XX. Introductory Physics, High School

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1 XX. Introductory Physics, High School

2 High School Introductory Physics Test The spring 2014 high school Introductory Physics test was based on learning standards in the Introductory Physics content strand of the Massachusetts Science and Technology/Engineering Curriculum Framework (2006). These learning standards appear on pages 7477 of the Framework. The Massachusetts Science and Technology/Engineering Curriculum Framework is available on the Department website at Introductory Physics test results are reported under the following four MCAS reporting categories: Motion and Forces Heat and Heat Transfer Waves and Radiation Electromagnetism The table at the conclusion of this chapter indicates each item s reporting category and the framework learning standard it assesses. The correct answers for multiple-choice questions are also displayed in the table. Test Sessions The high school Introductory Physics test included two separate test sessions, which were administered on consecutive days. Each session included multiple-choice and open-response questions. Reference Materials and Tools Each student taking the high school Introductory Physics test was provided with an Introductory Physics Formula Sheet. A copy of this formula sheet follows the final question in this chapter. Each student also had sole access to a calculator with at least four functions and a square-root key. The use of bilingual word-to-word dictionaries was allowed for current and former English language learner students only, during both Introductory Physics test sessions. No other reference tools or materials were allowed. 331

3 Introductory Physics Session 1 DIRECTIONS This session contains twenty-one multiple-choice questions and two open-response questions. Mark your answers to these questions in the spaces provided in your Student Answer Booklet. You may work out solutions to multiple-choice questions in the test booklet. ID: B Common EQ 1 A book weighing 18.0 N is lifted from the floor and placed on a shelf 1.5 m high. What is the minimum amount of work required to accomplish this task? A. 12 J B. 27 J C. 120 J D. 270 J ID: B Common EQ 2 Waves rock a boat in the middle of a pond. The boat moves up and down 10 times in 20 s. What is the period of the waves? A. 0.5 s B. 2 s C. 10 s D. 20 s ID: A Common EQ 3 What will happen when two objects with opposite electric charges are moved closer together? ID: D Common EQ 4 A. The objects will attract each other with a greater force. B. The objects will attract each other with a smaller force. C. The objects will repel each other with a greater force. D. The objects will repel each other with a smaller force. Which of the following examples includes a vector quantity? A. a 10.0 kg object B. a truck that traveled 12.5 m C. a 3.5 kg object moving at 1.5 m/s D. a car moving northeast at 90 km/hr 332

4 Introductory Physics Session 1 ID: B Common EQ 5 Which of the following forces allow a battery-powered motor to generate mechanical energy? A. magnetic and static B. electric and magnetic C. static and gravitational D. electric and gravitational ID: Belrob15_dust_particles.e D Common EQ 6 Electrostatic air cleaners installed in hospitals use static electricity to reduce dust particles in the air. The neutral dust particles are attracted to positively charged ions sprayed into the air cleaners. Positively charged ions Neutral dust particle Which of the following figures shows the charge distribution on the dust particle as it is attracted to the positively charged ions? A. B. C. D. 333

5 Introductory Physics Session 1 ID: car_fbd_zonver_2012.eps [ A Common EQ 7 A car is parked on a flat driveway. Which of the following is a free-body diagram for this car? A. B. F normal F normal F gravity F gravity ID: B Common EQ 8 A container of water with an initial temperature of 90 C is placed in a room where the temperature is 20 C. Which of the following statements describes what happens to the water over the next several hours? A. The thermal energy of the water decreases, and its temperature decreases to 5 C. B. The thermal energy of the water decreases, and its temperature decreases to 20 C. C. The thermal energy of the water remains constant, and its temperature decreases to 55 C. D. The thermal energy of the water remains constant, and its temperature decreases to 70 C. C. F normal D. F gravity F normal F gravity ID: C Common EQ 9 Which of the following statements describes an advantage of using a wooden spoon instead of a metal spoon to stir a pot of hot soup? A. A wooden spoon radiates heat faster than a metal spoon. B. A wooden spoon has a lower specific heat than a metal spoon. C. A wooden spoon does not conduct heat to its handle as quickly as a metal spoon. D. A wooden spoon lowers the boiling point of the soup, but a metal spoon does not. 334

6 Introductory Physics Session 1 ID: ptarog_force.eps C Common EQ 10 The free-body diagram below represents all the forces acting on an object. 50 N 50 N 200 N What is the net force acting on this object? A. 0 N up B. 100 N down C. 200 N right D. 300 N right ID: C Common EQ 11 Neglecting air resistance, which of the following statements describes the change in energy of a diver who falls downward toward a swimming pool? A. Potential energy increases, kinetic energy increases, and total energy increases. B. Potential energy decreases, kinetic energy decreases, and total energy decreases. C. Potential energy decreases, kinetic energy increases, and total energy remains the same. D. Potential energy increases, kinetic energy decreases, and total energy remains the same. 335

