Chapter 15: The Autonomic Nervous System

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 15: The Autonomic Nervous System"

Transcription

1 Chapter 15: The Autonomic Nervous System Chapter Objectives COMPARISON OF SOMATIC AND AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEMS 1. List the structural and functional characteristics of the autonomic nervous system. 2. Distinguish between the pre- and postganglionic neurons, in terms of location. 3. Specify the different origins and destination ganglia for the sympathetic (thoracolumbar) and parasympathetic (craniosacral) preganglionic neurons. 4. Describe the differing locations of the ganglia of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THE ANS 5. Discuss the primary purpose of the sympathetic division and the general body functions it directs. 6. Describe specific responses of effectors due to increased sympathetic stimulation. 7. Discuss the primary purpose of the parasympathetic division and the general body functions it directs. 8. Describe specific responses of effectors due to increased parasympathetic stimulation. ANS NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND RECEPTORS 9. Identify the cholinergic neurons,, and neurotransmitters. 10. Identify the adrenergic neurons,, and neurotransmitters. Chapter Lecture Notes Characteristics of the autonomic nervous system (Table 15.1) Involuntary control Sensory input mostly from interoceptors Motor pathways divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions Two-neuron pathway (Fig 15.1) Preganglionic Postganglionic Neurotransmitters Preganglionic acetylcholine

2 Postganglionic acetylcholine (parasympathetic and sympathetic to sweat glands (except on palms and soles), blood vessels in skeletal muscle and arrector pili muscles) or norepinephrine (remainder of sympathetic) Effects smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands Physiological effects of the autonomic nervous system (Table 15.4) Sympathetic E situations (exercise, emergency, excitement and embarrassment) - fight or flight response Pupils dilate Heart rate, force of contraction and blood pressure increase Airways dilate Blood vessels to kidneys and gastrointestinal tract constrict Blood vessels to skeletal muscles, cardiac muscle, liver and adipose tissue dilate Liver cells perform glycogenolysis and lipid cell perform lipolysis Release of glucose by the liver Parasympathetic rest and digest response Increased salivation, lacrimation, urination, digestion and defecation Decreased heart rate, diameter of airways and diameter of pupils (constriction) Anatomical Differences between the Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Divisions (Table 15.3) Characteristics Parasympathetic Sympathetic Origin (Fig 15.2 & 15.3) Craniosacral outflow: brainstem nuclei of cranial nerves III, VII, IX and X; spinal cord segments S2-S4 Thoracolumnar outflow: lateral horn of gray matter of spinal cord segments T1-L2 Location of ganglia Relative length of pre- and postganglionic fibers Ganglia in (intramural= terminal) or close to visceral organ served Long preganglionic; short postganglionic Sympathetic ganglia (Fig 15.5) Ganglia within a few cm of CNS: alongside vertebral column (paravertebral ganglia=chain) and anterior to vertebral column (prevertebral ganglia) Short preganglionic; long postganglionic

3 Paravertebral ganglia = chain ganglia Innervate organs above the diaphragm like the heart and lungs Prevertebral ganglia = collateral ganglia Prevertebral ganglia surround the following arteries that branch from the aorta Celiac artery (celiac ganglia forms the solar plexus) Superior mesenteric artery Inferior mesenteric artery Neurotransmitters and (Table 15.2 & Fig 15.7) Cholinergic neurons release acetylcholine (all preganglionic neurons, select sympathetic postganglionic neurons and all parasympathetic postganglionic neurons) Cholinergic on the postsynaptic membrane that bind acetylcholine Nicotinic receptor Found in the dendrites and cell bodies of sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons, the motor end plate in the neuromuscular junction and adrenal medullary cells (excitatory) Is mimicked by nicotine Muscarinic receptor Found in all parasympathetic target organs (excitatory in all but cardiac muscle where it is inhibitory), sweat glands (activation) and some blood vessels in skeletal muscle (inhibition; vasodilation) and arrector pili muscle (excitatory) Is mimicked by muscarine (a mushroom poison) Adrenergic neurons release norepinephrine (most sympathetic postganglionic neurons) Adrenergic bind norepinephrine and epinephrine α 1 Smooth muscle of blood vessels (excitation; vasoconstriction)

4 radial muscles of eye (dilation of pupil) sphincter muscles of stomach and urinary bladder (closing) salivary gland cells (decreased salivation) sweat glands on palms and soles (increased sweating) α 2 Smooth muscle in some blood vessels (inhibition; vasodilation) beta cells in pancreatic islets (decrease insulin secretion) pancreatic acinar cells (inhibition of digestive enzyme secretion) blood platelets (aggregation) β 1 Cardiac muscle (excitation; increased force and rate of contraction) posterior pituitary (secretion of antidiuretic hormones) adipose cells (breakdown of triglycerides) β 2 Smooth muscle in airways (relaxation; bronchodilation) blood vessels (relaxation; vasodilation) walls of internal organs (relaxation) cillary muscles (inhibition; relaxation) hepatocytes (glycogenolysis) β 3 Brown adipose tissue (thermogenesis)

