# 1. Recap: What can we do with Euler systems?

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1 Euler Systems and L-functions These are notes for a talk I gave at the Warwick Number Theory study group on Euler Systems, June The results stated make more sense when taken in step with the rest of the study group. These notes are largely taken from [Rub00], and from discussions with my supervisor, David Loeffler. Introduction In this talk, the ninth of ten, we draw together results of the previous eight talks to give one of the major applications of the machinery Euler systems - namely, we use Kato s Euler system to give a sketch of Kolyvagin s proof of the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture in analytic rank 0. We start by recapping previous results and give a brief description of the general Euler system machine. In Aurel s talk, we constructed an Euler system attached to an elliptic curve (and more generally, a modular form of weight at least 2). As it stands, this is an Euler system for the wrong Galois representation; namely, we obtain an Euler system for T (1), a twist of the Tate module by the cyclotomic character. For the arithmetic applications, we have in mind, we need an Euler system for T, not T (q) - hence we must twist back in the other direction. Following [Rub00], Chapter VI, we describe this twist to move to an Euler system for T itself. In Céline s talk, we showed that - for suitable non-vanishing conditions on the base term of an Euler system - we get bounds on Selmer groups. Using the Euler system above, we will quote Céline and profit, showing that - using some p-adic Hodge theory - this base term can be connected to the L-value of the Elliptic curve at s = 1. Accordingly, when this L-value does not vanish, we can prove that a suitable Selmer group is finite - and thus show that the group of rational points on the elliptic curve is also finite, giving the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture in analytic rank 0. Notation: Throughout, p will be a prime and E will be an elliptic curve over Q, with Tate module T.= T p E. By an Euler system for T we implicitly mean an Euler system for some finite set of primes Σ containing p, and all primes at which T ramifies, that is, a collection of cohomology classes c = {c n H 1 (Q(µ n ), T ) : n N Σ }, where N Σ = {np k : n square-free product of primes l / Σ, k N.} 1. Recap: What can we do with Euler systems? We start with a quick recap of the things we can actually do with Euler systems. In short, Euler systems are used to bound Selmer groups. We did this during the first half of the study group, when Pedro, Alex and Florian combined to prove that Sel(K, E[p]) has order p using Heegner points. We ve also seen the following in Céline s talk: Theorem 1.1. Suppose c is an Euler system for T. We can associate to c a Kolyvagin system ξ for T. If ξ 1 0, then is finite. Sel F (Q, T ).= H 1 F (Q, T ) 1

2 For the purposes of this talk, we require a slightly different variant of this theorem, though I will say nothing about the proof. Here is a variant for elliptic curves that we will use in the sequel: Theorem 1.2. Let E/Q be an elliptic curve, with Tate module T. Suppose c is an Euler system for T. If loc s p(c 1 ) 0 H 1 (Q p, T )/H 1 f (Q p, T ), then the usual Selmer group is finite. Sel p (E/Q) = Sel(Q, E[p ]) (Here H 1 f (Q p, T ) will be defined in the sequel using p-adic Hodge Theory). Proof. (Sketch). This follows from [Rub00], Theorem II In particular, in this case, K = Q. Note that T satisfies the hypotheses of Angelos s talk. There is one more condition to be satisfied; but as, by p-adic Hodge theory, H 1 s (Q p, T ) is a one-dimensional Z p -module and loc s p(c 1 ) 0, we see that the required quotient is finite. Furthermore, in Rubin, what he calls W is in fact V/T = V p E/T p E = E[p ] (see [Rub00], section I.6.4). There is one final thing to address: the theorem as stated in Rubin bounds the Selmer group of the dual W. However, if Sel(Q, E[p ] ) is finite, then so is Sel(Q, E[p ]), as (via the Weil pairing) the two are isomorphic. Remark: Whilst the general Euler system machinery in general works with arbitrary local conditions at p, this is a case where particular local conditions at p are essential for the arithmetic applications in mind. Without the input from p-adic Hodge theory, namely the precise local conditions at p, the Selmer group bounded by the Euler system would not be the usual Selmer group of the elliptic curve. Proposition 1.3. There is an exact sequence 0 E(Q) Z (Q p /Z p ) Sel(Q, E[p ]) X(E/Q) p 0, where X(A/K) p is the p-part of the Tate-Shafarevich group of E. Proof. See [Rub00], Proposition I.6.7. This leads to: Corollary 1.4. Let E/Q be an elliptic curve. If the conditions of Theorem 1.2 hold, then E(Q) and X(E/Q) p are finite. So: if there exists an Euler system for T with suitable conditions on c 1, then the rank of E is 0. For the remainder of the talk, we investigate precisely what these suitable conditions can be rephrased as, and in the process show that this machinery proves the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture for analytic rank zero. 2. Twisting Euler Systems Last week, Aurel constructed an Euler system for T (1), that is, the twist of the Tate module T by the cyclotomic character. For the theorems above, we need an Euler system for the untwisted Tate module. 2