7 Introductory Physics Session 1 Question 12 is an open-response question. BE SURE TO ANSWER AND LABEL ALL PARTS OF THE QUESTION. Show all your work (diagrams, tables, or computations) in your Student Answer Booklet. If you do the work in your head, explain in writing how you did the work. Write your answer to question 12 in the space provided in your Student Answer Booklet. ID: Belrob42_parallel_circuit Common EQ 12 A circuit diagram is shown below. In your Student Answer Booklet, draw this circuit diagram and add four identical light bulbs (W, X, Y, and Z), two switches (S1 and S2), and two fuses (F1 and F2). Your arrangement of these components must meet the requirements listed below. Be sure to read all of the requirements before adding the electrical components. Light bulbs W and X have the same brightness. Light bulbs Y and Z have the same brightness and are brighter than light bulbs W and X when all switches are closed. The first switch (S1) controls only light bulbs W and X, and the second switch (S2) controls only light bulbs Y and Z. The first fuse (F1) protects only light bulb Z, and the second fuse (F2) protects the entire circuit. Use the circuit components shown below. Be sure to label all of the components with the labels given. Circuit Components W X Y Z S1 S2 F1 F2 336

8 Introductory Physics Session 1 Mark your answers to multiple-choice questions 13 through 22 in the spaces provided in your Student Answer Booklet. Do not write your answers in this test booklet, but you may work out solutions to multiple-choice questions in the test booklet. ID: MC018.eps B Common EQ 13 The graph below shows the temperature of a sample of water as it is heated at a constant rate. Heating Curve for a Water Sample ID: SB_fence_buzzer.eps A Common EQ 14 A loud alarm attached to a metal fence begins to ring. Student X has her ear against a pole of the fence while student Y stands away from the fence, as shown below. Both students are the same distance from the alarm. Temperature ( C) X Y Z Alarm Heat Added (J) Which of the following conclusions is best supported by the information in the graph? A. The water boils between points X and Y and condenses between points Y and Z. B. The average kinetic energy of the water molecules increases between points X and Y and stays the same between points Y and Z. C. The water evaporates between points X and Y and the average kinetic energy of the water molecules increases between points Y and Z. D. The average kinetic energy of the water molecules remains the same between points X and Y and the water boils between points Y and Z. Student X Student Y Which of the following statements explains what happens in this situation? A. Student X hears the alarm first because sound travels faster in solids than in gases. B. Student X hears the alarm at a higher pitch because solids are denser than gases. C. Student Y hears the alarm first because sound travels faster in gases than in solids. D. Student Y hears the alarm at a higher pitch because gases are denser than solids. 337

9 Introductory Physics Session 1 ID: D Common EQ 15 The power supplied to a light bulb is 100 W. How much electrical energy is used by this light bulb in 20 s? A. 5 J B. 100 J C. 500 J D J ID: GONWIL_truck_diagram.eps C Common EQ 17 A toy truck powered by a battery is accelerating to the right. A string with negligible mass is attached to the truck. The diagram below shows the forces acting on the truck. 1.5 N 0.5 N 3.0 N ID: A Common EQ 16 A sound wave with a frequency of 1,700 Hz is traveling through air at a speed of 340 m/s. What is the wavelength of this sound wave? A. 0.2 m B. 5.0 m C. 2,040 m D. 57,800 m 1.5 N If a child pulls the string to the left, what force must the child exert to make the toy truck move to the right at a constant velocity? A. 1.0 N B. 1.5 N C. 2.5 N D. 6.0 N 338

10 Introductory Physics Session 1 ID: dunjoe024_two_charges.eps A Common EQ 18 Which of the following placements of two charges results in the greatest repulsive force? A. B. q q d q q d ID: C Common EQ 19 Sunscreen protects skin by absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. Ultraviolet radiation has which of the following properties? A. a shorter wavelength than x-rays B. a lower frequency than radio waves C. a higher frequency than visible light D. a longer wavelength than microwaves C. q q 2d D. q q 2d 339

