GCSE Additional Science Physics Contents Guide

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1 GCSE Additional Science Contents Guide

2 Copyright Boardworks Ltd 2007 Boardworks Ltd The Gallery 54 Marston Street Oxford OX4 1LF contains Adobe Flash Player software by Adobe Systems Incorporated, Copyright Adobe Macromedia Software LLC. All rights reserved. Adobe and Flash are trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

3 GCSE Additional Science 1. Speed and Acceleration 4 2. Laws of Motion 5 3. Energy and Movement 6 4. Work and Power Momentum Static Electricity Electric Circuits Resistance and Resistors Contents 9. Electrical Safety Motors and Generators Radioactive Decay Nuclear Energy 15

4 1. Speed and Acceleration 46 slides 17 interactive Flash activities 1. Speed and Acceleration 4 Speed and velocity the difference between speed and velocity how to calculate speed from distance travelled and time taken numerical problems about speed, distance and time Distance time graphs information provided by the gradient of a distance time graph how to calculate speed from the gradient of a distance time graph animation showing how speed can be represented by plotting distance travelled against time animated graph showing the information provided by the gradient of a distance time graph multiple-choice quiz on calculating speed from distance time graphs graphing resource to create user-defined distance time graphs Acceleration how to calculate acceleration from change of speed and time taken numerical problems about acceleration, change of speed and time Speed time graphs information provided by the gradient of a speed time graph how to calculate acceleration from the gradient of a speed time graph animated graph showing the information provided by the gradient of a speed time graph multiple-choice quiz on calculating acceleration from speed time graphs animation showing how the area of a speed time graph represents distance travelled graphing resource to create user-defined speed time graphs Speed and safety the importance of speed limits factors affecting thinking and braking distances animated chart showing stopping distances of a car travelling at different speeds identifying which factors affect thinking distances and stopping distances evaluating opinions about speeding and speed cameras labelling different gradients in distance time graphs labelling different gradients in speed time graphs

5 2. Laws of Motion 42 slides 14 interactive Flash activities Force diagrams using force diagrams to indicate the forces acting on an object identifying the forces acting on different objects about resultant forces labelling forces acting on objects calculating the resultant force acting on different objects Friction an introduction to friction and its causes the main types of friction how to reduce the effects of problem friction identifying whether friction is useful or problematic in different situations guide to how the size of a frictional force acting on an object depends on the size of other forces acting on the object Newton s first law balanced forces and Newton s first law of motion investigating the effect of balanced forces on objects animation explaining why a skydiver reaches terminal velocity animated velocity time graph of a skydiver Newton s second law unbalanced forces and Newton s second law of motion how to calculate force from mass and acceleration investigating the effect of unbalanced forces on objects numerical problems about force, mass and acceleration 2. Laws of Motion Newton s third law action reaction pairs of forces and Newton s third law of motion guide to action reaction pairs of forces identifying the effect of different resultant forces on stationary and moving objects identifying true-or-false statements about balanced and unbalanced forces 5

6 3. Energy and Movement 30 slides 8 interactive Flash activities 3. Energy and Movement Gravitational potential energy how to calculate gravitational potential energy from mass, gravitational field strength and height simulation of how the gravitational potential energy of an object lifted by a crane varies with its mass and height numerical problems about gravitational potential energy, mass and height Kinetic energy how to calculate kinetic energy from mass and velocity why high-speed car crashes are more dangerous than low-speed car crashes numerical problems about kinetic energy, mass and velocity animated chart showing how the kinetic energy of a car varies with its velocity Energy transfers the law of conservation of energy the relationship between the gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy of a falling object identifying the energy transfers in the story of Gerald the Human Cannonball simulation of how gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy vary on a rollercoaster 6

7 4. Work and Power 26 slides 8 interactive Flash activities What is work? work done as a measure of how much energy is transferred how to calculate work done from the size of a force and distance moved guide to factors affecting the amount of work done simulation of how the work done by a crane varies with the weight of the load and the distance it is lifted numerical problems about work done, force and distance identifying true-or-false statements about work done What is power? power as a measure of the rate at which work is done power and fuel consumption how to calculate power from the amount of work done and the time taken animation showing how the power of a crane affects the rate at which it can do work numerical problems about power, work done and time 4. Work and Power 7

8 5. Momentum 28 slides 10 interactive Flash activities What is momentum? momentum as an indicator of how easy it is to stop a moving object how to calculate momentum from mass and velocity the difference between scalar and vector quantities numerical problems about momentum, mass and velocity 5. Momentum Conservation of momentum about conservation of momentum how momentum is conserved in collisions and explosions simulation of a Newton s cradle toy guide to how the principle of conservation of momentum can be used to calculate the velocity of an ice skater virtual experiment investigating how momentum is conserved in collisions between two trolleys animation showing how momentum is conserved in an explosion identifying true-or-false statements about momentum and conservation of momentum Changes in momentum how to calculate change in momentum from force and time how momentum relates to the safety of cars ways in which the risk of injury can be reduced in car accidents numerical problems about change in momentum, force and time guide to how seatbelts, airbags and crumple zones improve the safety of cars 8

