Classical Civilizations Test Review

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1 Name: Period: Classical Civilizations Test Review Ancient Greece Geography 1. Describe the geography of Greece. Mountainous, hilly and rocky terrain, short rivers, mostly surrounded by water 2. How did the geography of Greece affect its development? The mountains led to the creation of city-states 3. What geographical feature kept the Greeks from uniting under one government? mountains Government in Greece Match the type of government with the definition. Democracy Aristocracy Monarchy Tyrant 4. Aristocracy-A government ruled by a few powerful people 5. Monarchy-A king or a single ruler 6. Democracy-Government run by the people 7. Tyrant-someone who illegally took power, but has the people s support Put the type of governments in the order it was present in Greece, use the list above. 8. monarchy 9. aristocracy 10. tyrant 11. democracy 12. Which city-state first had a democracy? Athens 13. Describe 3 characteristics of Sparta. a. Militaristic city-state b. Boys-7 yrs of age began military training and education c. Several parts of the government in Sparta, including 2 kings, council of elders 14. Describe 3 characteristics of Athens. a. Established 1 st democracy b. All citizens participated in the gov t c. Strong navy 15. What are 3 similarities between Athens and Sparta? a. Slaves b. Same religion c. Same language

2 Persian War 16. Who lost the Persian war? Persians 17. What are 2 effects of the Persian War? a. Strengthened Greek city-states b. Delian League was created, alliance of Greek city-states Pericles s Three Goals 18. What are the 3 goals he had for Athens? a. stronger democracy b. hold and strengthen Greece c. beautify Athens Peloponnesian War 19. Who won the Peloponnesian War? Sparta 20. What gave them the edge to win the war? Becoming allies with Persia Greek Culture Characteristics of Greek Architecture: a. Columns b. Proportion c. order d. balance 22. Example of Architecture: Parthenon Philosopher: Socrates -Socratic method: use of questions to gain knowledge -did not agree with traditional thinking and was on trial and found guilty and executed Philosopher: Plato -Socrates student -founded the Academy -wrote The Republic (explained the ideal society)

3 Philosopher: Aristotle -Student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great -special system for defining and classifying systems -wanted to create a limited democracy Greece: Culture and Accomplishments, Alexander the Great Eratosthenes Aristarchus Hipparchus Euclid Pythagoras Archimedes Eratosthenes- closely calculated the earth s true size Aristarchus-Sun is larger than the earth and earth and other planets revolve around sun Hipparchus- Latitude and longitude Euclid-Geometry, wrote The Element Pythagoras- created the Pythagorean Theorem Archimedes- laws of the lever, and used a screw to gather water Hellenistic Culture is a blending of Greek, Egyptian, and Persian cultures Theater: Drama Greeks were the 1 st to write dramas Tragedy: main character struggles against fate, tragic fate Comedy: made fun of people and ideas

4 Alexander the Great Born: July 356 BC Died: June 323 BC Area he ruled in Greece: Macedonia Age he became ruler: 20 Cause of death: died from malaria, fever, many theories exist Father: Phillip II of Macedonia Besides Greece, what are the two other areas that Alexander the Great conquered? -Egypt -Persia What city is named after him? Alexandria, Egypt

5 Name: Ancient Rome-Test Review Geography Italian peninsula- geographical location of Rome Tiber River-Rome was settled along the Tiber River Government/Society/Wars Roman Republic-Citizens voted for their representatives, lasted from around 509BC-27BC Patricians- upper class in Roman society, made up 5% of the citizens, controlled most of the land Plebeians- middle and lower class, farmers, peasants, shopkeepers, made up around 95% of the citizens, 3 branches of Roman govt.-legislative, executive, and judicial Consuls - 2 citizens elected by the senate, served one year terms, similar to the US President Senate- made of 300 citizens, serve for life, make laws Praetors-judges who serve for 1 year terms, 9 total praetors Twelve Tables-legal code/laws protect all citizens, hang in the forum for all to see Natural laws-universal laws that apply to everyone Punic Wars-series of wars between Rome and Carthage, comparable to the 2 World Wars, goal was the expand the territory of Rome, some consider this the start of the empire. Julius Caesar- general of the Roman Army during the Punic Wars, dictator, stabbed by members of the senate b/c of his growing popularity Octavian (Augustus)- first emperor, changed his name to Augustus, meaning Exalted One Marc Antony-formed a political alliance with Octavian after Caesar s death, lost in a civil war with Octavian, and committed suicide with Cleopatra

6 Culture/Achievements Pax Romana- means Roman Peace, 207 years of peace, wealth, and prosperity in the Roman empire Roman art-includes paintings, sculptures, and mosaics, Roman Architecture- use of domes and arches, examples aqueducts, Pantheon, Coliseum, used concrete Aqueducts- brought clean water to the cities, bath houses, toilets, fountains, and private homes, only used gravity to get the water to the city, slope Roman Gods- copied from Greek gods, only changed the names Latin-similar alphabet to the Greek alphabet Romance languages-languages derived from Latin, including French, Spanish, Italian Christianity Jesus- born around 6-4 BC in Judea, preached, did good works, performed miracles, crucified for defying Roman authority Peter- one of the 12 disciples/apostles Paul-Roman citizen, who spread Christianity throughout the Roman Empire New Testament - Contains the teachings of Jesus, part of the Bible used by Christians Gospels- the 1 st 4 books of the New Testament in the Bible, contains information about Jesus and his life Why Christians persecuted? Because they would not honor/respect the Roman gods/authority Constantine-1 st Christian emperor, brought the capital of the Roman Empire to the Eastern half, issued the edict of Milan Edict of Milan- guaranteed religions freedoms for all people in the Roman Empire Roman Catholic Church (hierarchy)- local priests, bishops supervise a group of local priests, the pope (located in Rome) is head of the Catholic Church Fall of the Roman Empire Internal Reasons- Economic decline (inflation, debt), lack of loyalty, weak leaders External Reasons- barbaric tribes, the Huns Constantinople- new capital of the Roman Empire Byzantine Empire- flourished about 1000 years after the fall of Rome

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