11 Introductory Physics Session 1 ID: ZONVER020_reflection.eps B Common EQ 20 A small object is placed in a room with a narrow mirror on the wall. Four positions in the room are labeled W, X, Y, and Z, as shown below. X Y Z ID: A Common EQ 21 What is the magnitude of the momentum of a 0.15 kg baseball moving at 25 m/s? A. 3.8 kg m/s B. 47 kg m/s C. 167 kg m/s D kg m/s W Mirror Object At which position should a person stand to see the reflection of the object in the mirror? A. position W B. position X C. position Y D. position Z ID: A Common EQ 22 The Moon was much closer to Earth 4.6 billion years ago. Which of the following statements describes the gravitational interaction of Earth and the Moon 4.6 billion years ago? A. The gravitational force of the Moon on Earth was larger than the force is now. B. The gravitational force of Earth on the Moon was the same as the force is now. C. The gravitational force of the Moon on Earth was smaller than the force is now. D. The gravitational force of Earth on the Moon was smaller than the force is now. 340

12 Introductory Physics Session 1 Question 23 is an open-response question. BE SURE TO ANSWER AND LABEL ALL PARTS OF THE QUESTION. Show all your work (diagrams, tables, or computations) in your Student Answer Booklet. If you do the work in your head, explain in writing how you did the work. Write your answer to question 23 in the space provided in your Student Answer Booklet. ID: Common EQ 23 Waves can be classified as either electromagnetic or mechanical. a. Describe two differences between electromagnetic and mechanical waves. b. Give two examples of electromagnetic waves. c. Give two examples of mechanical waves. 341

13 Introductory Physics Session 2 DIRECTIONS This session contains nineteen multiple-choice questions and three open-response questions. Mark your answers to these questions in the spaces provided in your Student Answer Booklet. You may work out solutions to multiple-choice questions in the test booklet. ID: A Common EQ 24 A person pushes a couch across a wooden floor. What force changes when the couch first begins to move? A. frictional force B. gravitational force C. normal force D. tension force ID: B Common EQ 26 A wave with a wavelength of 3.2 m is generated in a pond. The frequency of the wave is 0.60 Hz. What is the speed of this wave? A m/s B. 1.9 m/s C. 3.8 m/s D. 5.3 m/s ID: B Common EQ 25 A 4000 kg truck is moving north at 8 m/s, and a 1200 kg car is moving north at 30 m/s. Which of the following statements best compares the truck and the car? A. The truck has less inertia than the car. B. The truck has less momentum than the car. C. The truck has more mass but less weight than the car. D. The truck has more kinetic energy but less potential energy than the car. ID: A Common EQ 27 Sunlight heats a dark rock. A snake then moves onto the rock in order to increase its body temperature. Which of the following sequences represents how heat energy is transferred from the Sun to the rock to the snake? A. radiation then conduction B. radiation then convection C. conduction then radiation D. convection then radiation 342

14 Introductory Physics Session 2 ID: AVEBRY022_current.eps D Common EQ 28 The circuit shown below has two resistors in series. V R 1 R 2 ID: C Common EQ 29 A person runs 3 km north. One hour later, she runs 3 km south. Which of the following statements describes the person s complete trip? A. The displacement is 3 km. B. The distance traveled is 3 km. C. The distance traveled is greater than the displacement. D. The displacement is greater than the distance traveled. Which of the following equations represents the current flowing through the two resistors? A. I V R R 1 2 B. I R R 1 2 C. I V( R1 R2) D. I R V R

15 Introductory Physics Session 2 ID: longitudinal_gonwil_2012. D Common EQ 30 The diagram below shows a representation of two different waves. ID: pipe_in_water.eps D Common EQ 31 The picture below shows what a straight pipe looks like in a container of water when viewed from the side. Pipe Wave X Air Water Wave Y Which of the following classifies wave X and wave Y? A. Both waves are transverse. B. Both waves are longitudinal. C. Wave X is longitudinal and wave Y is transverse. D. Wave X is transverse and wave Y is longitudinal. What is happening in this example as light travels from the water into the air? A. absorption B. diffraction C. reflection D. refraction 344

16 Introductory Physics Session 2 Question 32 is an open-response question. BE SURE TO ANSWER AND LABEL ALL PARTS OF THE QUESTION. Show all your work (diagrams, tables, or computations) in your Student Answer Booklet. If you do the work in your head, explain in writing how you did the work. Write your answer to question 32 in the space provided in your Student Answer Booklet. ID: Common EQ 32 A 50 kg student climbs 3 m to the top of a set of stairs. a. Calculate the change in the student s gravitational potential energy from the bottom to the top of the stairs. Show your calculations and include units in your answer. b. How much total work does the student do while climbing the stairs? Show your calculations or explain your reasoning. Include units in your answer. It takes the student 30 s to climb to the top of the stairs. c. What is the average power generated by the student climbing the stairs? Show your calculations and include units in your answer. The next day the student carries a 10 kg backpack up the same stairs and again takes 30 s to reach the top of the stairs. d. Is the average power you calculated in part (c) greater than, less than, or equal to the average power the student generated the next day? Explain your answer. 345

