SATELLITE USES FOR PURPOSE OF NOWCASTING. Introduction

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "SATELLITE USES FOR PURPOSE OF NOWCASTING. Introduction"

Transcription

1 SATELLITE USES FOR PURPOSE OF NOWCASTING Kedir, Mohammed National Meteorological Agency of Ethiopia Introduction The application(uses) of satellite sensing data deals to obtain information about the basic state of parameters of the atmosphere, moisture and winds.they also discus the use and identification of clouds from satellite in order to obtain meteorological information about synoptic weather patterns, tropical storms and weather system and small scale weather features. Application of satellite sensing data also deals with sever meso scale storms and rain fall estimation techniques, as well as with satellite application related to weather modification and cloud physics programs, air sea interaction and climatologically studies. This set of notes is designed as all introductions to the application of satellite sensing data it has been possible to cover most of the application devoted to weather forecasting. Satellite uses for the purpose of now casting 1. What are the most common meteorological parameters derived from satellite for now casting? 2. How does satellites used for the purpose of now casting? In order to answer the above questions and talk about the purpose of satellite uses for the purpose of now casting let me define what satellite means. Definition of what is satellite: satellite is anything that orbits something else, as, for example, the moon orbits the earth. In a communications context, a satellite is a specialized wireless receiver/transmitter that is launched by a rocket and placed in orbit around the earth. There are hundreds of satellites currently in operation. They are used for such diverse purposes as weather forecasting, television broadcast, and amateur radio communications, Internet communications, and the Global Positioning System (GPS).this is the general term for the definition of the satellite but the difference is that meteorological satellites are the satellites that observing and detecting weather elements for the purpose of weather forecasting and early warning for the daily life of human being. It is also termed as the eyes in the sky.

2 1. What are the most common meteorological parameters derived from satellite for now casting? The most common meteorological parameters derived from satellite are: The parameters of the condition of the atmosphere such as the temperature, pressure, and humidity of the air, wind speed and direction, cloud cover, precipitation, and visibility (the transparency of the atmosphere), as well as soil and surface water temperatures, solar radiation, and long wave terrestrial and atmospheric radiation. Meteorological elements also include weather phenomena such as thunderstorms and snowstorms. The variations in the meteorological elements are the result of atmospheric processes, and they determine the weather and the climate. The meteorological elements are observed at aerological and meteorological (weather) stations and at meteorological observatories by means of aerological and meteorological instruments as well as satellite are the main element to give any types of forecasting. 2. How does satellites used for the purpose of now casting? 1. How satellite detect temperature Infrared light lies between the visible and microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Infrared light has a range of wavelengths, just like visible light has wavelengths that range from red light to violet. "Near infrared" light is closest in wavelength to visible light and "far infrared" is closer to the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The longer, far infrared wavelengths are about the size of a pin head and the shorter, near infrared ones are the size of cells, or are microscopic. Far infrared waves are thermal. In other words, we experience this type of infrared radiation every day in the form of heat! The heat that we feel from sunlight, a fire, a radiator or a warm sidewalk is infrared. The temperature sensitive nerve endings in our skin can detect the difference between inside body temperature and outside skin temperature. 2. How satellite detect Moisture Water vapor imagery is used to analyze the presence and movement of water vapor moisture in the upper and middle levels of the atmosphere. The wavelength spectrum used to detect water vapor is in the 6.7 to 7.3 micrometer wavelength range. The upper and middle levels of the atmosphere are from about 650 mb to the top of the troposphere. Above the troposphere there is very little moisture. Why doesn't water vapor imagery detect moisture in the lower atmosphere and near the surface? Only the top most level of moisture is detected using these wavelengths. For example, think about clouds on visible imagery. If there is a thick layer of clouds in the upper levels then you will not be able to see the clouds that are closer to the surface. The same applies to water

3 vapor. When upper level moisture is present, this layer of moisture will prevent the detection of water vapor that is below this layer. If the upper levels are dry then water vapor can be detected in the middle layers of the atmosphere. There is usually though enough moisture in the middle and upper levels that moisture in the lower levels is not detected. Water vapor absorbs radiation in the wavelength from 6.7 to 7.3 microns. Suppose there is a thick layer of moisture in the upper levels. This layer of moisture will absorb the IR radiation in the 6.7 to 7.3 micron wavelengths that are being emitted from the lower troposphere up to this layer. Thus, the satellite receives less radiation in the 6.7 to 7.3 micron spectrum where there is a higher concentration of upper level moisture. The satellite will interpret this greater absorption as a colder temperature and a higher concentration of water vapor. If the upper levels are dry then less radiation is absorbed by moisture in the 6.7 to 7.3 micron spectrum in the upper levels. The satellite will interpret this lesser absorption as a warmer temperature and a lesser concentration of moisture. A high emission in the 6.7 to 7.3 micron spectrum indicates the emission is coming closer to the lower levels of the troposphere where it is warmer and more moisture is present. A dark color or warm color indicates a relative lack of upper level moisture. It does not mean though there is a lack of moisture in the lower levels or at the surface. It could be very moist at the surface or it could be fairly dry. A white or cold color indicates a high concentration of water vapor. This layer of water vapor is absorbing radiation in the 6.7 to 7.3 micron range. 3. How satellite dectecloud detection There are several pitfalls with using satellite images. This essay will explore many of these common pitfalls. 1. VIS (low sun angle and at night) Visible imagery is of no use at night since it requires the sun to reflect its rays off objects in order to detect them. In the winter VIS is less useful since the days are so short and the sun angle is low. When the sun angle is low (near the horizon) there is not as much reflection off the clouds. Thus, around the time of sunrise and sunset VIS is not as useable. 2. Water Vapor (vapor vs. clouds) There is an important difference between water vapor and clouds. Water vapor is in the gaseous state while cloud is in the liquid or solid state. On water vapor imagery it is important to distinguish between the vapor and the cloud. On black and white imagery the clouds will show up a fairly bright white. The water vapor will be wispy in appearance. Also remember the clouds and water vapor are mainly being detected in the upper levels of the troposphere, thus cloud and water vapor near the surface is not being detected as much.