5 Sympathetic Responses Target Organ Ganglia Effect Location Blood vessels of skeletal and Paravertebral Dilation cardiac muscle Blood vessels of skin, gut Paravertebral Constriction and kidneys Arrector pili muscle Sweat Glands Eyes Lungs Heart Paravertebral Contraction Paravertebral Sweat production Paravertebral Dilates pupils and relaxes ciliary muscles for far vision Paravertebral Dilates bronchi Paravertebral Increased rate and force of contraction Liver Prevertebral Breakdown of glycogen to glucose and triglycerides to fatty acids Small and Large Intestines Paravertebral Slows digestion, stops secretions and contracts sphincters Urinary Bladder Paravertebral Contracts sphincter Adrenal Medulla Stimulates release of norepinephrine and epinephrine Parasympathetic Responses Target Organ Origin Effect Eyes Cranial Nerve III Constricts pupils and ciliary muscles for near vision and stimulates tears Salivary Glands Cranial Nerve VII&IX Stimulate salivation Lungs Cranial Nerve X Constricts bronchi and stimulates secretion Heart Cranial Nerve X Decreased rate and force of contraction Gall Bladder Cranial Nerve X Constriction Pancreas Cranial Nerve X Stimulation of exocrine secretions and release of insulin Small and Large Intestines Cranial Nerve X and Sacral Nerves Increases motility and secretions and relaxes sphincters for increase defecation Urinary Bladder Sacral Nerves Contracts bladder (micturition) and relaxes sphincter Genitals Sacral Nerves Erection Drugs that Effect the Autonomic Nervous System

6 Drug Mechanism Action Uses Drugs that Stimulate the Sympathetic Nervous System (Sympathomimetic) Phenylephrine Stimulates α 1 Elevates blood pressure; stimulates smooth muscle Lowers blood Clonidine Stimulates α 2 pressure Isoproterenol Stimulates β Stimulates heart rate; dilates respiratory passages Albuteral, terbutaline Stimulates β 2 Ephedrine, psuedoephedrine MAO Inhibitors Tricyclic antidepressants (Moxadil, Endep) Stimulates NE release at synapses Increases NE levels in the synapse by inhibiting the enzyme that breaks it down Increases NE levels in the synapse by blocking reuptake Dilates respiratory passages Nasal decongestant and to elevate blood pressure Treatment of high blood pressure Treatment of respiratory disorders and as a cardiac stimulant during cardiac resuscitation Treatment of asthma, severe allergies and other respiratory disorders Similar to epinephrine Nasal decongestant and to elevate blood pressure or dilate respiratory passages Boosts mood in the brain Boosts mood in the brain Antidepressant Antidepressant Drugs that Stimulate the Parasympathetic Nervous System (Parasympathomimetic) Muscarine, pilocarpine, Stimulates muscarinic Similar to effects of Ach methacholine pupil contraction Physostigmine, neostigmine, malathion, nerve gases Block action of acetylcholinesterase Increase Ach concentrations at synapses Drugs that Block the Sympathetic Nervous System Prazosin (Minipress) Blocks α 1 Lowers blood pressure Tamsulosin (Flomax) Blocks α 1a Relaxes smooth muscle surrounding the urethra Yohimbine (herbal supplement) Blocks α 2 Propranolol (Inderal) Blocks β 1 and β 2 Dilates blood vessels and relaxes smooth muscles Reduces metabolic activity in cardiac muscle but may constrict respiratory passageways: slows heart rate Applied topically to cornea of eye to cause Stimulate digestive tract and smooth muscles of urinary bladder Treatment of high blood pressure Treatment of benign prostrate hyperplasia Aphrodisiac Treatment of high blood pressure: used to reduce heart rate and force of contraction in heart disease

7 Metoprolol (Lopressor), atenolol Blocks β 1 Reduces metabolic activity in cardiac muscle Drugs that Block the Parasympathetic Nervous System Atropine, related drugs Block muscarinic Inhibit parasympathetic activity Similar to those of Inderal but has less of an effect on respiratory muscles Treating diarrhea; dilating pupils; raising heart rate; blocking secretions of digestive and respiratory tracts prior to surgery; used to treat accidental exposure to anticholinesterase drugs, such as pesticides or military nerve gases

Autonomic Nervous System Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi

Autonomic Nervous System Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi Autonomic Nervous System Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi Nervous System Divisions of the nervous system The human nervous system consists of the central nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).

More information

Chapter 15 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture

Chapter 15 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture 1 THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Chapter 15 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture 2 THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) regulates the activity of smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and certain

More information

Mammalian Physiology. Autonomic Nervous System UNLV. PHYSIOLOGY, Chapter 11 Berne, Levy, Koeppen, Stanton UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA LAS VEGAS

Mammalian Physiology. Autonomic Nervous System UNLV. PHYSIOLOGY, Chapter 11 Berne, Levy, Koeppen, Stanton UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA LAS VEGAS Mammalian Physiology Autonomic Nervous System UNLV 1 UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA LAS VEGAS PHYSIOLOGY, Chapter 11 Berne, Levy, Koeppen, Stanton Objectives Describe the organization of the autonomic nervous system

More information

Chapter 15. The Autonomic Nervous. The Autonomic Nervous System. Autonomic Motor Pathways. ANS vs. SNS

Chapter 15. The Autonomic Nervous. The Autonomic Nervous System. Autonomic Motor Pathways. ANS vs. SNS The Autonomic Nervous System Chapter 15 The subconscious involuntary nervous system Regulates activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle & certain glands The Autonomic Nervous System 1 2 ANS vs. SNS Somatic

