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2 Written as per the revised syllabus prescribed by the Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education, Pune. Social Science - Part I History and Political Science Sixth Edition: April 2016 Std. IX Salient Features Exhaustive coverage of the entire syllabus in Question Answer Format Covers answers to all Textual Questions A section on Important Names to Remember, List of Events and Key Terms. Practice Question Paper at the end of each chapter. Self Evaluative in nature Simple and lucid language Printed at: Repro India Ltd. Mumbai No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, C.D. ROM/Audio Video Cassettes or electronic, mechanical including photocopying; recording or by any information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the Publisher. P.O. No _10630_JUP

3 Preface In the case of good books, the point is not how many of them you can get through, but rather how many can get through to you. Std. IX: History and Political Science is a complete and thorough guide extensively drafted to boost the student s confidence. The book covers the entire syllabus in question answer format. Each and every topic is divided into subtopics for better understanding of concepts. The format of this book not only helps the student understand the concepts but also helps to write the answers based on the concepts. A section of Important Names To Remember, List of Events and Key Terms, is given in chapters where applicable, for reference. Additionally, we have provided Question Papers at the end of each chapter [20 Marks for History and 10 Marks for Political Science] which will facilitate revision and practice for the student. The journey to create a complete book is strewn with triumphs, failures and near misses. If you think we ve nearly missed something or want to applaud us for our triumphs, we d love to hear from you. A book affects eternity; one can never tell where its influence stops. From, Publisher Best of luck to all the aspirants! No. Topic Name Page No. HISTORY 01 Ancient and Medieval Civilization (A) Greek Civilization 1 (B) India 9 (C) Arab Renaissance and Feudalism (A) Medieval Feudalism 37 (B) Reformation 47 (C) The Renaissance Age of Revolution (A) Industrial Revolution 66 (B) American War of Independence 77 (C) French Revolution 88 POLITICAL SCIENCE 04 Introduction to Political Science Making of the Constitution Fundamental Rights and Duties Election Process 118 Textual questions are represented by * symbol. Intext questions are represented by # symbol. Questions based on additional information are represented by symbol.

4 01 Chapter 01: Ancient and Medieval Civilization Ancient and Medieval Civilization (A) Greek Civilization Q.1.A. Fill in the blanks by choosing suitable words given in brackets. (1 mark each) Introduction 1. Greek civilization began to develop around. (1500 B.C., 1600 B.C., 1400 B.C.) 2. The name Greece comes from the island. (Greeks, Greecian, Graecia) *3. Greece was known as. (Hellas, Middle Country, Strausberg) 4. side of Greece is bordered by mountain range. (North, East, West) Political System Introduction *5. Greek civilization gifted the world with system. (monarchy, democracy, marxist) 6. In ancient Greece, was famous for all its Arts, Philosophy and Political ideas. (Athens, Sparta, Olympia) 7. The Athenians called their chief administrator as. (Archon, King, Chief) 8. The system of taking all important policy decisions in general assembly is known as. (direct democracy, monarchy, administration) 9. Athens came to be known as School of. (Hellas, Sparta, Olympia) 10. was known as a militaristic and expansionist city-state. (Sparta, Athens, Olympia) 11. In 338 B.C., King Philip of invaded city-states of Greece and annexed them. (Macedonia, Arab, Greek) Social Life 12. The Greek society consisted of major classes. (four, two, three) 13. In ancient Greece, all rights in the matters, political, cultural, economic and religious, were confined to alone. (slaves, citizens, king) 14. The Greeks had developed family system. (patriarchal, maternal, united) 15. In Greek civilization, women were denied rights. (educational, property, political) Economic Life 16. factors played an important role in shaping the economic life of Greeks. (Geographical, Social, Political) 17. produced from fruits and Olive oil were the main commodities of export for Greeks. (Jam, Wine, Pulp) 18. The export of was also a major business in Greece. (marble, coal, streel) 19. Vicinity of sea had encouraged the development of industry in Greece. (ship-building, tourism, wine production) 20. Greeks living in the regions reared flocks of sheep. (hilly, seashore, plateau) Cultural Life 21. The great poet, who lived during 10 th century B.C., is regarded as one of the great poets of the world. (Pindar, Sophocles, Homer) *22. The epics like Illiad and Odyssey were composed by. (Pindar, Sophocles, Homer) 1