4 3. Cloud location error / angle displacement Since the earth is a spherical type shape and the satellite images you look at are flat there will be some error in the cloud location. Since the satellite is over the equatorial region, the cloud displacement error will be greater toward the pole. The displacement also increases when moving east or west of where the satellite is located. As the latitude increases or when looking further east or west of the satellite position the satellite is looking at the clouds at more of an angle. The angle eventually gets so large that it makes the image fairly useless for example in the polarregions. 4. Can't see clouds under cloud The satellite can only see the highest cloud deck. If there is upper level cloud covering an area the satellite will be unable to detect clouds under this cloud deck. Because of this the satellite can be useless at times at detecting clouds that are influencing weather closer to the surface. Satellite can be used to sense surface features and the temperature profile of the troposphere. 5. Infrared is totally different from VIS Infrared detects clouds be determining temperature by the wavelength of emitted radiation from the cloud. This is a totally different concept of detection from what VIS uses. VIS uses reflection to detect cloud. Clouds that do not look significant on IR can be very significant. For example, clouds near the surface will not show up well on IR since they are close to the earth surface temperature. These clouds may in fact though have a significant influence on the surface weather. 6. Satellite images are not pictures and not video recordings VIS is closest to being a picture but of course it does not use a flash like a camera needs to sometimes. Satellite images don't require film and film developing. The satellite images are much more similar to digital pictures, except the entire picture is not taken all at once but rather is a line by line scan that when complete produces a complete image. It takes about 20 minutes to produce an image. When looking at the satellite images in motion there are significant time gaps between each frame. This is far more time than the multiple frames per second that video recordings have. Because of this delay in data, satellite images are not near as close to being instantaneous as compared to radar images. 4.Identifying rain cloud Precipitation call use indirectly measured from space mainly in two ways. One is way using microwave radiation measurements. The microwave region is also used by radar system. The other way to monitor rainfall from space is to use imagery of the operational satellites. This is a more indirect way to estimate the rainfall because only the radiation from the top or reflected by the top of cloud readers the satellite and this has to be related to the precipitation at the ground.

5 The mapping of precipitation intensities is providing by radioactive parameters related to thickness of the cloud system and from cloud top temperature. The deeper and more substantial a cloud and the colder the top the more intense is the precipitation. Results show that the resulting estimates of precipitation are consistent with actual surface observation problems arise mainly with the identification of drizzle falling from the shallow clouds, and with precipitation which is forced way mountain slopes. Here what I want to indicate is that as we receive data from the satellite we analyze and interpret the data with local area prediction system and give the very short range as well as now casting of the specified area. There fore satellite use for the purpose of now casting is great. 5.Solar radiation at the earth surface The other meteorological elements that detected by satellite is solar radiation at the earth surface. The solar radiation reaching the earth surface can be determined from the measurement mode by a satellite far out in space. There are three contributory sources to the total short wave energy, called the radiation available at the surface of the earth. A. the direct solar beam B. solar energy reflected to the surface by clouds C. solar energy reflected to the surface by air molecules and aerosols. The method for determine the solar radiation is first to calculated by means of theoretical model the solar radiation at the ground in cloud free condition in the next step the impact of the existing cloud on the solar radiation is determined using meteosat data to derive information on the extent, type and physical properties of the cloud. The result which produced is daily sum and monthly means of global radiation. Only satellite can provide date covering a whole area and show the horizontal difference that occurs over small distances. Detail data on the horizontal and temporal variation of global radiation are needed for the applications in solar energy utilization, agriculture, climatology and numerical weather forecasting. In addition to the above mentioned meteorological elements satellite can also detect and gives information to the forecasters to give their own forecast. There fore satellite is the main and most important meteorological instrument used to give now casting as well as any type of forecasting.