More information

D.U.C. Assist. Lec. Faculty of Dentistry General Physiology Ihsan Dhari. The Autonomic Nervous System

D.U.C. Assist. Lec. Faculty of Dentistry General Physiology Ihsan Dhari. The Autonomic Nervous System The Autonomic Nervous System The portion of the nervous system that controls most visceral functions of the body is called the autonomic nervous system. This system helps to control arterial pressure,

More information

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. c. CNS (central nervous system) control: voluntary (but has involuntary components; e.g. reflexes)

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. c. CNS (central nervous system) control: voluntary (but has involuntary components; e.g. reflexes) page 1 INTRODUCTION A. Divisions of the Peripheral Nervous System 1. Somatic nervous system (voluntary) a. tissues innervated: skeletal muscle b. action: always excitatory (cause muscle contraction) c.

More information

Please read chapter 15, The Autonomic Nervous System, complete this study guide, and study this material BEFORE coming to the first class.

Please read chapter 15, The Autonomic Nervous System, complete this study guide, and study this material BEFORE coming to the first class. Please read chapter 15,, complete this study guide, and study this material BEFORE coming to the first class. I. Introduction to the autonomic nervous system: Briefly describe the autonomic nervous system.

More information

Chapter 15. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and Visceral Reflexes. general properties Anatomy. Autonomic effects on target organs

Chapter 15. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and Visceral Reflexes. general properties Anatomy. Autonomic effects on target organs Chapter 15 Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and Visceral Reflexes general properties Anatomy Autonomic effects on target organs Central control of autonomic function 15-1 Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies,

More information

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Somatic efferent and ANS Somatic Efferent Control is over skeletal muscles. External environment This division of the PNS responds to some change in the external environment. single

More information

Chapter 15. Neurotransmitters of the ANS

Chapter 15. Neurotransmitters of the ANS Chapter 15 Neurotransmitters of the ANS Neurotransmitters and Receptors How can the same ANS neurons create different effects on different target tissue? Variety of neurotransmitters Secondly, different

More information

Chapter 15. Sympathetic Nervous System

Chapter 15. Sympathetic Nervous System Chapter 15 Sympathetic Nervous System Somatic versus Autonomic Pathways Somatic efferent innervation ACh Myelinated fiber Somatic effectors (skeletal muscles) Autonomic efferent innervation ACh ACh or

More information

CHAPTER 16: THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

CHAPTER 16: THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Unit 4: The Autonomic Nervous System 254 CHAPTER 16: THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Read: Chapter 16, pages 517-534. Read only the topics covered in lecture. We will not cover this chapter in detail. Complete

More information

The Autonomic Nervous System Physiology Study Guide, Chapter 9

The Autonomic Nervous System Physiology Study Guide, Chapter 9 Name: The Autonomic Nervous System Physiology Study Guide, Chapter 9 Lab Time: 1 Part I. Clinical Applications and Short Essay 1. After surgery, patients are often temporarily unable to urinate, and bowel

More information

ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR AGONIST,CLASSIFICATION AND MECHANISM OF ACTION.

ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR AGONIST,CLASSIFICATION AND MECHANISM OF ACTION. ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR AGONIST,CLASSIFICATION AND MECHANISM OF ACTION. LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of lecture students should be able to know, Adrenergic receptor agonist, Classification and mechanism

More information

Autonomic Nervous System

Autonomic Nervous System MOST FREQUENTLY USED DRUG CATEGORIES FOR AUTONOMIC SYSTEM THERAPY Beta 1 Adrenergic Blockers (Anatgonists) - Work on the Heart Beta 1 Adrenergic receptors are typically found on the heart and is a means

More information

Key Points. Autonomic Nervous System Drugs. Autonomic effects Sympathetic. Drugs can modify ANS activity by: Autonomic Nervous System

Key Points. Autonomic Nervous System Drugs. Autonomic effects Sympathetic. Drugs can modify ANS activity by: Autonomic Nervous System Key Points Autonomic Nervous System Drugs Autonomic drugs work at the synapses, Drugs either suppress or magnify the sympathetic or parasympathetic effect, Drugs don t work on a single target organ so

More information

The Autonomic Nervous System

The Autonomic Nervous System Introduction (pp. 526 528) Comparison of the Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems (pp. 526 527) ANS Divisions (pp. 527 528) ANS Anatomy (pp. 528 535) Parasympathetic (Craniosacral) Division (pp. 529 530)

More information

The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) *Definition: The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) The autonomic system is the part of the peripheral nervous system that is responsible for regulating involuntary body functions. *Organization of the Nervous

More information

SPINAL CORD & SPINAL NERVES

SPINAL CORD & SPINAL NERVES Carl Christensen, PhD Chap. 14, 15, 15 - Nervous System Bio. 2304 - Human Anatomy SPINAL CORD & SPINAL NERVES Name the three coverings of the spinal cord and brain from superficial to deep. Where does

More information

Chapter 13. Sympathetic Nervous System. Basic Functions of the Nervous System. Divisions of the Peripheral Nervous System

Chapter 13. Sympathetic Nervous System. Basic Functions of the Nervous System. Divisions of the Peripheral Nervous System Chapter 13 Drugs Affecting the Autonomic Basic Functions of the Recognizing changes in Internal environment External environment Processing and integrating changes Reacting to changes Upper Saddle River,

