1 Solution In part (a), the distribution is mound-shaped and symmetric. The mean, median, and mode are all equal. In part (b), the distribution is skewed right. Notice that mode < median < mean. When the distribution is skewed left, you would typically find that mean < median < mode. The outliers affect the mean more than they do the median and mode. In addition, notice that the median is typically between the mean and mode for non-symmetric distributions. 15 CHAPTER 3 TOOLS FOR ANALYZING DATA

6 WHAT MEASURE SHOULD YOU USE? While there can be no single rule governing which measure of central tendency you should use to describe a set of data, take the following into consideration: Outliers will affect the mean the most. If data contain outliers, use the median to avoid misrepresenting the data. If the data are strongly skewed, the median may best represent the central tendency of the data. If the data are roughly symmetric, the mean and the median will be close, so either is appropriate. If the data are not numeric (e.g., colour) or if the frequency of the data is more important than the value (e.g., shoe size), then the mode should be used. Example Measuring Central Tendency Describe the central tendency of each of the following monthly incomes for six salespeople working on commission using the most appropriate measure. (a) January: \$11, \$199, \$, \$1371, \$1, \$153 (b) February: \$159, \$, \$17, \$1933, \$1, \$193 (c) March: \$171, \$5, \$139. The remaining three salespeople received \$1 in holiday pay. Solution \$11 \$199 \$ \$1371 \$1 \$153 Median \$199 \$1 \$15.5 (a) Mean \$11 Mode None as no repeated data The values in this set are evenly distributed. Both the mean and median provide a good measure of the central tendency. \$159 \$ \$17 \$1933 \$1 \$193 Median \$1 \$193 \$179.5 (b) Mean \$15 Mode None as no repeated data The one salesperson who earned nothing represents an outlier, which makes it appear as if most commissions are down in February. On the contrary, every other salesperson improved on the previous month s results. The median income figure represents a more accurate measure of central tendency. \$171 \$5 \$139 \$1 \$1 \$1 Median \$1 \$139 \$119 (c) Mean \$1.7 Mode \$1 Because three of the six salespeople received the same amount \$1 in holiday pay the mode most effectively captures this month s results. 3. MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY 157

7 KEY IDEAS measures of central tendency values that describe the centre of a body of data outlier an element of a data set that is very different; affects the mean more than the median or the mode mean measure of central tendency found by dividing the sum of all the data by the number of elements; calculated as x deviation difference between a data value and the mean; sum of the mean deviations is weighted mean calculated by multiplying all the data values by their weights and dividing by the sum of the weights: x x i median middle value in an ordered data set; the most appropriate measure of central tendency when outliers are present mode most frequently occurring value; highest rectangle on a histogram; only measure of central tendency for qualitative data distributions when skewed right, median < mean; when skewed left, mean < median n x i 3. Exercises A 1. Knowledge and Understanding Use technology to calculate the mean, median, and mode of the following data sets. (a) marks on a set of tests {, 5, 7, 7, 93, 7,, } (b) monthly rent (\$){5, 75,, 5, 75, 5, 5, 5, 5, 15} (c) survey responses (1 ever, sometimes, 3 often, always) (d) {1,, 3,, 3, 3,, 3,, 3, 3,, 3,, 1,, 3,, 3, 3,, 3,, 3,, 3, 3} waiting time, in minutes, at a fast-food restaurant {5, 5.5,.5, 7, 7.5, 7, 7, 5,.5, 5, 5,.5,.5,.5, 7} (e) points scored by a basketball player {1, 15,, 1, 15, 1, 3, 1, 15} (f) daily sales totals (\$) {,,, 17,,, 55,,, 1 59}. Communication Of the three measures calculated in Question 1, which is the most appropriate for each situation? Why? 15 CHAPTER 3 TOOLS FOR ANALYZING DATA

8 3. Use the relative location of the mean, median, and mode calculated in Question 1 to describe the sets as symmetric, skewed left, or skewed right.. Hakim s Shoes reported the following sales results: Size (a) (b) Calculate the mean, median, and mode shoe size. Which measure of central tendency is most appropriate? Why? 5. Match each distribution with its mean, median, and mode. (a) mean:. median: mode: 3. (b) mean: median: mode: 1, (c) mean: median: mode: (d) mean:.1 median:.5 mode: 1 (i) (ii) 1 1 Pop Quiz Marks Pop Quiz Marks (iii) (iv) 1 1 Pop Quiz Marks Pop Quiz Marks 3. MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY 159