17 Introductory Physics Session 2 Mark your answers to multiple-choice questions 33 through 43 in the spaces provided in your Student Answer Booklet. Do not write your answers in this test booklet, but you may work out solutions to multiple-choice questions in the test booklet. ID: C Common EQ 33 Which of the following is a difference between electromagnetic waves and mechanical waves? A. Electromagnetic waves transmit energy, and mechanical waves transmit information. B. Electromagnetic waves are always longitudinal, and mechanical waves are always transverse. C. Electromagnetic waves can travel through a vacuum, and mechanical waves require a medium. D. Electromagnetic waves have only low frequencies, and mechanical waves have only high frequencies. ID: Ptak_2011_lightbulb_Ammet B Common EQ 34 The diagram below shows a circuit with a light bulb, an ammeter, and a 12 V battery. 12 V The light bulb is lit for 30 s. The ammeter displays a current of 0.60 A. What is the power rating for this circuit? A. 1.5 W B. 7.2 W C. 18 W D. 216 W A 346

18 Introductory Physics Session 2 ID: GA_Rollercoaster.eps B Common EQ 35 The diagram below shows a section of a roller coaster track. Five points on the track are labeled. ID: MC029.eps B Common EQ 37 In the circuit shown below, a 12 V battery is connected in parallel to three resistors, labeled X, Y, and Z. U T V W X 12 V X (1 ) Y (2 ) Z (4 ) Between which two points will the roller coaster s gravitational potential energy be converted into kinetic energy? A. T and U B. U and V C. V and W D. W and X ID: D Common EQ 36 Thermal energy is added to a sample of 15 C water. Which of the following quantities must increase? Which of the following statements best describes the current flowing through the resistors in this circuit? A. Resistor Y has the least current. B. Resistor X has the greatest current. C. Resistor Z has twice the current of resistor Y. D. Each resistor has the same amount of current flowing through it. A. the water s mass B. the water s salinity C. the water s specific heat D. the water s temperature 347

19 Introductory Physics Session 2 ID: D Common 38 Grains and spices are irradiated with gamma rays to kill most of the bacteria or fungi that are normally present. Although microwaves are another form of radiation, the properties of these waves do not make them as useful as gamma rays for sterilizing food. In which of the following ways do gamma rays differ from microwaves? A. Gamma rays have a lower frequency and longer wavelength than microwaves. B. Gamma rays have a lower frequency and shorter wavelength than microwaves. C. Gamma rays have a higher frequency and longer wavelength than microwaves. D. Gamma rays have a higher frequency and shorter wavelength than microwaves. ID: B Common EQ 40 Which of the following is an example of an object that could have a net force greater than zero acting on it? ID: D Common EQ 41 A. a glass resting on a table B. a ball rolling down a ramp C. a ladder leaning against a wall D. a toy car moving east at a constant velocity What is the purpose of the wire coil in an electromagnet? A. to hold the battery in its center B. to decrease the diameter of the wire C. to decrease the resistance of the wire D. to concentrate the magnetic field in its center IID: C Common EQ 39 A space station moves in a circular orbit around Earth. Which of the following statements describes the centripetal force acting on the space station? A. The force is acting in the direction of motion. B. The force is directed toward the space station. C. The force is directed toward the center of Earth. D. The force is acting opposite the direction of motion. 348

20 Introductory Physics Session 2 ID: toy_car_doppler_gonwil_20 A Common EQ 42 A student conducted two investigations using a toy car and microphones, as shown below. Investigation 1 Microphone X Investigation 2 v Microphone Y Microphone Z The toy car contained a buzzer. The microphones were used to record the frequency of sound. In investigation 1, the buzzer frequency was measured while the toy car was at rest. In investigation 2, the toy car was in motion and the observed frequency was measured in front of and behind the car. Which of the following graphs represents the frequency recorded by each microphone? A. Frequency (Hz) Y X Z C. Frequency (Hz) X Y Z Time (s) Time (s) B. Frequency (Hz) X Z Y D. Frequency (Hz) Z Y X Time (s) Time (s) 349

21 Introductory Physics Session 2 ID: khan_2010_change_vt.eps D Common EQ 43 The graph below represents the motion of a car. Velocity vs. Time Velocity 0 Time Based on the graph, which of the following statements describes the motion of the car? A. The car initially travels at a constant speed and then stops. B. The car starts from rest and then travels at a constant speed. C. The car starts from rest and then accelerates at a constant rate. D. The car is initially moving and then accelerates at a constant rate. 350