More information

Autonomic Receptor Functions

Autonomic Receptor Functions Part II Autonomic Receptor Functions Summary of ANS overview Pharmacological classification of ANS is based on neurotransmitters: cholinergic, adrenergic, and dopaminergic. Major sites for pharmacological

More information

Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Consists of: 12 pairs of cranial nerves 31 pairs of spinal nerves The autonomic nervous system

Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Consists of: 12 pairs of cranial nerves 31 pairs of spinal nerves The autonomic nervous system Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Consists of: 12 pairs of cranial nerves 31 pairs of spinal nerves The autonomic nervous system Nerves and neurons Cranial nerves There are 12 pairs They are numbered according

More information

The Autonomic Nervous System and Visceral Sensory Neurons 15

The Autonomic Nervous System and Visceral Sensory Neurons 15 The Autonomic Nervous System and Visceral Sensory Neurons 15 Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System 468 Comparison of the Autonomic and Somatic Motor Systems 468 Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System

More information

ACE s Essentials of Exercise Science for Fitness Professionals. Chapter 2: Hormones

ACE s Essentials of Exercise Science for Fitness Professionals. Chapter 2: Hormones ACE s Essentials of Exercise Science for Fitness Professionals Chapter 2: Hormones Learning Objectives This chapter covers how the body responds to the demands of exercise at the cellular level and the

More information

9.01 Introduction to Neuroscience Fall 2007

9.01 Introduction to Neuroscience Fall 2007 MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 9.01 Introduction to Neuroscience Fall 2007 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms. 9.01 Monday Recitation,

More information

NERVOUS SYSTEM. Academic Resource Center

NERVOUS SYSTEM. Academic Resource Center NERVOUS SYSTEM Academic Resource Center Overview of the Nervous System Peripheral nervous system-pns cranial nerves spinal nerves ganglia peripheral nerves enteric plexuses sensory receptors Overview of

More information

Before anything else gets described, lets go over the anatomy of the spinal cord and peripheral nerves. The legend is on the next page.

Before anything else gets described, lets go over the anatomy of the spinal cord and peripheral nerves. The legend is on the next page. REVIEW OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM The nervous system is divided into two distinct, but interconnected systems. First is the central nervous system (CNS) which consists of the brain and spinal cord.

More information

Autonomic Nerves to the Rescue!

Autonomic Nerves to the Rescue! Autonomic Nerves to the Rescue! The Human Nervous System is a complex array of subsystems i, but it s the autonomic (involuntary) part of it that will make it possible for us to catch the train today.

More information

Pharmacology - Problem Drill 06: Autonomic Pharmacology - Adrenergic System

Pharmacology - Problem Drill 06: Autonomic Pharmacology - Adrenergic System Pharmacology - Problem Drill 06: Autonomic Pharmacology - Adrenergic System Question No. 1 of 10 Instructions: (1) Read the problem and answer choices carefully, (2) Work the problems on paper as 1. What

More information

Nervous System: PNS and CNS

Nervous System: PNS and CNS Nervous System: PNS and CNS Biology 105 Lecture 10 Chapter 8 Outline I. Central Nervous System vs Peripheral Nervous System II. Peripheral Nervous System A. Somatic Nervous System B. Autonomic Nervous

More information

The somatic nervous system regulates conscious movements via efferent nerves exit from the CNS to skeletal muscles.

The somatic nervous system regulates conscious movements via efferent nerves exit from the CNS to skeletal muscles. Lecture 1 Nervous system The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system (CNS; brain and spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system (somatic and autonomic nervous systems; comprised of nerves

More information

Page 1: Title Page The autonomic nervous system, hormones, and other chemicals control motility and secretion of the digestive system.

Page 1: Title Page The autonomic nervous system, hormones, and other chemicals control motility and secretion of the digestive system. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Topic 2: Control of the Digestive System Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1: Title Page The

More information

Drugs affecting the autonomic nervous system. Objectives. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) 12/23/2014

Drugs affecting the autonomic nervous system. Objectives. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) 12/23/2014 Drugs affecting the autonomic nervous system N231 Nursing Pharmacology Objectives Analyze the implementation of the nursing process in the promotion and maintenance of system stability for individuals

More information

Nervous System Organization. PNS and CNS. Nerves. Peripheral Nervous System. Peripheral Nervous System. Motor Component.

Nervous System Organization. PNS and CNS. Nerves. Peripheral Nervous System. Peripheral Nervous System. Motor Component. Nervous System Organization PNS and CNS Chapters 8 and 9 Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) connects CNS to sensory receptors, muscles and glands Central Nervous System (CNS) control/integrating center brain

More information

Done by : Bashayer Almalki & Ahmed Al-Marzoqi Revised by : Nour Al-Khawajah & Mohammed Asiri

Done by : Bashayer Almalki & Ahmed Al-Marzoqi Revised by : Nour Al-Khawajah & Mohammed Asiri ENDOCRINE BLOCK PHYSIOLOGY TEAM 431 Done by : Bashayer Almalki & Ahmed Al-Marzoqi Revised by : Nour Al-Khawajah & Mohammed Asiri Physiology of Adrenal Medulla The adrenal medulla is a modified sympathetic