6 Summary for satellite uses for nowcasting. Meteorological satellite data are well suited to monitoring in a qualitative way the initiation and rapid development of precipitation generating systems both in space and time. Rapid imaging (on the order of minutes) is critical to now casting, but it is not yet provided by all geostationary satellites. With some satellite systems, the rapid scan of small areas competes with broader coverage requirements. Frequent images from geostationary satellites provide good to adequate horizontal resolution for identifying the initiation, evolution and movement of synoptic and mesoscale cloud systems or of local circulations over most of the tropics and temperate zones. Nowcasting can be applied to many phenomena including severe weather, but is most frequently used to forecast and monitor: convective storms with attendant phenomena (gust fronts, hail, intense precipitation, intense electrical activity, tornadoes); Wintertime severe weather (blizzards, snowstorms, ice, avalanches, etc.); mesoscale features associated with extra tropical and tropical storms; local flows or circulations (breeze, foehn, low level jets, convergence lines, dry lines, boundaries, intersection of boundaries, etc.); fog and low clouds; locally forced precipitation events; sand and dust storms; Wild fires. Key nowcasting parameters for which observational data are required are: clouds and precipitation; dust; surface variables: pressure, wind, temperature, humidity, present weather, visibility and precipitation accumulation, snow layer, land cover or structure; 3 D wind field; 3 D humidity field; 3 D temperature field. In the paper as I try to indicate meteorological satellites are the main instruments that receive and detect different weather parameters where surface observation is no available or remote areas as well as gives more timely information even where observation is good. using this information the meteorologists and meteorological forecasters given nowcasting weather forecast by applying different forecasting techniques. So meteorological satellites are important and that is why meteorologists said eye in the sky.

ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation

ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation Reading: Meteorology Today, Chapters 2 and 3 EARTH-SUN GEOMETRY The Earth has an elliptical orbit around the sun The average Earth-Sun

More information

EARTH S ATMOSPHERE AND ITS SEASONS

EARTH S ATMOSPHERE AND ITS SEASONS EARTH S ATMOSPHERE AND ITS SEASONS Provided by Tasa Graphic Arts, Inc. for Earthʼs Atmosphere and Its Seasons CD-ROM http://www.tasagraphicarts.com/progeas.html 1.The Importance of Weather (wx) The U.S.

More information

Overview of the IR channels and their applications

Overview of the IR channels and their applications Ján Kaňák Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute Jan.kanak@shmu.sk Overview of the IR channels and their applications EUMeTrain, 14 June 2011 Ján Kaňák, SHMÚ 1 Basics in satellite Infrared image interpretation

More information

SIXTH GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

SIXTH GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES SIXTH GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WATER CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SIXTH GRADE WATER WEEK 1. PRE: Evaluating components of the water cycle. LAB: Experimenting with porosity and permeability.

More information

Planetary Energy Balance

Planetary Energy Balance Planetary Energy Balance Electromagnetic Spectrum Different types of radiation enter the Earth s atmosphere and they re all a part of the electromagnetic spectrum. One end of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum

More information

3. Lines on a weather map that connect points of equal air pressure are A. isotherms B. isobars C. cold fronts D. warm fronts

3. Lines on a weather map that connect points of equal air pressure are A. isotherms B. isobars C. cold fronts D. warm fronts 1. The chart shows the relationship between altitude and air pressure. What is the approximate air pressure at an altitude of 22 kilometers? A. 40 millibars B. 120 millibars C. 200 millibars D. 400 millibars

More information

Geology 1347 Meteorology

Geology 1347 Meteorology Geology 1347 Meteorology Exam 1 Review 1. Carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere: a. mainly through the decay of vegetation b. volcanic eruptions c. exhalations of animal life d. burning of fossil fuels

More information

Assessment Schedule 2014 Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate understanding of processes in the atmosphere system (91414)

Assessment Schedule 2014 Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate understanding of processes in the atmosphere system (91414) NCEA Level 3 Earth and Space Science (91414) 2014 page 1 of 7 Assessment Schedule 2014 Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate understanding of processes in the atmosphere system (91414) Evidence Statement

More information

CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth

CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth This chapter is concerned with the nature of energy and how it interacts with Earth. At this stage we are looking at energy in an abstract form though relate it to how it affect

More information

Ocean and Weather. Name: Period: Date: Essential Question: How does the ocean affect climate and weather on land?

Ocean and Weather. Name: Period: Date: Essential Question: How does the ocean affect climate and weather on land? Ocean and Weather Name: Period: Date: Essential Question: How does the ocean affect climate and weather on land? On the left is the Illustration of major ocean currents throughout the globe. Ocean currents

More information

Meteorology Study Guide

Meteorology Study Guide Name: Class: Date: Meteorology Study Guide Modified True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence or statement

More information

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Electromagnetic Spectrum Electromagnetic Spectrum Why do some things have colors? What makes color? Why do fast food restaurants use red lights to keep food warm? Why don t they use green or blue light? Why do X-rays pass through

More information

Dr. Muhammad Asif Hanif, Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Dr. Muhammad Asif Hanif, Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan Incoming solar energy is largely in the visible region of the spectrum. The shorter wavelength blue solar light is scattered relatively more strongly by molecules and particles in the upper atmosphere,

More information

Ch. 7 - Geographical Ecology, Climate & Biomes

Ch. 7 - Geographical Ecology, Climate & Biomes Ch. 7 - Geographical Ecology, Climate & Biomes Weather - the short term properties of the troposphere at a given place and time. Climate - the average long-term weather of an area. averaged over a long

More information

6 th Grade Science Assessment: Weather & Water Select the best answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this test.

6 th Grade Science Assessment: Weather & Water Select the best answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this test. Select the be answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this te. 1. Weather is be defined as the A. changes that occur in cloud formations from day to day. B. amount of rain or snow that

More information

a) species of plants that require a relatively cool, moist environment tend to grow on poleward-facing slopes.

a) species of plants that require a relatively cool, moist environment tend to grow on poleward-facing slopes. J.D. McAlpine ATMS 611 HMWK #8 a) species of plants that require a relatively cool, moist environment tend to grow on poleward-facing slopes. These sides of the slopes will tend to have less average solar

More information

Section 3 What Is Climate?