5 Std. IX : History *23. Greek popularised, the form of literature. (Music, Comedy, Tragedy) 24. Great lyricists like flourished in Greece. (Pindar, Plato, Homer) *25. The Father of History is. (Socrates, Herodotus, Thucydides) 26. The Greeks laid the foundation of, which means, the thought of earthy people. (Emperial Philosophy, Imperialism, Rationalism) 27. Logic and rationalism were the two important elements of Greek. (philosophy, literature, sculpture) 28. The Greek scientist had developed important theory in the field of physics. (Archimedes, Hippocrates, Euclid) 29. The Greek scientist contributed towards astronomy. (Euclid, Hippocrates, Ptolemy) 30. The scientist Hippocrates contributed towards. (Geometry, Medicine, Scientific History) Art and Architecture 31. Artistically built by Greek architects shows their skillful work. (pillars, stones, cotton clothes) 32. The Greeks have extensively used in their sculptures. (graphite, limestone, marbles) Sports *33. Sportsmen from Greek city-states used to assemble at to play. (Athens, Sparta, Olympia) Religious Beliefs *34. The supreme God was. (Zeus, Apollo, Venus) 35. Worship in Greece was generally presided over by priests. (male, female, king) 36. The oracles of are well known. (Spark, Delphi, Athens) B. Match the Pairs. (1 mark each) *1. Column A Column B i. Philip a. Philosopher Pindar b. Dramatist i Sophocles c. King of Macedonia iv. Socrates d. Astronomer v. Pythagoras e. Lyricist vi. Archimedes f. Geometrician g. Scholar in Physics Ans: (i c), (ii e), (iii b), (iv a), (v f), (vi g) 2. Column A Column B i. Athens a. Military Education administration Sparta b. Patriarchal i Greek Family c. Direct democracy system d. Matriarchal Ans: (i c), (ii a), (iii b) Q.2. Answer the following questions in 25 to 30 words each. (2 marks each) Introduction 1. Explain the origin of Greece/Greek civilization. Ans: i. Greek civilization is one of the most ancient civilizations in the world. i It began to develop around 1500 B.C. The name Greece came from the island Graecia. Greece was also known as Hellas. iv. The people are known as Greeks and their culture was known as the Greek culture. 2. State the geographical location of Greece. Ans: i. The Greece is bordered by mountain ranges in the north, while the remaining three sides are surrounded by the sea. The broken mountain ranges in the north and hundreds of small islands, gradually developed into city states. Political System *3. Explain the term Archon. Ans: i. The Athenians called their chief administrator Archon, who was elected by the people. 2