3 Motivation: One may ask why the Euler system we can most naturally construct exists not for the module we require, but for its twist by the cyclotomic character. One conceptual reason for this comes in the shape of the Bloch-Kato conjecture, that (colloquially) says that nice cohomology classes exist when suitable L-functions vanish. An Euler system requires rather a lot of nice cohomology classes, so for one to exist, one might expect it to correspond to a systematic vanishing of L-values. Now, for any rational elliptic curve (and, more generally, any modular form), we have L(E, 0) = 0 (resp. L(f, 0) = 0). Accordingly, there is a systematic vanishing of L-values at s = 0; so it s not unreasonable to think that the Euler system we ve constructed corresponds to the L-value at 0. However, if we believe the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture, then ranks of elliptic curves should be controlled by L-values at s = 1; so in the theorem above relating the rank of an elliptic curve to an Euler system, we d want our Euler system to correspond to an L-value at s = 1. Hence the necessity of twisting by the cyclotomic character, which makes this shift for us. For a completely general description of twisting by characters, see [Rub00], Chapter VI. We focus mainly on the (conceptually simpler) case of the cyclotomic character. First, as a slight bit of background, we give a short description of twisting by characters of finite order Twisting by characters of finite order Suppose c is an Euler system for T, and χ : G Q Z p is a character of finite order (hence corresponding to a Dirichlet character). Write Z χ p for the free rank 1 Z p -module on which G Q acts by χ, and let L.= Q ker(χ) be the field cut out by χ. Then note that for any finite extension F/Q, we have G F L ker(χ), so that G F L acts trivially on Z χ p and hence there is an isomorphism where we write T χ for the G Q -module T Zp Z χ p. H 1 (F L, T ) Z χ p = H 1 (F L, T χ), (1) Definition 2.1. Fix a generator z χ of Z χ p as a Z p -module. Define the twist of c by χ to be the collection of cohomology classes c χ.= {c χ n H 1 (Q(µ n ), T χ) : n N Σ }, where c χ n is defined to be the image of c n under the composition H 1 Res (Q(µ n ), T ) H 1 z χ (LQ(µ n ),T ) H 1 (LQ(µ n ), T ) Z χ p H 1 (LQ(µ n ), T χ) H 1 (Q(µ n ), T χ), where the last map is corestriction from LQ(µ n ) to Q(µ n ). One checks that this is indeed an Euler system Twisting by the cyclotomic character Now let χ p be the p-adic cyclotomic character. The main stumbling block in generalising the results above to the cyclotomic character is that the field L fixed by the kernel of χ p is Q = n N Q(µ pn), so that we don t get a well-defined corestriction map from 3

4 LQ(µ n ) to Q(µ n ). We must look for a more useful version of equation (1) for this setting. To do this, we ll use all of the p-direction of the Euler system at once. Note that [Z/p n Z](1) is a trivial G Q(µp k )-module. Indeed, recall the definition of χ p : if σ G Q(µp k ), then σ(ζ p k) = ζ χp(σ) for a primitive p k th root of unity. But this forces p k χ p (σ) = 1 for all such σ. Thus we have an isomorphism T/p k T = T/p k T Z/p n Z [Z/p k Z](1) = [T/p k T ](1), which, for any finite extension F/Q, induces an isomorphism of cohomology We require the following definition: H 1 (F Q(µ p k), T/p k T ) = H 1 (F Q(µ p k), [T/p k T ](1)). (2) Definition 2.2. For a finite extension F/Q, define the Iwasawa cohomology group to be H 1 (F, T ).= lim k H 1 (F Q(µ p k), T ), where the inverse limit is over corestriction. For an Euler system c, we define c n, = {c np k} k 0 H 1 (Q(µ n ), T ) to be the natural image of the elements of the Euler system in the p-direction under this inverse limit. Remark: This is sometimes also referred to as H 1 Iw (F, T ). Proposition 2.3. There is a natural isomorphism Proof. See [Rub00], Lemma B.3.1. lim k H 1 (F Q(µ p k), T/p k T ) = H 1 (F, T ). Now, from equation (2), and via this proposition, we see that after taking inverse limits and setting F = Q(µ n ), there is an isomorphism H 1 (Q(µ n ), T ) H 1 (Q(µ n ), T (1)). Now define Z χp p to be the free rank-one Z p module on which G Q acts by χ p. Fix a generator z χp of Z χp p as a Z p -module. Definition 2.4. For an Euler system c for T, define the twist of c by χ p to be the set of cohomology classes c χp.= {c χp n H 1 (Q(µ n ), T (1)) : n N Σ }, where c χp n is defined to be the image of c n, under the composition H 1 (Q(µ n ), T ) z χp H 1 (Q(µ n ), T ) Z χp p where the last map is the natural projection. H 1 (Q(µ n ), T (1)) H 1 (Q(µ n ), T (1)), 4