Section 3 What Is Climate? Section 3 What Is Climate? Key Concept Earth s climate zones are caused by the distribution of heat around Earth s surface by wind and ocean currents. What You Will Learn Climate is the average weather

More information

Unit 2: Weather. ways to keep track of common trends in weather patterns. some have scientific facts, while others are more about coincidence

Unit 2: Weather. ways to keep track of common trends in weather patterns. some have scientific facts, while others are more about coincidence Unit 2: Weather Weather Lore: ways to keep track of common trends in weather patterns some have scientific facts, while others are more about coincidence weather lore may vary from place to place as different

More information

FOR SUBSCRIBERS ONLY! - TRIAL PASSWORD USERS MAY NOT REPRODUCE AND DISTRIBUTE PRINTABLE MATERIALS OFF THE SOLPASS WEBSITE!

FOR SUBSCRIBERS ONLY! - TRIAL PASSWORD USERS MAY NOT REPRODUCE AND DISTRIBUTE PRINTABLE MATERIALS OFF THE SOLPASS WEBSITE! FOR SUBSCRIBERS ONLY! - TRIAL PASSWORD USERS MAY NOT REPRODUCE AND DISTRIBUTE PRINTABLE MATERIALS OFF THE SOLPASS WEBSITE! 1 NAME DATE GRADE 5 SCIENCE SOL REVIEW WEATHER LABEL the 3 stages of the water

More information

Heating the Atmosphere. Dr. Michael J Passow

Heating the Atmosphere. Dr. Michael J Passow Heating the Atmosphere Dr. Michael J Passow Heat vs. Temperature Heat refers to energy transferred from one object to another Temperature measures the average kinetic energy in a substance. When heat energy

More information

Name: Date: Core: 20 percent is absorbed by gases and particles in the atmosphere.

Name: Date: Core: 20 percent is absorbed by gases and particles in the atmosphere. Name: Date: Core: About 25 percent of incoming sunlight is reflected by clouds, dust, and gases in the air. About 50 percent is absorbed by Earth s surface. This energy heats the land and water. 20 percent

More information

Chapter 8 Circulation of the Atmosphere

Chapter 8 Circulation of the Atmosphere Chapter 8 Circulation of the Atmosphere The Atmosphere Is Composed Mainly of Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Water Vapor What are some properties of the atmosphere? Solar Radiation - initial source of energy to

More information

The Earth s Atmosphere

The Earth s Atmosphere THE SUN-EARTH SYSTEM III The Earth s Atmosphere Composition and Distribution of the Atmosphere The composition of the atmosphere and the way its gases interact with electromagnetic radiation determine

More information

Earth s Atmosphere. Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere. 3. All the energy from the Sun reaches Earth s surface.

Earth s Atmosphere. Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere. 3. All the energy from the Sun reaches Earth s surface. CHAPTER 12 LESSON 2 Earth s Atmosphere Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Key Concepts How does energy transfer from the Sun to Earth and to the atmosphere? How are air circulation patterns within the atmosphere

More information

Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog. Water in the Atmosphere

Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog. Water in the Atmosphere Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog or Water in the Atmosphere The Hydrologic Cycle Where the Water Exists on Earth Evaporation From the Oceans and Land The Source of Water Vapor for the Atmosphere

More information

ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast

ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast DARGAN M. W. FRIERSON DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DAY 1: OCTOBER 1, 2015 Outline How exactly the Sun heats the Earth How strong? Important concept

More information

Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather

Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather Radiation Convection Currents Winds Jet Streams Energy from the Sun reaches Earth as electromagnetic waves This energy fuels all life on Earth including the

More information

Benchmark Study Guide S6E4 Weather Review. Name Date

Benchmark Study Guide S6E4 Weather Review. Name Date Benchmark Study Guide S6E4 Weather Review Name Date S6E4 Students will understand how the distribution of land and oceans affects climate and weather. a. Demonstrate that land and water absorb and lose

More information

Summary Booklet Topic 8 Weather Patterns

Summary Booklet Topic 8 Weather Patterns Kingdom Schools Science Department Grade 5- Term 2 Name: Date: Section: Summary Booklet Topic 8 Weather Patterns Lesson 1 :How does Air move? Skill 8-1: Understand that air pressure is related to altitude,

More information

Introduction to Wildland Fire Management. REM 244: Introduction to Wildland Fire Management

Introduction to Wildland Fire Management. REM 244: Introduction to Wildland Fire Management Introduction to Wildland Fire Management Fireline Safety 101: Keep informed on fire weather conditions and forecasts REM 244: Introduction to Wildland Fire Management 3. Introduction to Fire Weather Surface

More information

Read and study the following information. After reading complete the review questions. Clouds

Read and study the following information. After reading complete the review questions. Clouds Name: Pd: Read and study the following information. After reading complete the review questions. Clouds What are clouds? A cloud is a large collection of very tiny droplets of water or ice crystals. The

More information

4 Forecasting the Weather

4 Forecasting the Weather CHAPTER 21 4 Forecasting the Weather SECTION Weather KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: How do weather stations communicate weather data? How do meteorologists create weather

More information

Clouds and the Energy Cycle

Clouds and the Energy Cycle August 1999 NF-207 The Earth Science Enterprise Series These articles discuss Earth's many dynamic processes and their interactions Clouds and the Energy Cycle he study of clouds, where they occur, and

More information

FOURTH GRADE WEATHER

FOURTH GRADE WEATHER FOURTH GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WATER CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FOURTH GRADE WATER WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing different reservoirs of water. LAB: Experimenting with surface tension and capillary

More information

Temperature affects water in the air.