6 Chapter 01: Ancient and Medieval Civilization With increasing administrative work, the number of Archons too increased and an Administrative Council of nine members came to be formed. 4. Explain direct democracy in Athens. Ans: i. The system of direct democracy existed in Athens. The chief administrator was called as Archon and was elected by the people. i All important policy decisions were taken in general assembly, which was open to all Athenians. 5. Describe the peculiar features of the citystate Sparta. Ans: i. Sparta was a Greek city in the neighbourhood of Athens. It was known as a militaristic and expansionist city-state. i Spartan government was vested in a council of advisors. iv. Military training, Love for discipline, Self-reliance and Training for hard life were the special features of the Spartan public life. Social Life 6. Explain how the Greek culture was developed. Ans: i. Greek culture is the one, which inspite of the geographical divisions, and the small islands, shared some common features in respect of their social organization, religious ideas and general life style. Thus, the culture that developed collectively was termed as Greek culture. *7. Give the information on classes of society in Greece. Ans: i. The Greek society consisted of two major classes: a. The Greek citizens. b. Slaves and prisoners of war. All political, economic, cultural, religious rights and privileges were confined to the citizens alone. i The slaves and war prisoners were deprived of them. 8. Write about the status of women in ancient Greece. Give reason. Ans: i. The Greeks had developed patriarchal family system. Women had an equal position along with the men. i Women had right to education and inheritance of property, but were denied of political rights. Economic Life 9. What encouraged the ship building industry in ancient Greece? Ans: i. In Greece, timber was available on a large scale. Additionally, the vicinity of sea encouraged the development of shipbuilding industry in ancient Greece. *10. Which commodities were exported from Greece? Ans: i. The production of a variety of fruits in Greek orchards constituted a major source of income. The Greeks produced quality wines from fruits and Olive oil which were the main commodities of their export. i Additionally, export of naturally available marble was a major business. 11. What was the occupation of Greek people living in hilly regions? Ans: i. The Greeks living in the hilly regions reared flocks of sheep. Because of limited agricultural land, weaving woollen cloth was an important industry. i Woollen and Cotton textile manufacturing was done by women. Cultural Life 12. What are the main characteristics of Greek culture? Ans: i. Literature, Art, Sports, Architecture and Philosophy are the main characteristics of Greek culture. The writing tradition is supposed to be the oldest one in Greece. i The Greek loved plays. iv. The contribution of Greek in historiography is also significant and the Greeks were the ones who laid the foundation of Empirical Philosophy. v. The Greeks contributed in the field science too and wrote theories in many subjects. 13. Explain the work of Thucydides. Ans: i. Thucydides was a great historian in Greece. He depicted the life of people in Athens comprehensively. i He advocated the importance of Naval Power. 3

7 Std. IX : History 14. Write a note on the ancient Greek philosophy. Ans: i. The Greeks laid the foundation of Empirical Philosophy that explains the thought of earthy people. Logic and Rationalism were the two important elements of Greek philosophy. i Socrates, Plato and Aristotle greatly contributed to the treasure of Greek philosophy. Art and Architecture 15. What did the Greek temples illustrate? Ans: i. Greek Art represents the realistic view of nature. The architecture of the temples, clearly illustrates the artistic outlook and preference for architectural grandiosity. 16. What are the striking features of Greek sculptures? Ans: Greeks have extensively used marbles in their sculptures. The harmony of proportion, the portrayal of minute details of human physiology and the depiction of human feelings are the striking features of Greek sculptures. Sports 17. Write about Olympia. Ans: i. Olympia is a place in Greek citystates. After every four years, sportsmen assemble at this place for many sports competitions. i These sports competitions were known as Olympic games, as they started at Olympia before 800 B.C. Religious Beliefs *18. Define the word Oracle. Ans: i. In Greece, it was believed that Gods gave their holy messages to the people through female priests and these messages when revealed to the public, were known as Oracle. The Oracles of Delphi are well known. Miscellaneous 19. What tribute did Shelley pay to Greek civilization? Ans: i. The modern Romanticist English poet P.B. Shelley asserted that We are all Greeks, Our laws, literature, and art are rooted in Greece. 4 From the words of P.B. Shelley, the idea of great civilization of Greece and impact of power over the world can be understood. Q.3. Give reasons in 25 to 30 words each. (2 marks each) Introduction 1. Greek civilization is considered to be one of the most ancient civilizations in the world. Ans: Greek civilization is one of the most ancient civilizations in the world because: i. Greek civilization began to develop around 1500 B.C. It has greatly contributed to the development of European culture. i Origin of arts, sports, science, philosophy and political organization can be traced back to the ancient Greek traditions. *2. The Greeks became good navigators. Ans: i. The geographical characteristics of Greece contribute to its civilization to a great extent. The northern part of Greece is bordered by mountain ranges while the remaining three sides are surrounded by the sea. This made the Greeks good navigators. *3. The strong central power could not be maintained in ancient Greece. Ans: i. The typical character of Greek civilization is due to the geographical conditions prevailing there. The Northern part is bordered by mountain ranges. i The remaining three sides are surrounded by the sea. iv. The broken mountains ranges in north and hundreds of small islands made it impossible to have a strong central rule in Greece. Political System *4. A number of city-states emerged in ancient Greece. Ans: i. The North of Greece is bordered by mountain ranges while the remaining three sides are surrounded by the sea. Hundreds of small islands and limited agricultural lands divided the Greek society into small groups which gradually developed into city states.