9 B. For each of the following, determine if the argument is valid. Explain. (a) A sales team has a mean monthly sales record of \$1 5. Therefore, half the team members sold more than that. (b) The mean mark of one class is 5, while the mean mark of another class is 75. Therefore, the mean of the two classes is 7. (c) The mean of four whole numbers is 5. Therefore, the maximum value must have been. (d) My median monthly expense total is \$5, so my total for the year must have been \$. (e) The mean salary before a 1% raise was \$3. Therefore, the mean salary after is \$33. (f) The median salary before a 1% raise was \$3. Therefore, the median salary after is \$33. (g) A survey shows that % of all salaries were below the mean. Therefore, there must be a mistake. (h) The most popular type of music sold in a store is classical. Therefore, more than half the sales are of classical music. 7. Highway fuel efficiency for cars in 1977 is shown below. Fuel Efficiency in 1977 Fuel Efficiency in 1977 Number of Compact Cars Number of Luxury Cars City Mileage (mi/gal) City Mileage (mi/gal) Fuel Efficiency in 1977 (a) (b) (c) Number of Family Cars City Mileage (mi/gal) Source: Data have been extracted from Fathom Dynamic Statistics, Key Curriculum Press. Estimate the mean and median values for each type of car. Explain the relative location of the mean and median in each case. Open the file cars1 on the textbook CD and calculate the actual values for each type.. Create a data set of at least five values that has the following properties. (a) The mean, median, and mode are all equal to 1. (b) The median is 5 and the mean is greater than 1. (c) The mean is 5 and the median is greater than 1. 1 CHAPTER 3 TOOLS FOR ANALYZING DATA

10 9. Knowledge and Understanding Calculate the mean temperature for the two Canadian cities given below. Calgary Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Temp ( C) Source: Environment Canada Ottawa Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Temp ( C) Source: Environment Canada 1. The mean of one class is 5 and the mean of another class is 75. Explain the steps you would need to take to calculate a combined class average. 11. A pair of dice is rolled numerous times. The sum of the dice, as well as the frequency, is recorded. Calculate the mean, median, and mode for the results. Sum Jasmine records the dates on 15 pennies. Estimate the mean and find the median and modal interval of the pennies. Date A student s term mark is 75. The term mark counts for 7% of the final mark. What mark must the student achieve on the exam to earn a final mark of (a) at least 7? (b) 75? (c) 5? C 1. Thinking, Inquiry, Problem Solving (a) Create a data set of at least six values that has the following. (i) a mean and a median of 1 (ii) a mean of 1 and a median of 1 (b) Write a short paragraph to explain why the median is more resistant to outliers than the mean is. 15. A data set is made up of four values {a, b, c, d}. Write an expression for (i) the mean of the four values and (ii) the median of the four values. (a) a < b < c < d. (b) The four values are multiplied by k. (c) The four values are increased by adding the constant p. 3. MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY 11

11 ADDITIONAL ACHIEVEMENT CHART QUESTIONS Contract negotiations between a union and the management of a local company have recently Salary (\$) Number of Employees begun. The chart to the right represents the distribution of salaries Knowledge and Understanding Calculate the median and modal salary interval. 17. Application Calculate the weighted mean salary. 1. Thinking, Inquiry, Problem Solving Create an employee proposal using one measure of central tendency to justify a salary increase. 19. Communication Which measure is fair? Which measure of central tendency would management use to describe current salary levels? Why? Chapter Problem Comparing Marks Justin would like to analyze the overall performance of his school s university applicants by looking at the central tendency. Refer to the data on page 1. CP5. CP. CP7. What measures of central tendency would be most appropriate to describe the performance of the students applying to university? Use technology to calculate the median and mean for the set of marks in the table. What can you conclude about the distribution of average marks by comparing the two calculated values? 1 CHAPTER 3 TOOLS FOR ANALYZING DATA

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