Temperature affects water in the air. KEY CONCEPT Most clouds form as air rises and cools. BEFORE, you learned Water vapor circulates from Earth to the atmosphere Warm air is less dense than cool air and tends to rise NOW, you will learn How

More information

Greenhouse Effect and the Global Energy Balance

Greenhouse Effect and the Global Energy Balance Greenhouse Effect and the Global Energy Balance Energy transmission ( a a refresher) There are three modes of energy transmission to consider. Conduction: the transfer of energy in a substance by means

More information

Elements of the Weather

Elements of the Weather Elements of the Weather The weather is made up of different elements, which are measured either by special instruments or are observed by a meteorologist. These measurements are then recorded and used

More information

Partnerships Implementing Engineering Education Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester Public Schools

Partnerships Implementing Engineering Education Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester Public Schools Partnerships Implementing Engineering Education Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester Public Schools Supported by: National Science Foundation Weather: 4.H.3 Weather and Classical Instruments Grade

More information

Rainfall And Relative Humidity Occurrence Patterns In Uyo Metropolis, Akwa Ibom State, South- South Nigeria.

Rainfall And Relative Humidity Occurrence Patterns In Uyo Metropolis, Akwa Ibom State, South- South Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Engineering (IOSRJEN) e-issn: 2250-3021, p-issn: 2278-8719 Vol. 3, Issue 8 (August. 2013), V4 PP 27-31 Rainfall And Relative Humidity Occurrence Patterns In Uyo Metropolis, Akwa Ibom State,

More information

CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction. Overview. Seasons

CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction. Overview. Seasons CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction Fig. 6.11 Overview Atmosphere and ocean one interdependent system Solar energy creates winds Winds drive surface ocean currents and waves Examples of interactions: El Niño-Southern

More information

Empirical study of the temporal variation of a tropical surface temperature on hourly time integration

Empirical study of the temporal variation of a tropical surface temperature on hourly time integration Global Advanced Research Journal of Physical and Applied Sciences Vol. 4 (1) pp. 051-056, September, 2015 Available online http://www.garj.org/garjpas/index.htm Copyright 2015 Global Advanced Research

More information

Satellite Imagery Interpretation

Satellite Imagery Interpretation Satellite Types 1. Polar Orbiter (POES) 2. Geosynchronous Orbiters Geostationary Operational Env. Satellite (GOES) GMS EUMETSAT Image Types Garp 1. Visible: radiation reflected by objects 4km/0.65 2. Infrared:

More information

Solar Flux and Flux Density. Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle. Solar Energy Incident On the Earth. Solar Flux Density Reaching Earth

Solar Flux and Flux Density. Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle. Solar Energy Incident On the Earth. Solar Flux Density Reaching Earth Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle Solar Flux and Flux Density Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Vertical energy balance Latitudinal energy balance Seasonal and diurnal cycles Solar Luminosity (L)

More information

The role of Earth Observation Satellites to observe rainfall. Riko Oki National Space Development Agency of Japan

The role of Earth Observation Satellites to observe rainfall. Riko Oki National Space Development Agency of Japan The role of Earth Observation Satellites to observe rainfall Riko Oki National Space Development Agency of Japan Outline 1. Importance of rain measurement 2. TRMM and Its Achievements 3. Outline of GPM

More information

Chapter 04: Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balance. Energy Essentials Energy Balance in the Troposphere Energy Balance at Earth s Surface

Chapter 04: Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balance. Energy Essentials Energy Balance in the Troposphere Energy Balance at Earth s Surface Chapter 04: Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balance Energy Essentials Energy Balance in the Troposphere Energy Balance at Earth s Surface Energy Essentials Energy Pathways and Principles Energy Pathways

More information

Cloud Notes for SIO 218

Cloud Notes for SIO 218 Cloud Notes for SIO 218 October 11 and 16, 2001 Satellite Observations Satellites observe cloudiness by measuring electromagnetic radiation at a variety of wavelengths (e.g., visible, infrared, microwave).

More information

ENERGY BALANCE AND GREENHOUSE EFFECT. D. Stahle, Global Change (ENDY/GEOG 5113)

ENERGY BALANCE AND GREENHOUSE EFFECT. D. Stahle, Global Change (ENDY/GEOG 5113) ENERGY BALANCE AND GREENHOUSE EFFECT D. Stahle, Global Change (ENDY/GEOG 5113) Gedzelman, S.D., 1980. The Science and Wonders of the Atmosphere. Wiley, NY. Huschke, R.E., 1989. Glossary of Meteorology.

