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1 Index AMIA (Mexican Association of the Automotive Industry), 90, 108 automobile demand ageing of population, 9 emerging economies, financing, 8 post-recession, 1 2 role of income distribution and inequality, 2 4 trends in emerging markets, 4 9 Automotive Institute Malaysia, 194, 195, 196, 200, 203n12 Thailand, 182n2 AvtoVAZ, 25 6, 33n22, 34n29 Bajaj Auto, 146, 148 BMW, 195, 200 Bosla Familia, 81, 83, 84 Brazil banking system, 70, 79, 82 3, 86n14 credit policy, 71 2 demographics, 70 economic development, GDP (gross domestic product), 72, 79 80, 86n17 Gini index, 70, 82, 85 GNP (gross national product), growth regime, income distribution, 79 81, 84 income inequality, 3, 69 70, 82 inflation, 79, 86n12 Mexico and, 76, 78 multinationals, 73 poverty, 76, 80 2, 85 unemployment, 79, 81 Brazilian automobile market car ownership, 71, 83 global financial crisis, 76 8 growth, 5 6, 69 70, 72 3, 75 8, 83 4 methodological explanation of data, 84 5 passenger car market share, 46 policy regime, 73 4 production, domestic sales, exports and employment, 77 tariffs, 73 4, 83 trademarks, 72 BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India and China), 46, 70, 206 BRSA (Banking Regulation and Supervision Agency), 40, 59 CAAM (China Association of Automobile Manufacturers), 114, 116, 117, 125, 127, 133 Caixa Econômica Federal, 78, 83, 86n15 car ownership Brazil, 71, 83 China, 114, India, 137 Malaysia, 7, 186, , 191 3, 196 Mexico, , 108 Russia, 20, 21, 31 2 Thailand, 160, Turkey, 41 6, 58 9, 64 Cash for Clunkers, 107, 109 CBRT (Central Bank of Republic of Turkey), 39, 40, 49, 59, 66n5 Chery, 114, 124 7, 131, 195 China consumers, financial crisis, , GDP (gross domestic product), 118, 123 Gini coefficients, income distribution, income inequality, 3, multinationals, 129 role of government, Chinese automobile market car sales, 116, 125 demand for cars,

2 210 Index Chinese automobile market continued domination by Sino-foreign joint ventures, 124 6, 148 financial crisis, , green car strategy, growth, 6, 113, 114, 115, 123 new energy vehicle (EV), 114, 121 2, passenger cars, 46, 115, 116, 117 rising Chinese carmakers, role of government in, top 10 passenger carmakers, 125 CNG (compressed natural gas), India, 153 7, 157 diesel fuel Brazil, 73 Mexico, 99, 108 Thailand, 171, , 183n5 Turkey, 54 7 see also fuel prices emissions Brazil, 74, 75 India, 153 Mexico, 108 Turkey, 58, 61 3, 65 environmental concerns India, 148, Malaysia, 185, 200 1, 202n1 Mexico, Russia, 15, 31 Thailand, 169 Turkey, 54, 58, 61 3 EU (European Union) new car sales, 51, 52 Turkey, 37 9, 45 farm vehicles, 6 China, 120 2, 129 Thailand, 175 FDI (foreign direct investment) China, 128 India, 152 Thailand, 183n3 Turkey, 36 Fiat, 37, 48 50, 63, 72, 73, 146 financing/credit policy automobile demand, 8 Brazil, 71 2 India, 144 Malaysia, Mexico, Russia, 22 3 Thailand, 173, 175 6, 177 Turkey, Ford, 25, 26, 43, 48, 72, 73, 125, 146, 152 fuel prices Brazil, 73 China, India, 153 4, 155 Malaysia, 190, 191, , 203n16 16 Mexico, 91, 95, 99 Thailand, 171, 177, 178, 180, 183n5, 199 Turkey, 50 1, 53 7 gasoline Brazil, 73 Mexico, 108 Thailand, 171, Turkey, 54 7 see also fuel prices GDP (gross domestic product) Brazil, 72, 79 80, 86n17 China, 118, 123 India, 136, Malaysia, 199 Mexico, 91 5, 97, 102, 104 Russia, 12, 16, 18, 18 19, 34n30 Thailand, 160 3, 168 Turkey, 5, 39 43, 62, 64, 66n6 Geely, 114, Gini coefficient, 4, 10n7 Brazil, 70, 82, 85 China, India, 138, 139 Malaysia, 190, 192 Mexico, 97, 98 Russia, 19, 20 Turkey, 44, 66n9 global financial crisis Brazil, 71 2, 76, 78, 82 China, , India, 136, 144, 156 Malaysia, 190, 195 7