8 Chapter 01: Ancient and Medieval Civilization *5. Athens came to be known as the School of Hellas. Ans: i. In ancient Greece, Athens was famous for its Arts, Philosophy and Political ideas. In Athens, the system of direct democracy was used. i Athens was known as a peace-loving and cultural city-state. iv. In the period of great administrator Pericles, the peninsula had great respect. v. The all round progress of Athens had become an example for other city states. Hence, Athens came to be known as School of Hellas. Q.4. Answer the following questions in 40 to 50 words each. (3 marks each) Political System 1. Explain the administrative system in Athens. Ans: i. We find traces of modern democracy in the political organization of Athens. The Athenians called their chief administrator Archon who was elected by the people. i With increasing administrative work, the number of Archons too increased and an Administrative Council of nine members came to be formed. iv. All important policy decisions were taken in general assembly which was open to all Athenians. v. This system is known as Direct Democracy. vi. Athens was known as a peace-loving and cultural city-state. Cultural Life 2. Write a note on the literature of the ancient Greeks. Ans: i. The writing tradition is supposed to be the oldest in Greece. The great poet Homer, who lived during 10 th century B.C. is regarded as one of the great poets of the world. i His epics Illiad and Odyssey introduced iv. him as great writer of the world. Great lyricists like Pindar flourished in Greek. v. Plays of Sophocles are famous even today. vi. Tragedy as a form of literature was popularized by the Greek. v Additionally, Herodotus has written comprehensive and scientific history. vi Also, the great historian Thucydides depicted the life of people in Athens comprehensively. Art and Architecture *3. Give detailed information about Greek s Art and Architecture. Ans: i. Greeks have made beautiful sculptures. The Greeks have extensively used i marbles in their sculptures. The artistic outlook and preference for architectured grandiosity is illustrated in their temples. iv. The harmony of proportion, the portrayal of minute details of human physiology and the depiction of human feelings, are the striking features of Greek sculptures. v. The origin of Greek architecture and sculpture can generally be traced to their mythological stories. Sports *4. Describe the Olympic sports competition of Greece. Ans: i. In the field of sports, Greeks contribution was remarkable. Sports and games were a part and parcel of their lives. After every four years, sportsmen from all Greek city-states used to assemble at a place called Olympia where many sports competitions were held. i No wars were allowed to be fought during the Olympic games. iv. These games were considered to be a symbol of goodwill, friendship and peace. Religious Beliefs *5. Explain the Greek ideas on religion. Ans: i. Zeus was the supreme God of the Greeks. Hera, Apollo, Athena, Venus, Mercury were also worshipped. Every city states had their own God. i Every God was worshipped according to their geographical condition and social life. iv. Animal sacrifice was in vogue. v. Worship was generally presided over by female priests. 5

9 Std. IX : History 6 vi. It was believed that Gods gave their holy messages to the people through female priests. v The messages thus revealed to the public, were known as Oracle. vi The Greeks believed in life after death and also believed in heaven and hell. Miscellaneous *6. What were the gifts given to the world by the Greek? Ans: i. The ancient Greek culture was one of the most advanced cultures. Greek culture gave the gift of Direct Democracy to the world. i Science and Philosophy include many contributions made by them. iv. The contribution of Greeks to Olympic games is remarkable. v. In the initial period, the lack of strong central rule in Greece led to its down fall. However, after the medieval period, Greek civilization gave a new light to Europe. vi. The study of Greek philosophy and scientific attitude led to the European Renaissance. The European Renaissance in turn, has profoundly changed today s world culture. Q.5. Answer the following questions in 80 to 100 words each. (4 marks each) Political System *1. Explain the difference between Athens and Sparta. Ans: Athens Sparta i. Athens was known Sparta was known as as peace-loving militaristic and and cultured city expansionist city state. state. Athens had direct Sparta had military democracy system. rule. i Athens government was governed by administrator known as Archon. Spartan government was governed by a council of advisors. iv. All important policy decisions were taken in general assembly which was open to all Athenians. v. Athens was famous for all its Arts, Philosophy and Political ideas. All rights related to government were vested with the council of advisors. Military training, love for discipline, self reliance and training for hard life were the special features of the spartan public life. Economic Life 2. *Give an account of Greek s economic life. OR The Greek city-states became prosperous in terms of trade and industry. Explain. Ans: i. Mediterranean climate and other geographical factors played an important role in shaping the economic life of the Greeks. Production of a variety of fruits in Greek orchards constituted a major source of income. i Fruit wines and Olive oil were the main commodities of their export. iv. Availability of timber on a large scale, coupled with the vicinity of sea, had encouraged the development of shipbuilding industry. v. The Greeks living in the hilly regions reared flocks of sheep. Woollen and Cotton textile manufacturing was an important industry. vi. Exporting the naturally available marble was also a major business. v Trade and Industry had brought betterment in the lives of Greeks. vi It brought prosperity to the Greek city states. Miscellaneous *3. Explain briefly Greek s contribution in the field of Art and Science. Ans: Love of Greek people for Arts made their economic life more prosperous.