More information

Autonomic (ANS) Pharmacology. Sympathetic Nervous System

Autonomic (ANS) Pharmacology. Sympathetic Nervous System Autonomic (ANS) Pharmacology Sympathetic Nervous System Autonomic and Somatic Innervation Skeletal muscle is innervated by somatic nerves, controlling voluntary actions All other innervated structures

More information

Adrenergic, Adrenergic Blockers, Cholinergic and Cholinergic Blockers

Adrenergic, Adrenergic Blockers, Cholinergic and Cholinergic Blockers Adrenergic, Adrenergic Blockers, Cholinergic and Cholinergic Blockers Objective 1: Explain the difference between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic

More information

Peripheral Nervous System

Peripheral Nervous System Nervous system consists of: Peripheral Nervous System CNS = brain and spinal cord ~90% (90 Bil) of all neurons in body are in CNS PNS = Cranial nerves and spinal nerves, nerve plexuses & ganglia ~10% (10

More information

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM QUESTIONSHEET 1 (a) In the box below is a list of drugs which affect the nervous system, (i) to (v), and a jumbled list of drug actions, A to E. Select the correct drug activity for each drug by placing

More information

Essay Question for exam 3

Essay Question for exam 3 Essay Question for exam 3 Describe how action potentials are generated and propagated along neurons. Include in your description how intracellular voltage changes during the action potential by labeling

More information

U N IT 10 NE RVOUS SYS TE M REVIEW 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B.

U N IT 10 NE RVOUS SYS TE M REVIEW 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. U N IT 10 NE RVOUS SYS TE M REVIEW 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. increased blood flow to muscle tissue

More information

North Bergen School District Benchmarks

North Bergen School District Benchmarks Grade: 10,11, and 12 Subject: Anatomy and Physiology First Marking Period Define anatomy and physiology, and describe various subspecialties of each discipline. Describe the five basic functions of living

More information

Adrenergic receptors lec 9, part 2. 16/10/2014 Dr. Laila M. Matalqah Rama Kamal Ali Treany

Adrenergic receptors lec 9, part 2. 16/10/2014 Dr. Laila M. Matalqah Rama Kamal Ali Treany Adrenergic receptors lec 9, part 2 16/10/2014 Dr. Laila M. Matalqah Rama Kamal Ali Treany Pharmacology of ANS Adrenergic Agonists Adrenergic receptors:- - It is a receptor which is located in the peripheral

More information

Nervous system overview - Review Ch. 2; pp ; pp

Nervous system overview - Review Ch. 2; pp ; pp Lecture 02: Introduction to CNS/PNS Objectives: Gain an understanding of the central nervous system (CNS) Gain an understanding of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) Nervous system overview - Review Ch.

More information

PHC 313 The 7 th. Lecture. Adrenergic Agents

PHC 313 The 7 th. Lecture. Adrenergic Agents PHC 313 The 7 th. Lecture Adrenergic Agents Introduction Introduction Adrenergic agents are a broad class of agents employed in the treatment of many disorders. They are those chemical agents that exert

More information

Central control of the autonomic nervous system

Central control of the autonomic nervous system Central control of the autonomic nervous system John Morris Hypothalamus as an integrative centre regulating the ANS Involved in homeostasis stress responses anticipatory responses Sympathetic and para

More information

Chapter 7: The Nervous System

Chapter 7: The Nervous System Chapter 7: The Nervous System Objectives Discuss the general organization of the nervous system Describe the structure & function of a nerve Draw and label the pathways involved in a withdraw reflex Define

More information

Topic 1: Introduction to the Nervous System

Topic 1: Introduction to the Nervous System Topic 1: Introduction to the Nervous System v Name the parts of a generalised neuron & indicate the input, output and integration areas of the neuron. Ø Neurons are the functional cell of the nervous system

More information

ADRENERGIC AND ANTI-ADRENERGIC DRUGS. Mr. D.Raju, M.pharm, Lecturer

ADRENERGIC AND ANTI-ADRENERGIC DRUGS. Mr. D.Raju, M.pharm, Lecturer ADRENERGIC AND ANTI-ADRENERGIC DRUGS Mr. D.Raju, M.pharm, Lecturer SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Fight or flight response results in: 1. Increased BP 2. Increased blood flow to brain, heart and skeletal muscles

More information

HYPOTHALAMUS AND AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

HYPOTHALAMUS AND AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Page 1 of 7 HYPOTHALAMUS AND AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM A. Hypothalamus = Homeostasis The main function of the hypothalamus is homeostasis, or maintaining the body's status quo. Factors such as blood pressure,

More information

CONTROL OF BLOOD FLOW AND BLOOD PRESSURE (Lectures 3b and 4)

CONTROL OF BLOOD FLOW AND BLOOD PRESSURE (Lectures 3b and 4) CONTROL OF BLOOD FLOW AND BLOOD PRESSURE (Lectures 3b and 4) 63 CONTROL OF BLOOD FLOW 1) REASON: Body needs different levels of nutrient delivery and metabolic removal for differing levels of activities

More information

PHARMACOLOGY Vol. II - The Autonomic Nervous System - James Ziogas and Fred Mitchelson

PHARMACOLOGY Vol. II - The Autonomic Nervous System - James Ziogas and Fred Mitchelson THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM James Ziogas and Fred Mitchelson Department of Pharmacology, University of Melbourne, Parkville Victoria, 3010, Australia. Keywords: Autonomic neurotransmission, sympathetic,

More information

The connection between adjacent neurons.