More information

Chapter 2: Solar Radiation and Seasons

Chapter 2: Solar Radiation and Seasons Chapter 2: Solar Radiation and Seasons Spectrum of Radiation Intensity and Peak Wavelength of Radiation Solar (shortwave) Radiation Terrestrial (longwave) Radiations How to Change Air Temperature? Add

More information

Weather, Climate and Ecosystems

Weather, Climate and Ecosystems Weather, Climate and Ecosystems Dennis Baldocchi University of California, Berkeley 2/1/2013 Weather, Climate and Ecosystems: Outline Concepts Atmospheric Meteors and Composition Greenhouse-Effect Principles

More information

Earth's Atmosphere. The atmosphere is a thin layer of air that protects the Earth s surface from extreme temperatures and harmful sun rays

Earth's Atmosphere. The atmosphere is a thin layer of air that protects the Earth s surface from extreme temperatures and harmful sun rays The Atmosphere Earth's Atmosphere The atmosphere is a thin layer of air that protects the Earth s surface from extreme temperatures and harmful sun rays Thin Gaseous envelope What is Weather? State of

More information

TEST NAME: Matter TEST ID: GRADE:05 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: My Classroom

TEST NAME: Matter TEST ID: GRADE:05 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: My Classroom TEST NAME: Matter TEST ID: 49717 GRADE:05 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: My Classroom Matter Page 1 of 30 Student: Class: Date: 1. What is the MAJOR role of the Sun in the water cycle?

More information

Seasonal & Daily Temperatures. Seasons & Sun's Distance. Solstice & Equinox. Seasons & Solar Intensity

Seasonal & Daily Temperatures. Seasons & Sun's Distance. Solstice & Equinox. Seasons & Solar Intensity Seasonal & Daily Temperatures Seasons & Sun's Distance The role of Earth's tilt, revolution, & rotation in causing spatial, seasonal, & daily temperature variations Please read Chapter 3 in Ahrens Figure

More information

not to be republished NCERT Do you feel air around you? Do you SOLAR RADIATION, HEAT BALANCE AND TEMPERATURE SOLAR RADIATION

not to be republished NCERT Do you feel air around you? Do you SOLAR RADIATION, HEAT BALANCE AND TEMPERATURE SOLAR RADIATION SOLAR RADIATION, HEAT BALANCE AND TEMPERATURE Do you feel air around you? Do you know that we live at the bottom of a huge pile of air? We inhale and exhale but we feel the air when it is in motion. It

More information

DO NOT WRITE ON THIS PAPER WEATHER NOTES WARM/COLD FRONTS

DO NOT WRITE ON THIS PAPER WEATHER NOTES WARM/COLD FRONTS WEATHER NOTES WARM/COLD FRONTS What is a Front? Definition: A narrow transition zone, or boundary, between disparate synoptic scale air masses whose primary discontinuity is density. It is synoptic scale

More information

Weather: Air Patterns

Weather: Air Patterns Weather: Air Patterns Weather: Air Patterns Weather results from global patterns in the atmosphere interacting with local conditions. You have probably experienced seasonal shifts, such as winter in New

More information

Weather. Weather is the set of environmental conditions encountered from day to day in a particular location.

Weather. Weather is the set of environmental conditions encountered from day to day in a particular location. WEATHER 1 Weather Weather is the set of environmental conditions encountered from day to day in a particular location. Climate is the set of environmental conditions averaged over many years for a geographic

More information

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Covered with Water 6 th Grade Subject Area: Science Grade: 6

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Covered with Water 6 th Grade Subject Area: Science Grade: 6 One Stop Shop For Educators The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved

More information

Weather and climate. reflect. what do you think? look out!

Weather and climate. reflect. what do you think? look out! reflect You re going on vacation in a week and you have to start thinking about what clothes you re going to pack for your trip. You ve read the weather reports for your vacation spot, but you know that

More information

Lecture 2: Radiation/Heat in the atmosphere

Lecture 2: Radiation/Heat in the atmosphere Lecture 2: Radiation/Heat in the atmosphere TEMPERATURE is a measure of the internal heat energy of a substance. The molecules that make up all matter are in constant motion. By internal heat energy, we

More information

WEATHER AND CLIMATE, MICRO-CLIMATE. i) A state or condition of the atmosphere at a given place and at a given instant of time.

WEATHER AND CLIMATE, MICRO-CLIMATE. i) A state or condition of the atmosphere at a given place and at a given instant of time. WEATHER AND CLIMATE, MICRO-CLIMATE Weather i) A state or condition of the atmosphere at a given place and at a given instant of time. ii) The daily or short term variations of different conditions of lower

More information

8. Mercury, the planet nearest to the Sun, has extreme surface temperatures, ranging from 465 C in sunlight to 180 C in darkness.

8. Mercury, the planet nearest to the Sun, has extreme surface temperatures, ranging from 465 C in sunlight to 180 C in darkness. 6.E.1 Unit Test DO NOT WRITE ON THIS QUIZ!!! 1. The largest body in our solar system is Earth. the Sun. Jupiter. the Moon. 4. What do the four planets closest to the Sun have in common? Their solid, rocky

More information

Greenhouse Effect Mechanism and Radiative Forcing

Greenhouse Effect Mechanism and Radiative Forcing Greenhouse Effect Mechanism and Radiative Forcing How does radiative energy balance help determine Earth s climate? How does the greenhouse effect work? What is radiative forcing? References AR4 Ch. 2

More information

Weather and Climate. What is weather? What are some characteristics of weather? When we talk about weather, we mean the daily conditions in the

Weather and Climate. What is weather? What are some characteristics of weather? When we talk about weather, we mean the daily conditions in the Weather and Climate You re going on vacation in a week and you have to start thinking about what clothes you re going to pack for your trip. You ve read the weather reports for your vacation spot, but

More information

Fundamentals of Climate Change (PCC 587): Water Vapor

Fundamentals of Climate Change (PCC 587): Water Vapor Fundamentals of Climate Change (PCC 587): Water Vapor DARGAN M. W. FRIERSON UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DAY 2: 9/30/13 Water Water is a remarkable molecule Water vapor

More information

Chapter Overview. Seasons. Earth s Seasons. Distribution of Solar Energy. Solar Energy on Earth. CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction

Chapter Overview. Seasons. Earth s Seasons. Distribution of Solar Energy. Solar Energy on Earth. CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction Chapter Overview CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction The atmosphere and the ocean are one independent system. Earth has seasons because of the tilt on its axis. There are three major wind belts in each hemisphere.