9 6. Static Electricity 38 slides 14 interactive Flash activities Introducing static electricity everyday examples of the effects of static electricity the cause of static electricity and how it is involved in creating lightning history of Benjamin Franklin s experiments to investigate lightning completing sentences about static electricity Static charge how static charge is created and how it builds up on different materials how a gold leaf electroscope can be used to detect static charge how a Van de Graaff generator works animation comparing how rods made from different insulating materials become charged identifying true-or-false statements about static charge animation showing how a Van de Graaff generator works Forces between charges how the forces that occur between pairs of charges can be investigated that like charges repel and unlike charges attract virtual experiment investigating whether pairs of charges repel or attract virtual experiment investigating how a charged balloon affects various items Uses of static electricity how static electricity is used in photocopiers, spray painting cars, smoke precipitators, and defibrillators the dangers of static electricity and the precautions that can prevent it causing explosions animation showing how a photocopier uses static electricity ordering the sequence of events in producing a photocopy animation showing how spray painting cars uses static electricity completing sentences about the uses of static electricity identifying statements about the benefits and problems of static electricity 6. Static Electricity 9

10 7. Electric Circuits 45 slides 14 interactive Flash activities 7. Electric Circuits 10 Circuit diagrams introducing electric circuits and a model of how a circuit works why circuit diagrams are important and the symbols used to represent key electrical components what happens when a circuit contains a short circuit information about key electrical components, including their use and circuit symbol matching electrical components to their circuit symbol identifying the features of circuit diagrams Current and potential difference what current is and how it is measured what potential difference (or voltage) is and how it is measured how the water model is used to explain the flow of electric charge distinguishing between cells and batteries animation showing how the flow of water can be used to model the flow of electric charge identifying true-or-false statements about current and voltage Conductors and insulators the properties of conductors and insulators and how they are used in electrical wiring how metals conduct electricity virtual experiment to test the electrical conductivity of a range of materials completing statements about conductors and insulators Direction of current how the direction of current can be represented as conventional current or electron flow animation comparing conventional current and electron flow completing sentences about direction of current Series and parallel circuits the differences between series and parallel circuits how current and voltage behave in series and parallel circuits virtual experiment to investigate current and voltage in series circuits virtual experiment to investigate current and voltage in parallel circuits identifying statements about current and voltage in series and parallel circuits

11 8. Resistance and Resistors 46 slides 16 interactive Flash activities Introducing resistance what resistance is and how it is caused what resistors are, and the difference between fixed and variable resistors animation showing why resistance occurs Investigating current and voltage the relationship between current, voltage and resistance the current voltage graph for components that follow Ohm s Law the current voltage graph for a bulb and a diode virtual experiment investigating the relationship between current and voltage animated graph showing current voltage data for a length of wire animated graph showing current voltage data for a bulb animated graph showing current voltage data for a diode labelling the amount of resistance shown by different current voltage graphs Calculating resistance introduction to Ohm s law and how it is used to calculate resistance numerical problems about current, voltage and resistance Factors affecting resistance how the type of material, and its thickness, length and temperature, affect resistance how to calculate the total resistance of resistors connected in series and in parallel virtual experiment to investigate the effect of length on resistance virtual experiment to investigate the effect of thickness on resistance identifying true-or-false statements about the factors affecting resistance numerical problems about the total resistance of resistors connected in series and in parallel Using resistance the use of resistance in appliances that transfer electrical energy into heat and light energy how different types of resistors work and how they can be used guide to the different types of resistors matching each type of resistor to its symbol identifying statements about diodes, light-dependent resistors and thermistors 8. Resistance and Resistors 11

12 9. Electrical Safety 34 slides 10 interactive Flash activities Introducing electrical safety the dangers of electricity and how to identify electrical hazards how electricity can be used safely true-or-false quiz on electrical safety 9. Electrical Safety Electrical cables why metal and plastic are used in electrical cables how to identify live, earth and neutral wires completing statements about the different types of electrical wires Electrical plugs how electrical sockets make mains electricity available for general use how the materials used for the different parts of a plug relate to their properties how to wire a plug identifying which materials are used for the different parts of a plug and why simulation investigating how to wire a plug identifying faults in incorrectly wired plugs identifying true-or-false statements about plugs Fuses and earthing how fuses improve electrical safety and prevent fires how earthing is used to make electrical appliances safer how two-pin plugs and double insulation work animation showing how earthing works identifying true-or-false statements about fuses and earthing 12