The connection between adjacent neurons. 1. The diagram below is of a nerve cell or neuron. i. Add the following labels to the diagram. Axon; Myelin sheath; Cell body; Dendrites; Muscle fibres; ii. Now indicate the direction that the nerve impulse

More information

Chapter 1: Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology

Chapter 1: Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy and Physiology The Biology Corner Chapter 1: Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy: Structure of Body Parts. Morphology Physiology: Function of body parts. What they do and how.

More information

Histology of Nervous Tissue Nervous system consists mostly of nervous tissue, which is highly cellular. Less than 20% of the CNS is extracellular

Histology of Nervous Tissue Nervous system consists mostly of nervous tissue, which is highly cellular. Less than 20% of the CNS is extracellular The Nervous System Overview The nervous system is the master controlling and communicating system of the body. Every thought, action and emotion reflects its activity. Its cells communicate by electrical

More information

Stress Psychophysiology. Introduction. The Brain. Chapter 2

Stress Psychophysiology. Introduction. The Brain. Chapter 2 Stress Psychophysiology Chapter 2 Introduction This chapter covers the process & structures activated during the physiological response to stress. Two stress pathways are available; one for short term

More information

Nerves and Nerve Impulse

Nerves and Nerve Impulse Nerves and Nerve Impulse Terms Absolute refractory period: Period following stimulation during which no additional action potential can be evoked. Acetylcholine: Chemical transmitter substance released

More information

Overactive bladder is a common condition thought to. women, and is a serious condition that can lead to. significant lifestyle changes.

Overactive bladder is a common condition thought to. women, and is a serious condition that can lead to. significant lifestyle changes. Overactive bladder is a common condition thought to FADE UP TO WIDE SHOT OF FEMALE MODEL WITH TRANSPARENT SKIN. URINARY BLADDER VISIBLE IN PELVIC REGION affect over 16 percent of adults. It affects men

More information

Case 1: Anticholinesterase

Case 1: Anticholinesterase Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology HST.151: Principles of Pharmocology Instructor: Dr. Carl Rosow, Dr. David Standaert and Prof. Gary Strichartz Case 1: Anticholinesterase February

More information

Nerve tissue. Development and function of the nervous system Neuron Membrane potentials Synaptic communication

Nerve tissue. Development and function of the nervous system Neuron Membrane potentials Synaptic communication Nerve tissue Development and function of the nervous system Neuron Membrane potentials Synaptic communication Development neuroectoderm neural plate neural tube: brain vesicles spinal cord neural crest

More information

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY. Part 1: The Nervous System

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY. Part 1: The Nervous System ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY Part 1: The Nervous System Please watch the following video. - Click the link below. - Adjust volume on speaker (far right on teacher desk). - Increase picture size by clicking bottom

More information

Association neurons allow for integration of information, reflexes and associative functions (decision making)

Association neurons allow for integration of information, reflexes and associative functions (decision making) The Nervous System Nervous system links sensory receptors and motor effectors Sensory (afferent) neurons carry impulses from receptors Motor (efferent) neurons carry impulses to effectors - muscles and

More information

Chapter 13. The Nature of Somatic Reflexes

Chapter 13. The Nature of Somatic Reflexes Chapter 13 The Nature of Somatic Reflexes Nature of Reflexes (1 of 3) A reflex is an involuntary responses initiated by a sensory input resulting in a change in a gland or muscle tissue occur without our

More information

ORGAN SYSTEMS OF THE BODY

ORGAN SYSTEMS OF THE BODY ORGAN SYSTEMS OF THE BODY DEFINITIONS AND CONCEPTS A. Organ a structure made up of two or more kinds of tissues organized in such a way that they can together perform a more complex function that can any

More information

Chapter 9 Nervous System

Chapter 9 Nervous System Chapter 9 Nervous System Nervous System function: The nervous system is composed of neurons and neuroglia. at the ends of peripheral nerves gather information and convert it into nerve impulses. When sensory

More information

Smooth Muscle. Learning Objectives.

Smooth Muscle. Learning Objectives. Smooth Muscle. Learning Objectives. At the end of this course, you should be able to : 1. describe the structure of smooth muscle 2. describe where smooth muscle occurs within the body 3. discuss the structural

More information

Engage: Brainstorming Body Systems. Record the structures and function of each body system in the table below.

Engage: Brainstorming Body Systems. Record the structures and function of each body system in the table below. Engage: Brainstorming Body s Record the structures and function of each body system in the table below. Body Nervous Circulatory Excretory Immune Digestive Respiratory Skeletal Muscular Endocrine Integumentary

More information

Section 02: The Cardiovascular System

Section 02: The Cardiovascular System Section 02: The Cardiovascular System Chapter 15 The Cardiovascular System Chapter 16 Cardiovascular Regulation and Integration Chapter 17 Functional Capacity of the Cardiovascular System HPHE 6710 Exercise

More information

Metabolic Pathways - postabsorptive. Metabolic Pathways - absorptive. Hormonal Control of Blood Glucose. 1. Absorptive state is about Glucose storage