More information

California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping

California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping California Standards Grades 912 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping Earth Sciences Earth s Place in the Universe 1. Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system s structure,

More information

Chapter 9: Air Masses and Fronts. Air Masses. Source Regions. Air masses Contain uniform temperature and humidity characteristics.

Chapter 9: Air Masses and Fronts. Air Masses. Source Regions. Air masses Contain uniform temperature and humidity characteristics. Chapter 9: Air Masses and Fronts Air masses Contain uniform temperature and humidity characteristics. What Characterize Air Masses? What Define Fronts? Fronts Boundaries between unlike air masses. Air

More information

Leslie cube : Measure temperature of warm pop cans at different spots. Explore: Rainbow glasses & the electromagnetic spectrum

Leslie cube : Measure temperature of warm pop cans at different spots. Explore: Rainbow glasses & the electromagnetic spectrum Day 1, AM: Radiation (Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect) Key Points Radiation is an important means of energy transfer. Understanding radiation means understanding some properties of electromagnetic waves

More information

Weather: is the short term, day-to-day condition of the atmosphere

Weather: is the short term, day-to-day condition of the atmosphere Weather Weather: is the short term, day-to-day condition of the atmosphere Meteorology the scientific study of the atmosphere They focus on physical characteristics and motion and how it relates to chemical,

More information

PREDICTING THE WEATHER

PREDICTING THE WEATHER NAME DATE PARTNER(S) PREDICTING THE WEATHER How well does your local weatherman do in predicting the weather? Is he or she more accurate for the next day or for a week in the future? Why do you think that

More information

Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere

Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Essential Questions How does energy transfer from the sun to Earth and the atmosphere? How are air circulation patterns with the atmosphere created? Vocabulary Radiation:

More information

Mars Weather, Agriculture and Greenhouses

Mars Weather, Agriculture and Greenhouses Mars Weather, Agriculture and Greenhouses Before humans can exist on the surface of Mars, there is much to be learned about the weather, soil, and the potential use of greenhouses on Mars. Martian weather

More information

You can read more about the Hadley Cells by visiting the NASA website link below.

You can read more about the Hadley Cells by visiting the NASA website link below. Environmental Literacy Framework Activity 5B-Full of Hot Air Preview Focus Question: How is climate affected by air and ocean currents? The distribution of heat around the globe is not even. Due to the

More information

Weather Vocabulary. Weather- The condition of the atmosphere at a certain time and place.

Weather Vocabulary. Weather- The condition of the atmosphere at a certain time and place. Weather Vocabulary Weather- The condition of the atmosphere at a certain time and place. Meteorologist-A scientist who studies weather Weather maps- a map or chart showing the meteorological conditions,

More information

8.5 Comparing Canadian Climates (Lab)

8.5 Comparing Canadian Climates (Lab) These 3 climate graphs and tables of data show average temperatures and precipitation for each month in Victoria, Winnipeg and Whitehorse: Figure 1.1 Month J F M A M J J A S O N D Year Precipitation 139

More information

Earth s Energy Balance & the Greenhouse Effect

Earth s Energy Balance & the Greenhouse Effect Earth s Energy Balance & the Greenhouse Effect Outline: The Earth s Energy Balance: Electromagnetic Spectrum: Ultraviolet (UV) Visible Infrared (IR) Blackbody Radiation Albedo (reflectivity) Greenhouse

More information

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

The Electromagnetic Spectrum The Electromagnetic Spectrum 1 Look around you. What do you see? You might say "people, desks, and papers." What you really see is light bouncing off people, desks, and papers. You can only see objects

More information

World Geography 3202 Practice Multiple Choice Unit 2 World Climate Patterns. Outcomes:

World Geography 3202 Practice Multiple Choice Unit 2 World Climate Patterns. Outcomes: Outcomes: SCO 2.1: The student will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of how the earth s movement in space causes the occurrence of and the conditions related to day and night and the seasons,

More information

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY Atmosphere SECTION 11.1 Atmospheric Basics In your textbook, read about the composition of the atmosphere. Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement. 1. Most of Earth s atmosphere

More information

Supported by. A seven part series exploring the fantastic world of science.