22 Introductory Physics Session 2 Questions 44 and 45 are open-response questions. BE SURE TO ANSWER AND LABEL ALL PARTS OF EACH QUESTION. Show all your work (diagrams, tables, or computations) in your Student Answer Booklet. If you do the work in your head, explain in writing how you did the work. Write your answer to question 44 in the space provided in your Student Answer Booklet. ID: Common EQ 44 A person brings a cup of hot chocolate (70 C) into a room (20 C) and places a metal spoon (20 C) into the hot chocolate. a. Describe what happens to the temperatures of the hot chocolate, the spoon, and the air in the room after 10 minutes. Explain your answer. b. Identify and describe the primary method of heat energy transfer (conduction, convection, or radiation) between each of the following: the hot chocolate and the spoon the hot chocolate and the air in the entire room c. At what point will the net transfer of heat energy stop? 351

23 Introductory Physics Session 2 Write your answer to question 45 in the space provided in your Student Answer Booklet. ID: NASCLI005_pulley_cart.eps Common EQ 45 A 10 N force is applied to a 6 kg box, as shown below. 6 kg 10 N Assume the system is frictionless. a. Determine the weight of the box in newtons. Show your calculations and include units in your answer. b. In your Student Answer Booklet, draw a force diagram for the box. Include labels and represent the relative magnitude of each force. c. Determine the acceleration of the box. Show your calculations and include units in your answer. Now assume friction is introduced into the system. d. Describe one change to this system that would allow it to achieve the same acceleration as the frictionless system. 352

24 Formulas Average Speed Average Acceleration Average Velocity vf vi a t x v t a t 2 f i 2 i 1 2 v v 2a x Average Velocity Variables Definitions d t F ma p mv 2 v x t i 2 v t v f F F KE G mm V IR d k qq 1 2 d 2 P IV 1 2 mv 2 Q PE mg h v f a acceleration q charge of particle c specific heat Q heat d distance R resistance f frequency t change in time F force T change in temperature h change in height T period I current v velocity KE kinetic energy v i initial velocity wavelength v f final velocity m mass v change in velocity p momentum V voltage P power W work PE gravitational potential energy x displacement c speed of electromagnetic waves m/s Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System Introductory Physics Formula Sheet W P Fd W t T c f mc T 1 f G Universal gravitational constant k Coulomb constant N m C 2 2 N m kg 2 2 g 10 m/s 2 kg m 1N 1 s 2 J 1J 1N m 1W (watt) 1 s 353

25 High School Introductory Physics Spring 2014 Released Items: Reporting Categories, Standards, and Correct Answers* Item No. Page No. Reporting Category Standard Correct Answer (MC)* Motion and Forces 2.3 B Waves and Radiation 4.1 B Electromagnetism 5.4 A Motion and Forces 1.1 D Electromagnetism 5.6 B Electromagnetism 5.1 D Motion and Forces 1.5 A Heat and Heat Transfer 3.2 B Heat and Heat Transfer 3.1 C Motion and Forces 1.5 C Motion and Forces 2.1 C Electromagnetism Heat and Heat Transfer 3.3 B Waves and Radiation 4.5 A Motion and Forces 2.4 D Waves and Radiation 4.1 A Motion and Forces 1.4 C Electromagnetism 5.4 A Waves and Radiation 6.2 C Waves and Radiation 4.4 B Motion and Forces 2.5 A Motion and Forces 1.7 A Waves and Radiation Motion and Forces 1.6 A Motion and Forces 2.5 B Waves and Radiation 4.1 B Heat and Heat Transfer 3.1 A Electromagnetism 5.2 D Motion and Forces 1.2 C Waves and Radiation 4.3 D Waves and Radiation 4.4 D Motion and Forces Waves and Radiation 4.2 C Electromagnetism 5.5 B Motion and Forces 2.2 B Heat and Heat Transfer 3.4 D Electromagnetism 5.3 B Waves and Radiation 6.2 D Motion and Forces 1.8 C 354

26 Item No. Page No. Reporting Category Standard Correct Answer (MC)* Motion and Forces 1.4 B Electromagnetism 5.6 D Waves and Radiation 4.6 A Motion and Forces 1.3 D Heat and Heat Transfer Motion and Forces 1.4 * Answers are provided here for multiple-choice items only. Sample responses and scoring guidelines for open-response items, which are indicated by the shaded cells, will be posted to the Department s website later this year. 355

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