Metabolic Pathways - postabsorptive. Metabolic Pathways - absorptive. Hormonal Control of Blood Glucose. 1. Absorptive state is about Glucose storage Metabolic Pathways - absorptive GI tract Hormonal Control of Blood Triglyceride Amino Acids α-ketoacids protein All tissue adipose Metabolic Pathways - postabsorptive Lactate & pyruvate protein Lactate

More information

3) Cerebral Cortex & Functions of the 4 LOBES. 5) Cranial Nerves (Nerves In the Cranium, i.e., Head)

3) Cerebral Cortex & Functions of the 4 LOBES. 5) Cranial Nerves (Nerves In the Cranium, i.e., Head) Lecture 5 (Oct 8 th ): ANATOMY and FUNCTION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Lecture Outline 1) Basic Divisions (CNS vs. PNS, Somatic vs. Autonomic) and Directional Terms 2) The Brain (Hindbrain/ Midbrain/ Forebrain)

More information

The Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Nervous System Worksheet/Worksheet Answers

The Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Nervous System Worksheet/Worksheet Answers The Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Nervous System Worksheet/Worksheet Answers From WikiEducator < The Anatomy and Physiology of Animals Nervous System Worksheet 1. The diagram below is of a nerve cell

More information

Structural Classification of the Nervous System

Structural Classification of the Nervous System Structural Classification of the Nervous System Central nervous system (CNS) Brain and spinal cord Activates nerve responses Interprets sensations Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Composed of all the nerves

More information

Year 9 It s My Body WS2 Nervous System - Neurons Name: Date:

Year 9 It s My Body WS2 Nervous System - Neurons Name: Date: Year 9 It s My Body WS1 Nervous System Name: Date: 1. What is the function of the sensory nerves? Sensory nerves carry messages from changes inside the body (receptors detecting chemical changes) and outside

More information

4-Nervous system I: Structure and organization

4-Nervous system I: Structure and organization 4-Nervous system I: Structure and organization GENERAL ORGANIZATION NEURON STRUCTURE BRAIN & CRANIAL NERVES SPINAL CORD & NERVES AUTONOMIC SYSTEM Announcements Andrew s Office Hours: Friday 9:00-10:00,

More information

Higher Human Biology Unit 3 Notes Divisions of the Nervous System. The Nervous System

Higher Human Biology Unit 3 Notes Divisions of the Nervous System. The Nervous System The Nervous System The nervous system of the human body is responsible for numerous functions, such as: analysing sensory information from the body and external environment storing some information making

More information

Major Structures of the Nervous System

Major Structures of the Nervous System Major Structures of the Nervous System Brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, spinal nerves, ganglia, enteric plexuses and sensory receptors Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-1 Nervous System Divisions

More information

Control and Coordination

Control and Coordination CHAPTER 7 Control and Coordination Living organisms respond and react to various stimuli like heat, light, cold, touch, pressure etc. Plants and animals both respond to stimuli but in different manner.

More information

Thebiotutor.com A2 Biology OCR Unit F214: Communication, Homeostasis and Energy Module 1.3 Hormones Notes

Thebiotutor.com A2 Biology OCR Unit F214: Communication, Homeostasis and Energy Module 1.3 Hormones Notes Thebiotutor.com A2 Biology OCR Unit F214: Communication, Homeostasis and Energy Module 1.3 Hormones Notes Andy Todd 1 Define the terms endocrine gland, exocrine gland, hormone and target tissue. Gland

More information

CHAPTER 11: NERVOUS SYSTEM II: DIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM OBJECTIVES: 1. Outline the major divisions of the nervous system.

CHAPTER 11: NERVOUS SYSTEM II: DIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM OBJECTIVES: 1. Outline the major divisions of the nervous system. CHAPTER 11: NERVOUS II: DIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS OBJECTIVES: 1. Outline the major divisions of the nervous system. NERVOUS CENTRAL NERVOUS (BRAIN & SPINAL CORD) (INTERNEURONS) PERIPHERAL NERVOUS (CRANIAL

More information

Tissue Slides for Studying

Tissue Slides for Studying Tissue Slides for Studying Simple squamous single layer of flat cells substances pass easily through line air sacs line blood vessels line lymphatic vessels Surface of simple squamous Simple cuboidal single

More information

What on Earth is the Autonomic Nervous System? Dysautonomia and Autonomic Dysfunction

What on Earth is the Autonomic Nervous System? Dysautonomia and Autonomic Dysfunction www.complexchild.com What on Earth is the Autonomic Nervous System? Dysautonomia and Autonomic Dysfunction Most people have never heard of the Autonomic Nervous System, even though it controls most of

More information

Blood Pressure Regulation

Blood Pressure Regulation Blood Pressure Regulation Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Introduction There are two basic mechanisms for regulating

More information

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sensory Pathway (PNS) OVERVIEW OF SPINAL CORD ANATOMY OF THE SPINAL CORD FUNCTIONS OF THE SPINAL CORD

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sensory Pathway (PNS) OVERVIEW OF SPINAL CORD ANATOMY OF THE SPINAL CORD FUNCTIONS OF THE SPINAL CORD CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Central nervous system (CNS) brain and spinal cord enclosed in bony coverings Functions of the spinal cord spinal cord reflexes integration ti (summation of inhibitory and excitatory)

More information

Introduction to Animal Systems

Introduction to Animal Systems Human Body Systems Introduction to Animal Systems Recurring Themes in Biology 1. Correlation between structure and function( seen at many levels) 2. Life is organized at many levels from Smallest ----

More information

Chapter 17 Nervous Tissue

Chapter 17 Nervous Tissue Chapter 17 Nervous Tissue Introduction The nervous system and the endocrine system are the body s major control and integrating centers. Neurology is the study of the normal functioning and disorders of

More information

NERVOUS SYSTEM B 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C.

