A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun.

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1 Prepositions

2 A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun. Example: after dinner After is the preposition Dinner is the object of the preposition After dinner is the prepositional phrase Without you without is the preposition you is the object of the preposition without you is the prepositional phrase

3 That noun or pronoun is called the object of the preposition. To the store with me store is the object of the preposition me is the object of the preposition Sometimes the preposition will have compound objects. This means that there will be two or more nouns or pronouns following the preposition. To the store and post* office preposition store and office are objects of the *note that you include only the noun (office) the describing word is not part of the object of the preposition. With john and me John and me are objects of the preposition

4 Prepositional phrases will not be the subject or verb of the sentence. Finding the SUBJECT: Cross out all the prepositional phrases, find the who ot what the sentence is about. The man with his son walked toward me. The man with his son walked toward me. Some of the ducklings waddled past us. Some of the ducklings waddled past us. A book of stamps lay on the table. A book of stamps lay on the table.

5 After finding the subject of the sentence, decide what happened or what is in the sentence. TIP: The verb will never be in the prepositional phrase. The man with his son walked toward us. The man with his son walked toward us. Some of the ducklings waddled past us. Some of the ducklings waddled past us. A book of stamps lay on the table. A book of stamps lay on the table.

6 There sometimes is a compound subject in a sentence. Compound subject means there are two or more subjects in the sentence. During the snow storm, the boys and girls rushed home. During the snow storm, the boys and girls rushed home. Neither my dad nor my mother went to Mexico City. Neither my dad nor my mother went to Mexico City. Ms. Jones, Mr. Raimo, and Mrs. Burnhart will be in the office from nine until five. Ms. Jones, Mr. Raimo, and Mrs. Burnhart will be in the office from nine until five.

7 do does did has have had is am are Helping Verbs was were be being been may must might should could would shall will can

8 NOT is never a verb. Do mot underline NOT as part of the verb phrase. The child with the red hair did not sit beside me. He should not have given his comb to me. This house is not for sale. TIP: Box not or n t, this prevents a you from underlining not (n t) as part of the verb phrase.

9 Sometimes to will come before a verb. TO + VERB is an infinitive TO + VERB is NOT a PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE To dance, to sing, to yell, to be, to leave, to go are examples of infinitives. Do NOT cross them out as prepositional phrases. Place an infinitive in parenthesis. I like (to sing) in the morning. In the morning - a prepositional phrase To sing - infinitive (to +verb) Always place infinitives in parenthesis!

10 In an imperative sentence, the subject is (You). I. An imperative sentence gives a command. II. (You) is termed YOU UNERSTOOD *It is wriiten at the beginning of the sentence, underlined, and place in parenthesis. Go down the street. (You) Go down the street. Please look at me. (You) Please look at me. Put the scissors in the drawer. (You) Put the scissors* in the drawer. * not the subject, Are the scissors putting? No, YOU are putting the scissors. Scissors = object

11 Preposition Vs. Adverb A preposition must be part of a prepositional phrase. It must have a noun or pronoun closely following the preposition. If there is no noun or pronoun, then the preposition is not crossed out. The dog squeezed in through the doggie door. The dog squeezed in* through the doggie door. *In cannot be a preposition because there is no noun or pronoun following it. A preposition must have an abject. After lunch the guests walked out into the garden. After lunch the guests walked out* into the garden. *Out is not a preposition. It does not have a noun or pronoun (object of the preposition).

12 Helpful Hints I. Words that end in ly are usually adverbs. They are not prepositions. We went into the pool carefully. ADV We went into the pool carefully. Slowly the banker walked into the vault. ADV Slowly the banker walked into the vault.

13 If you are not sure if a word is part of the verb, try putting TO in front of the word. If you cannot divide it into present (today), and past (yesterday) tenses, the word probably is not a verb. The pie was good. Can you say To GOOD? Today I good; yesterday I gooded. Good does not make sense here, and thus, good is not part of the verb. Marty was happy. Can you say To Happy? Today I happy; yesterday I happied. Happy does not make sense here, and thus, happy is not part of the verb.

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