Exam Review Sheet: Unit 1 (Intro to Earth Science and Mapping)

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1 Exam Review Sheet: Unit 1 (Intro to Earth Science and Mapping) 1. List the four branches of earth science and tell what they study. a. b. c. d meter = kilometers liters = milliliters 4. What are the SI units for a. temperatureb. massc. volumed. length- 5. List and describe the steps of the scientific. 6. What is a variable in an experiment? 7. Lines of longitude run to. 8. Lines of latitude run to degrees latitude is called degrees longitude is called. 11. Explain what the following topographical terms are in your own words: a. reliefb. contour intervalc. elevation- 12. When contour lines are close together what is the topography like?

2 Exam Review Sheet Unit 2 (Astronomy) 1. Describe the theory used to explain how the universe began. 2. What is the process that generates energy in a star and which elements are involved? 3. The hottest stars are (color) and the coolest stars are. 4. Describe the following: a. nebulab. red giantc. white dwarfd. novae. black hole- 5. Our galaxy is the and it is in a shape. 6. List the sun s outer three layers. Which is the one we see? 7. Describe the following: a. Sunspotb. Solar Flarec. Aurora- 8. Draw a picture of a solar eclipse and a lunar eclipse. 9. Draw and label the eight phases of the moon. 10. List the planets in order, starting from the sun. Tell one fact about each.

3 Exam Review Sheet Unit 3 (Plate Tectonics) 1. Draw all the layers of the earth in order and label them. Also put an s if they re solid, an l if they re liquid, or a p if they have plasticity. 2. Explain the theory of continental drift, using the following terms: Pangaea, mid-atlantic ridge, seafloor spreading, and subduction. 3. List the evidence that Wegner used to propose continental drift. a. b. c. d. 4. Explain the theory of plate tectonics, including the following terms: Lithosphere, asthenosphere, convection currents. 5. Describe the following types of boundaries and draw with arrows: a. divergentb. convergentc. transform fault- 6. For each of the following convergent boundaries, tell what happens and draw a quick picture: a. oceanic/continentalb. continental/continentalc. oceanic/oceanic-

4 Exam Review Sheet Unit 4 (Earthquakes and Volcanoes) 1. Describe each of the following earthquake terms: a. focusb. epicenterc. fault- 2. How do scientists study the inside of the earth? 3. Fill in the chart: Type of wave Name of Wave Order recorded Things they traveled through P S L 4. How many recording stations ate needed to locate an epicenter? Why? 5. Fill in the chart: Name of Scale Numbers Used What they measure Richter Mercalli 6. Describe the type of eruption for each type of lava: a.felsicb. mafic- 7. Sketch each volcanic cone and tell how it is formed: a. shield conesb. cinder conesc. composite cones- 8. Describe how the following terms are related to volcanoes: a. hot spotsb. magmac. subduction zones-

5 1. Define the following terms: a. Matterb. Elementsc. Atomsd. Periodic Table- Exam Review Sheet Unit 5 (Chemistry and Minerals) 2. Fill in the chart: Subatomic Particle Charge Location of atom Proton Electron Neutron 3. What does SNIFE stand for? 4. Why is the color the LEAST useful property for mineral identification? 5. Luster is. The two main types are and. 6. What is streak and how do you test for it? 7. What is the difference between cleavage and fracture? 8. MOH s scale test for. The scale is. 9. What does density equal? D =? 10. How do you test for magnetism and fluorescence?

6 Exam Review Sheet Unit 6 (Rocks and Resources) 1. Fill in the chart below: Type of rock How they are formed Examples Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic 2. Draw the rock cycle (using arrows): 3. Fill in the chart: Type of igneous rock Location Cooling rate Crystal size Intrusive Extrusive 4. What is the difference between conglomerate, sandstone, and shale? 5. Describe foliation and give an example of a rock that has foliation. 6. What is the definition of a nonrenewable resource? 7. What is reclamation? 8. Describe each of the following energy sources? a, burning fossil fuelsb. Nuclear fissionc. Solard. Geothermale. Hydroelectric-

7 Exam Review Sheet Unit 7 (Geologic Time, Erosion, Soil) 1. What is the difference between an era, an epoch, and a period? 2. The law of superposition states that the layers of rocks on the top are than the rocks on the bottom. 3. What is half-life? 4. Describe the following types of fossils: a. Castb. Imprintc. Mold- 5. Describe the two types of weathering: a. Chemicalb. Mechanical- 6. List four factors that affect weathering. a. b. c. d. 7. What is the difference between a soil profile and a soil horizon? 8. Draw a picture of a soil profile and label the layers: 9. What is erosion and how is it different from weathering? 10. Describe how each of the three agents of erosion contribute to it. a. Windb. Waterc. Gravity

8 Exam Review Sheet Unit 8 (Water Cycle, Groundwater, Rivers and Streams) 1. List and describe the three parts of the water cycle: a. b. c. 2. Describe how rivers/streams form and how they are eroded. 3. Describe he difference between the following types of stream load: a. dissolvedb. suspendedc. bed- 4. Draw steps that show a meandering river turning into an oxbow lake: 5. Explain the difference between the following: a. porosityb. permeability- 6. Draw a picture that show the following terms: zone of saturation, zone of aeration, water table. Label each and describe them. 7. What is the difference between a well and a spring? 8. What is a cone of depression and what causes it? 9. Describe the following terms: a. Sinkholeb. Stalactitec- Stalagmite-

9 1. Describe the following beach terms: a. duneb. bermc. currentd. lagoone. barrier islands- 2. Describe how scientists study the ocean floor. Exam Review Sheet Unit 9 (Beaches and Oceans) 3. Draw a picture of an ocean basin and label the following: Abyssal plain, mid-ocean ridge, trench, continental margin 4. Define salinity. Tell places on the earth with high or low salinity and why. 5. List three factors that control currents. a. b. c. 6. Draw a wave and label the crest, trough, wavelength, wave height, and amplitude. 7. Why do we have tides? What factors influence tidal patterns?

10 Exam Review Sheet Unit 10 (Meteorology) 1. List the layers of the atmosphere in order and tell what happens to temperature in each layer. 2. What is the greenhouse effect? 3. Why are temperatures higher at the equator than at the poles? 4. Differences in cause movements of air worldwide. 5. What is ozone? Which layer of the atmosphere is being depleted? When is it good or bad? How is the ozone being depleted? 6. What is humidity? 7. What is the dew point and how is frost formed? 8. How do clouds form? (What do they need?) 9. Describe the following clouds: a. cirrusb. stratusc. cumulus- 10. Why does it rain when a cold and warm front meet? 11. Draw the symbols meteorologists use for fronts: a. warmb. coldc. stationaryd. occluded- 12. Describe conditions that affect the climate of an area.

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