3 Index 211 Mexico, 90 1, 93, 95, 97, 99, 104 Russia, 12 13, 16, 18, 22 5, 27 Thailand, 160, 162 6, 175, Turkey, 39 41, 51, 59 GM (General Motors), 26, 48, 50, 72, 73, 124, 125, 154 Great Recession, 1, 5 6, 9, green cars Brazil, 74, 75 China, development of, 2, 5, 9 India, Malaysia, Mexico, Russia, 13, 30 1 Thailand, Turkey, 61 3 Hindustan Motors, 146, 158n8 Honda Brazil, 72, 86n8 China, 133 India, 144, 146, 152, Malaysia, 194, 195, 200, 201, 203n19 Thailand, 169 Turkey, 37, 49 Hong Kong, 3, 152 Hyundai Brazil, 72 China, 124, 125 India, 144, 146, 152, 155 Malaysia, 194, 195 Russia, 26 Turkey, 37, 49 IMF (International Monetary Fund), 39, 59, 79, 93, 118 income distribution automobile demand, 2 4 Brazil, 79 81, 84 China, Malaysia, 186, 191 Mexico, 92, 96 Russia, 19 20, 21 Thailand, 160 Turkey, 43 6 income inequality automobile demand, 2 4 Brazil, 69 70, 82 China, Gini coefficient, 4, 10n7 India, , Malaysia, Mexico, 98, 110 Russia, 19, 27 Thailand, 165, Turkey, 44 5, 65 India consumer durables, 142 3, 147 consumption expenditures, consumption pattern in rural and urban, food expenditures, GDP (gross domestic product), 136, Gini index, 138, 139 income inequality, 3, , monthly per capita expenditure (MPCE), 139, multinationals, 146, 148, 150 Indian automobile market consumption patterns of automobiles, demand for cars, 188 exports trends, 151 green initiatives, growth, 6, 136 7, 153, loans for cars, 144 passenger car market share, 46 production, sales and export, production trends, 149 sales by vehicle type, 150 Indonesia, 118, 127, 185 7, 199, 202, 202n2 Inovar Auto, 74, 75, 83 international poverty line, 7, 10n12 Japan, 46, 188 joint ventures, China, 124 6, 148 LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) India, 154 5, 157 Turkey, 54, 56, 57, 63, 66n18 Mahindra and Mahindra (M&M), 72, 144, 146, 148, 154

4 212 Index Malaysia credit policy, demographics, financial crisis, fuel prices, , 203n16 16 GDP (gross domestic product), 198 household spending, , 190 income inequality, multinationals, 202n10 poverty, 190, 192, 193 Malaysian automobile market car ownership, 7, 186, , 191 3, 197 cost of car ownership, credit policy, demand for cars, , green car strategy, growth, 7, 188, 202n2 passenger cars by types, 194 used cars, 193 MARTEK (National Technical Committee on Motor Vehicles), 62 Maruti Suzuki, 152, 153, 154 Mercedes-Benz, 26, 43, 50, 72, 105, 195 Mexican automobile market, 5, 76, 78 employee compensations, 91, 92 4 fuel prices, 95, 99 green car strategy, gross operating surplus, 92 growth, 90 1 imported used cars from United States, 8, 105 6, incentives for car consumption, light vehicle sales, 104, 105 motorisation index, 107 multinationals, 95, 97, 110 profile of, sales and financing, trade balance, 91 2, 97 Mexico Brazil and, 76, 78 car ownership, , 108 communication expenses, 99, 100 disposable income, employment and wages, education, 99 GDP (gross domestic product), 91 5, 97, 102, 104 Gini coefficient, 97, 98 household expenses, income and consumption, 94 8 income distribution, 92, 96 income inequality, 98, 110 labour productivity, 93 4 Mercosul Mexico free trade agreement, 76, 84 minimum wages, 93, 94 poverty, 91, 94 5, 98 transport expenses, 99, 100 unemployment, 91, 93, 95, 109 NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement), 8, 90, Naza, 194, 195, 202n9 Nissan Brazil, 72 China, 124 5, 133 India, 152 Malaysia, Mexico, Russia, 26 Perodua, car company, 191, 193 5, 202n6 7, 203n12 Philippines, 118, 199, 200 poverty Brazil, 76, 80 2, 85 Malaysia, 190, 192, 193 Mexico, 91, 94 5, 98 PPP (purchasing power parity), 3, 10n12, 10n7 8, 39, 118 Proton car company, 194, 195, 200, 202n8, 203n12 Renault, 25, 26, 28, 37, 48 50, 63, 72, 152 RLMS (Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey), 19, 33n12 Russia emergence of new middle class, 12, 22 employment, 32n10, 33n11 evolution of income distribution, 19 20, 21 financial crisis, 22 31