10 Chapter 01: Ancient and Medieval Civilization A. Arts: i. Realistic depiction of nature marks the Greek art. Their temples clearly illustrate their artistic outlook and preference for architectural grandiosity, which can be seen in the temples constructed by them. i Artistically built pillars show their iv. skillful work. The Greeks have extensively used marbles in their sculptures. v. The harmony of proportion, portrayal of minute details of human physiology and depiction of human feelings are striking features of Greek sculptures. vi. The origin of Greek architecture and sculpture can generally be traced to their mythological stories. B. Science: i. In the field of science too, the contribution of Greece is very significant. They wrote theories in many subjects. i Pythagoras and Euclid contributed to Geometry, Archimedes to Physics, Ptolemy to Astronomy and Hippocrates to Medicine. iv. Philosophy and Scientific temper brought realism in their outlook on life. Important Names To Remember Homer Pindar Herodotus Thucydides Socrates, Plato, Aristotle Pythagoras and Euclid Archimedes Ptolemy Hippocrates Zeus Hera, Apollo, Athena, Venus, Mercury P.B. Shelley Sophocles Pericles A great poet, who lived during 10 th Century B.C. Illiad and Odyssey were the epics written by him. A Greek Lyricists He is called as Father of History. He has written comprehensive and scientific history. A great historian. He advocated the importance of Naval power. Contributed in the field of Philosophy. Contributed in the field of Geometry. Contributed in the field of Physics. Contributed in the field of Astronomy. Contributed in the field of Medicine. The supreme God of Greeks. The Greek Gods. Romantic English Poet. He asserted We are all Greeks, our laws, literature and art are rooted in Greece. Playwright Great administrator of Athens List of Events 338, B.C. King Philip of Macedonia invaded and annexed the Greek city states. 1500, B.C. The Greek civilization emerged during this period. 5 th Century, B.C. Herodotus, Father of History, wrote comprehensive and scientific history. 10 th Century, B.C. During this century the great poet Homer lived. Illiad and Odyssey established him as a great writer of the world. 7

11 Std. IX : History Question Paper Total Marks: A. Complete the following statements by choosing the appropriate alternatives from those given in the brackets: [3] i. Greece was known as. (Hellas, Middle country, Strausberg) i Sportsmen from Greek city-states used to assemble at to play. (Athens, Sparta, Olympia) The supreme God was. (Zeus, Apollo, Venus) B. Match the Pairs: [2] Column A Column B i. Philip a. Lyricist Pindar b. Dramatist c. King of Macedonia 2. Answer the following in 25 to 30 words each: (Any 2) [4] i. Explain the term of Archon. Define the word Oracle. i Which commodities were exported from Greece? 3. Give reasons in 25 to 30 words each: (Any 2) [4] i. The strong central power could not be maintained in ancient Greece. The Greek became good navigators. i Athens came to be known as the School of Hellas. 4. Answer the following questions in 40 to 50 words each: (Any 1) [3] i. Explain the Greek ideas on religion. Give detailed information about Greek s Art and Architecture. 5. Answer the following questions in 80 to 100 words each: (Any 1) [4] i. Explain the difference between Athens and Sparta. Give an account of Greek s economic life. 8

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