NERVOUS SYSTEM B 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. NERVOUS SYSTEM B 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. increased blood flow to muscle tissue D. movement of food

More information

Dissection 7: Eye and Orbit

Dissection 7: Eye and Orbit Dissection 7: Eye and Orbit Objective 1) Identify the elements of the bony orbit on a skull or x-ray. A). Frontal, Sphenoid, Ethmoid, Lacrimal, Zygomatic, Palatine, and Maxillary bones B). Superior wall

More information

Chapter 9. The Nervous System. Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006, 2002, 1997, 1992 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

Chapter 9. The Nervous System. Mosby items and derived items 2010, 2006, 2002, 1997, 1992 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Chapter 9 The Nervous System Objectives List the organs and divisions of the nervous system and describe the generalized functions of the system as a whole Identify the major types of cells in the nervous

More information

11 Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue: Part A

11 Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue: Part A 11 Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue: Part A Functions of the Nervous System 1.Sensory input Information gathered by sensory receptors about internal and external changes 2.Integration

More information

Paramedic Program Anatomy and Physiology Study Guide

Paramedic Program Anatomy and Physiology Study Guide Paramedic Program Anatomy and Physiology Study Guide Define the terms anatomy and physiology. List and discuss in order of increasing complexity, the body from the cell to the whole organism. Define the

More information

What is the basic component of the brain and spinal cord communication system?

What is the basic component of the brain and spinal cord communication system? EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY David Myers The Biology of Mind Chapter 2 Neural Communication Neurons How Neurons Communicate How Neurotransmitters Influence Us The Nervous System The Peripheral Nervous System The

More information

GI TRACT ORGANS ACCESSORY ORGANS

GI TRACT ORGANS ACCESSORY ORGANS Digestive System GI TRACT ORGANS Oral cavity Oropharynx Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large Intestine Anus ACCESSORY ORGANS Salivary glands Pancreas Liver Gall bladder GI TRACT LAYERS Mucosa Submucosa

More information

LESSON ASSIGNMENT. 7-4. Given a group of statements, select the best definition of the term adrenergic (sympathomimetic) drug.

LESSON ASSIGNMENT. 7-4. Given a group of statements, select the best definition of the term adrenergic (sympathomimetic) drug. LESSON ASSIGNMENT LESSON 7 Adrenergic Agents. TEXT ASSIGNMENT Paragraphs 7-1 through 7-6. LESSON OBJECTIVES 7-1. Given a group of statements, select the mechanism(s) of action of drugs which stimulate

More information

Name Class Date Laboratory Investigation 24A Chapter 24A: Human Skin

Name Class Date Laboratory Investigation 24A Chapter 24A: Human Skin Name Class Date Laboratory Investigation 24A Chapter 24A: Human Skin Human Anatomy & Physiology: Integumentary System You may refer to pages 386-394 in your textbook for a general discussion of the integumentary

More information

THE NEURAL SYSTEM. By Jessica Garcia, Elide Gonzalez, Jessica Alatorre, Diana Osuna and Fantasia Bolden

THE NEURAL SYSTEM. By Jessica Garcia, Elide Gonzalez, Jessica Alatorre, Diana Osuna and Fantasia Bolden THE NEURAL SYSTEM By Jessica Garcia, Elide Gonzalez, Jessica Alatorre, Diana Osuna and Fantasia Bolden Thoracic Spinal Nerves Sacral Spinal Nerves The Spinal Cord The Nervous System The Brain Cervical

More information

Topics for seminar of Post-graduate students MD Physiology Session: July July2014

Topics for seminar of Post-graduate students MD Physiology Session: July July2014 Topics for seminar of Post-graduate students MD Physiology Session: July 2013 - July2014 Cellular and molecular basis of medical physiology. 1. DNA and its applied aspects. 2. RNA and its applied aspects.

More information

Chapter 7: The Nervous System

Chapter 7: The Nervous System Chapter 7: The Nervous System I. Organization of the Nervous System Objectives: List the general functions of the nervous system Explain the structural and functional classifications of the nervous system

More information

Homeostasis. Sensor (e.g. hypothalamus in brain) detects the change and. initiates the. corrective action

Homeostasis. Sensor (e.g. hypothalamus in brain) detects the change and. initiates the. corrective action Homeostasis same state Homeostasis is the maintenance of constant internal conditions within the body Examples of conditions, which need to be maintained: - body temperature - oxygen concentration - carbon

More information

Human Body Systems. Body Organization and Homeostasis

Human Body Systems. Body Organization and Homeostasis Human Body Systems Body Organization and Homeostasis Objectives Describe how the human body is organized Explain homeostasis Organization of the Body Every cell in the human body is both an independent

More information

Adrenergic agonists:-

Adrenergic agonists:- Adrenergic agonists:- A.) Catecholamines They are called catecholamines because they contain a catechol group, they are water-soluble and are 50% bound to plasma proteins, so they circulate in the bloodstream.

More information