5 Index 213 GDP (gross domestic product), 12, 16, 18 19, 34n30 Gini coefficient, 19 household income and expenditure, income distribution, 19 20, 21 income inequality, 3, 19, 27 poverty, 20 1 Russian automobile market breakdown of foreign and Russian brands, 27 8, 29, 32n4 car ownership by income, 20, 21 customs duty, 24, 33 4n23 demand potential, 30 1 evolution of, 12 13, 14, 31 2 green vehicles prospects, 30 1 growth of, 5, 34n28 industrial assembly regime, 25 6 light vehicles sales, 29, 32n3 new car sales by price segment, 27, 28, 29 new market dynamic, passenger cars, 14, 46 scrappage program ( ), 25 state policy, 24 5 trends, 5, used cars, 14, 15, 22, 23 4, 31, 33n20, 33n21, 33n23, 34n28 SCT (special consumption tax), Turkey, 37, 42, 47, 50, 57 8, 63, 65 secondary market, see used cars Sime Darby Motors, 195, 202n10 Singapore, 3, South Korea, 3, 38, 69, 188 Suzuki Corporation, 7, 10n14, 26, 146, 147, 195 Taiwan, 127, 152, 187 Tata Motors, 144, 145, 146, 148, 152, 155 Thai automobile market automobile demand, , 187 development plan, duty and taxes for automobiles, 8, 170, 172 environmentally friendly vehicles, exports, 163, 166 financing, 173, 175 6, 177 growth, 7, 8 9, light vehicles, 174 production, 166 sales, 166, tariff rates for imported vehicles, 166 used cars, 171 4, 183n8 Thailand consumer behavior, cost of car ownership, 200 econometric analysis of demand for vehicles, economy, 160, 163 financial crisis, 162 6, GDP (gross domestic product), , 167 GMM estimation, income distribution, 159 income inequality, 165, Toyota Brazil, 72 China, 124, 125, 133 India, 144, 146, 152, 155 Malaysia, 194, 195, , 203n13 Mexico, 103 Russia, 26 Thailand, 165, 169 Turkey, 37, 48, 49 TUBITAK (Turkish National Research Council), 63, 64 Turkey economic and demographic indicators, 39 environmental concerns, 61 3 GDP (gross domestic product), 39 43, 62, 64, 66n6 Gini coefficient, 44, 66n9 income distribution, 43 6 income inequality, 44 5, 65 incomes and car ownership in, 41 3 macroeconomic background, policy issues, 64 6 population density, 51 3 SCT (special consumption tax), 37, 42, 47, 50, 57 8, 63, 65 tax structure, 57 9

6 214 Index Turkey continued transportation, 51 3 urbanisation, 51 3 Turkish automobile market automobile price levels, 43 car loans and interest rates, car ownership, 45 6 fuel prices, 53 7 global production, 38 growth, 5, 36 7 passenger cars, 47, 48, 49 restructuring, 37 segmentation, 50 1 structure of, taxes in, 57 9 used cars, 8, United States imported used cars to Mexico, 105 6, passenger car market share, 46 used cars Brazil, 71 China, 113, 134n1 importance of secondary market, 7 8 Malaysia, 191 Mexico, 91, 105 6, Russia, 14, 15, 22, 23 4, 31, 33n20, 33n21, 33n23, 34n28 Thailand, 171 4, 183n8 Turkey, 8, Vietnam, 199, 200 Volkswagen (VW), 26, 48, 73, 124 5, 133, 152, 195 World Bank, 10n7 8, 10n10 12, 39, 118, 138, 139 WTO (World Trade Organization), 15, 117

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