5 Remark: Note that at each stage, we are using all of a p-direction the Euler system to define a single element of the twisted Euler system. In particular, this construction would completely fail if we were to attempt to apply it to a Kolyvagin system, giving something of a justification of David s comment two weeks ago that Kolyvagin systems know nothing about twists. Theorem 2.5. If c corresponds to an Euler system for T with respect to a finite set of primes Σ, then c χp is an Euler system for T (1) with respect to Σ {p : p f}, where f is the conductor of χ. Proof. See [Rub00], Theorem VI.3.5. Remark: Of course, all of this goes through essentially identically with the cyclotomic character replaced by its inverse, which will be the case we actually require. For notational convenience we omitted all of the inverses above! 3. Connecting to L-values Let E/Q be an elliptic curve with Tate module T and let c be an Euler system for T. We ve stated a theorem above that shows that if the localisation at p in H 1 s(q p, T ) of c 1 is non-zero, then the rank of E/Q is 0. With the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture in mind, this suggests trying to link this localisation of c 1 with the L-value at 1. To do so, we use p-adic Hodge theory, that is, the study of p-adic representations over p-adic fields. For a more detailed introduction (and for more detailed references) to p-adic Hodge theory, see my talk from the Galois cohomology study group in Lent To define Selmer groups, we must choose a local Selmer structure at each place of Q. Outside of p, this is fairly straightforward; almost everywhere, we use the unramified Selmer structure, and we get nice duality properties (Tate duality). At p, it is significantly more difficult. A sketch construction was previously enough to fill an entire talk in itself, so I will not have time to discuss the details here. Facts: There is a way of defining H 1 f (Q p, V ) in such a way that H 1 f (Q p, V ) and H 1 f (Q p, V (1)) are exact orthogonal complements under the pairing of Tate duality. There is a dual exponential map exp : H 1 s(q p, V ) W, where W is a one-dimensional Q p vector space spanned by a differential ω E. (W can be described as the cotangent space of E/Q p, as Rubin says, or as the zeroth filtration step of D dr (V ), where V = T Q p ). Theorem 3.1 (Kato). Let c be the Euler system for T p E(1) defined by Aurel in last week s talk, and let χ be the cyclotomic character at p. Let c.= c χ 1 be the twist of c by the inverse of the cyclotomic character, which is thus an Euler system for T p E. There is a positive integer r E that is independent of E such that exp (loc s p(c 1)) = r EL Np (E, 1)ω E Ω E, 5

6 where Ω E is the fundamental real period of E and L Np (E, s) is the L-function of E with the Euler factors at primes dividing N p removed. Combining this with our results above, we see that: Theorem 3.2 (Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer in analytic rank 0). Let E/Q be an elliptic curve. If L(E, 1) 0, then E has rank 0, and X(E/Q) p (and, more generally, X(E/Q)) is finite. Proof. As exp is an isomorphism, and Euler factors of the L-function at single primes can be seen to be non-vanishing at 1, the condition on L(E, 1) implies that loc s p(c 1) 0. Then the result follows from Corollary 1.4. Remark: This is a new proof of an old result; it was first proved using the theory of Heegner points that we studied in the first half of this study group. The advantages of this approach, however, is that it can be adapted with almost no modification to prove a stronger result. namely: Theorem 3.3. Let E/Q be an elliptic curve, let F/Q be a finite extension, and let χ be a character of Gal(F/Q). If L(E, χ, 1) 0, then E(F ) χ and X(E/Q) χ are finite. References [Rub00] Karl Rubin. Euler Systems. Annals of Mathematics Studies. Princeton University Press,

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