Supported by. A seven part series exploring the fantastic world of science. Supported by A seven part series exploring the fantastic world of science. Find out about different climates in different parts of the World. The only animal capable of surviving the harsh conditions in

More information

WEATHER AND CLIMATE practice test

WEATHER AND CLIMATE practice test WEATHER AND CLIMATE practice test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What role does runoff play in the water cycle? a. It is the process in

More information

Weather Radar Basics

Weather Radar Basics Weather Radar Basics RADAR: Radio Detection And Ranging Developed during World War II as a method to detect the presence of ships and aircraft (the military considered weather targets as noise) Since WW

More information

CHAPTER 6: WEATHER FOR SOARING

CHAPTER 6: WEATHER FOR SOARING CHAPTER 6: WEATHER FOR SOARING Weather patterns on Earth are complicated and chaotic. Weather is a result of the atmosphere s constant attempt to reach equilibrium. This equilibrium is continually upset

More information

How Can You Predict When Severe Weather Will Occur?

How Can You Predict When Severe Weather Will Occur? 4.7 Explain How Can You Predict When Severe Weather Will Occur? In this Learning Set, you have been exploring how winds and oceans affect weather and climate. You then used what you know to explain how

More information

Learning Outcomes. The Japanese Geostationary Satellites Himawari 8/9

Learning Outcomes. The Japanese Geostationary Satellites Himawari 8/9 Australian VLab Centre of Excellence National Himawari-8 Training Campaign The Night Microphysics product Should you use these resources please acknowledge the Australian VLab Centre of Excellence. In

More information

Energy Pathways in Earth s Atmosphere

Energy Pathways in Earth s Atmosphere BRSP - 10 Page 1 Solar radiation reaching Earth s atmosphere includes a wide spectrum of wavelengths. In addition to visible light there is radiation of higher energy and shorter wavelength called ultraviolet

More information

Grade 5 Science Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 5: Water on Earth Lesson 1: How Can the Oceans Be Described?

Grade 5 Science Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 5: Water on Earth Lesson 1: How Can the Oceans Be Described? Grade 5 Science Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 5: Water on Earth Lesson 1: How Can the Oceans Be Described? Hydrosphere The water on or surrounding the surface of the globe, including the water of the oceans

More information

Chapter 6. Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation

Chapter 6. Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation Chapter 6 Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation The Hydrosphere Hydrosphere water in the earth-atmosphere atmosphere system Oceans and Salt Lakes 97.6% Ice Caps and Glaciers 1.9% (Not available for humans)

More information

Studying Weather As It Happens

Studying Weather As It Happens Studying Weather As It Happens SOURCES OF WEATHER INFORMATION Everyone has considerable experience with (and understanding of) weather. After all, each of us has been living with weather all our lives.

More information

Weather Unit Test. Page 1. 2 The cartoon below shows a strong wind blowing from right to left.

Weather Unit Test. Page 1. 2 The cartoon below shows a strong wind blowing from right to left. Name Weather Unit Test Page 1 1 The diagram below shows the flow of air over a mountain from point A to point C. Which graph best shows the approximate temperature change of the rising and descending air

More information

Thermal properties of soils Soil temperature Soil air Gaseous exchange

Thermal properties of soils Soil temperature Soil air Gaseous exchange Thermal properties of soils Soil temperature Soil air Gaseous exchange Influence of soil temperature and air on plant growth Thermal properties of soils The thermal properties of soils are a component

More information

Earth Science Lecture Summary Notes Chapter 7 - Water and Atmospheric Moisture

Earth Science Lecture Summary Notes Chapter 7 - Water and Atmospheric Moisture Earth Science Lecture Summary Notes Chapter 7 - Water and Atmospheric Moisture (based on Christopherson, Geosystems, 6th Ed., 2006) Prof. V.J. DiVenere - Dept. Earth & Environmental Science - LIU Post

More information

Electromagnetic Radiation Spectrum

Electromagnetic Radiation Spectrum Electromagnetic Radiation scillating electric and magnetic fields propagate through space Virtually all energy exchange between the Earth and the rest of the Universe is by electromagnetic radiation Most

More information

The Importance of Understanding Clouds

The Importance of Understanding Clouds NASA Facts National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov The Importance of Understanding Clouds One of the most interesting features of Earth, as seen from space, is the ever-changing distribution

More information

Lornshill Academy. Geography Department. National Revision. Physical Environments Weather

Lornshill Academy. Geography Department. National Revision. Physical Environments Weather Lornshill Academy Geography Department National Revision Physical Environments Weather Weather Revision Sheets What you need to know: 1. Factors that affect the weather: a) latitude; b) altitude; c) distance

More information

The Greenhouse Effect

The Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse Effect THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT To understand the greenhouse effect you first need to know a bit about solar radiation what it is, where it comes from and what happens when it reaches Earth.

More information

ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE. The vertical distribution of temperature, pressure,

ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE. The vertical distribution of temperature, pressure, ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE. The vertical distribution of temperature, pressure, density, and composition of the atmosphere constitutes atmospheric structure. These quantities also vary with season and location

More information

6 th Grade Science Mini Assessment #4

6 th Grade Science Mini Assessment #4 Multiple Choice Directions: Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Why does precipitation occur more often near the equator than near the poles? A. Colder air

More information

Hazard Manager User guide. Making use of the weather layers

Hazard Manager User guide. Making use of the weather layers Hazard Manager User guide Making use of the weather layers How will this guide help me? This guide will help you understand the information that is available within Hazard Manager and how to make use of

More information

Chapter 8, Astronomy

Chapter 8, Astronomy Chapter 8, Astronomy Model some of the ways in which scientists observe the planets. Relate evidence that Earth rotates and define revolution. Scientists use many tools to observe and study the universe.

More information