13 10. Motors and Generators 29 slides 14 interactive Flash activities Magnetism, current and force an introduction to the motor effect about Fleming s left-hand rule factors affecting the direction and size of the force on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field virtual experiment investigating how a magnetic field and electric current combine to create a force in a single wire guide to factors affecting the size of the force on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field animated sequence showing how a magnetic field and electric current create a turning effect in a coil of wire identifying true-or-false statements about magnetic field, current and force Electric motors how an electric motor works factors affecting the power of an electric motor guide to how a simple DC motor works animated simulation of a simple DC motor EM induction and generators an introduction to electromagnetic induction factors affecting the size of an induced current virtual experiment investigating electromagnetic induction in a single wire virtual experiment investigating electromagnetic induction in a coil of wire guide to how a simple AC generator works animated simulation of a simple AC generator identifying factors that increase and decrease the size of an induced current completing sentences about electromagnetic induction and generators 10. Motors and Generators 13

14 11. Radioactive Decay 40 slides 15 interactive Flash activities 11. Radioactive Decay Models of the atom how radioactive decay and atomic structure are related the models of the atom developed by John Dalton and J J Thomson how the gold foil experiment led to Ernest Rutherford s nuclear model of the atom the modern model of atomic structure and the parts of the atom that isotopes are different forms of an element with differing numbers of neutrons in their nuclei history of Rutherford s involvement in discoveries about radioactivity and atomic structure virtual experiment demonstrating the gold foil experiment animation explaining the results of the gold foil experiment identifying statements about the plum pudding model and Rutherford s nuclear model identifying the properties of protons, neutrons and electrons matching keywords about atomic structure to their definitions Alpha, beta and gamma decay what happens to atoms during alpha, beta and gamma decay animation introducing the different types of radioactive decay identifying true-or-false statements about radioactive decay Half-life how radioactivity can be detected and measured using a Geiger-Müller tube the meaning of the term half-life how the half-life of radioactive isotopes affects how they are used and handled how the half-life of carbon-14 can be used to date archaeological objects animation explaining why the count rate of radioactive isotopes decreases over time how to calculate half-life from count rate measurements how to calculate the half-life of carbon-14 animation explaining how carbon dating works numerical problems involving half-life 14

15 12. Nuclear Energy 39 slides 12 interactive Flash activities Energy from atoms that energy can be obtained from the nuclei of atoms the connection between mass and energy, as identified by Albert Einstein Nuclear fission the process of nuclear fission and why it can be used to produce energy why uranium is used in fuel rods in fission reactors and why it needs to be enriched the products of nuclear fission why fuel rods have to be replaced and the problems with nuclear waste animation showing what happens during nuclear fission animation showing how a nuclear power station works identifying true-or-false statements about nuclear fission Chain reactions what happens during a chain reaction how chain reactions are controlled in fission reactors and what happens when they are not controlled how nuclear weapons use uncontrolled chain reactions animation showing how a chain reaction occurs ordering the sequence of events in a chain reaction matching words about chain reactions to their definitions identifying the pros and cons of using nuclear fission 12. Nuclear Energy Nuclear fusion the process of nuclear fusion and why it can be used to produce energy how a fusion reactor works the advantages of using nuclear fusion as a source of energy animation showing what happens during nuclear fusion identifying the pros and cons of using nuclear fusion identifying which statements relate to nuclear fission and nuclear fusion 15

16 Notes 16

17 Notes Notes 17

18 Notes 18

19 What do you think? Customer feedback helps us to continue the development of our software to make it as useful and inspiring as possible. We really value your comments and would be very grateful if you could take the time to complete this form. It can be faxed to , or photocopied and posted to Boardworks Ltd, The Gallery, 54 Marston Street, Oxford, OX4 1LF. Name School Telephone Role Postcode Which GCSE science subjects do you teach? Biology Chemistry How many teachers in the school, including yourself, use? Which exam board does your department teach? What other software, if any, do you use to teach GCSE Additional Science? On what IT equipment do you primarily use the software? Interactive whiteboard Whiteboard Data projector PC Other Please indicate how strongly you agree or disagree with these statements about Boardworks GCSE Additional Science by circling the appropriate number. strongly disagree strongly agree It is easy to find the right content for my lessons The software comprehensively matches our specification Feedback There is a good range of useful interactive exercises The software helps me deliver the How Science Works aspects of the specification The contents booklets and user guide help me use the software The software is well-received by my students The software enables me to get more use from my whiteboard/ projector Please write any further comments or suggestions about in the box below. Thank you for your feedback. 19

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