1 Autonomic (ANS) Pharmacology Sympathetic Nervous System
2 Autonomic and Somatic Innervation Skeletal muscle is innervated by somatic nerves, controlling voluntary actions All other innervated structures are supplied by the autonomic or involuntary system. Somatic system: No ganglia present Autonomic nervous system (ANS) has ganglia. These ganglia are sites at which preganglionic fibers form synaptic connections with postganglionic neurons These ganglia are located outside the cerebrospinal axis
3 Other differences between Somatic and Autonomic Innervation : Motor nerves to skeletal muscle: myelinated Postganglionic autonomic nerves are nonmyelinated Denervation of skeletal muscle results in paralysis and atrophy Denervated smooth muscle or glands retain some activity
7 Characteristics of Autonomic Organ Innervation Usually, parasympathetic and sympathetic systems are physiological antagonists; that is, if one system facilitates or augments a process the other system inhibits the process.
8 Since most visceral organs are innervated by both system, the activity of the organ is influenced by both, even though one system may be dominant. The general pattern of antagonism between sympathetic and parasympathetic systems is not always applicable. The interaction between sympathetic and parasympathetic systems may be independent or interdependent.
9 Examples of Antagonistic Interactions between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Systems Actions of sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on the heart. Actions of sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on the iris.
10 Interdependent or Complementary Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Effects Actions of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems on male sexual organs are complementary.
11 Independent Effects Vascular resistance is mainly controlled by sympathetic tone.
13 Fight or Flight: General Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System ANS regulates organs/processes not under conscious control including: circulation digestion respiration temperature sweating metabolism some endocrine gland secretions
14 Sympathetic system is most active when the body needs to react to changes in the internal or external environment: The requirement for sympathetic activity is most critical for: temperature regulation regulation of glucose levels rapid vascular response to hemorrhage reacting to oxygen deficiency During rage orالغضب fright theالخوف sympathetic system can discharge as a unit--affecting multiorgan systems.
16 Parasympathetic responses slows heart rate. protects retina العين fromشبكي ة excessive light. lowers blood pressure. empties the bowel and bladder. increases gastrointestinal motility promotes absorption of nutrients.
17 Neurotransmitters and the Autonomic Nervous System Neurotransmitter Criteria: To support the idea that a chemical is a neurotransmitter, several conditions must be satisfied--- The chemical should be found in the appropriate anatomical location (e.g. synaptic terminal) Enzymes that are involved in "transmitter" synthesis should also be present.
18 Neurotransmission Steps Axonal conduction Depolarization of the axonal membrane potential results in an action potential. The up stoke of the action potential is a sodium current flowing through voltageactivated sodium channels
19 As the membrane potential decreases, activation occurs of an outgoing potassium current, which opposes further depolarization and initiates repolarization. Longitudinal spread of local depolarizing sodium currents results in progressive, longitudinal activation of sodium channels and new sites of depolarization. The rate of conduction is dependent on the number and synchrony of sodium channel activation. Number and synchrony of sodium channel activation is membrane potential dependent.
20 As the resting membrane potential decrease (towards 0), fewer sodium channels will be activated by a depolarizing influence and conduction velocity slows.
22 Many chemical can inhibit norepinephrine or acetylcholine release through receptor interactions at the appropriate terminal. Examples: Norepinephrine + presynaptic alpha 2- adrenergic receptor (autoreceptor) inhibits norepinephrine release Alpha2 receptor antagonists increase release of norepinephrine Neurally-mediated acetylcholine release from cholinergic neurons is inhibited by alpha2- adrenergic receptor agonists Stimulation of presynaptic beta2 adrenergic receptors increases slightly norepinephrine release
23 These agents Inhibit neurally-mediated norepinephrine released by interacting with presynaptic receptors Adenosine Acetylcholine Dopamine Prostaglandins Enkephalins Neurotransmitter + Post-Junctional Receptors Interactions Lead to Physiological Response
24 Termination of Transmitter Action Cholinergic: Termination of action of acetylcholine is acetylcholine hydrolysis. (acetylcholinesterase-catalazed) If acetylcholinesterase is inhibited, the duration of cholinergic effect is increased. Adrenergic: Termination of action of adrenergic neurotransmitters is by reuptake and diffusion away from receptors.
25 Cholinergic Neurotransmission
26 Transmitter Synthesis and Degradation Acetylcholine is synthesized from the immediate precursors acetyl coenzyme A and choline in a reaction catalyzed by choline acetyltransferase (choline acetylase).
27 Acetylcholinesterase Rapid inactivation of acetylcholine is mediated by acetylcholinesterase. Acetylcholinesterase is present at ganglia, visceral neuroeffector junctions, and neuromuscular junctional endplates. Another type of cholinesterase, called pseudocholinesterase or butyrylcholinesterase has limited presence in neurons, but is present in glia. Most pseudocholinesterase activity is found in plasma and liver. Pharmacological effects of anti-cholinesterase drugs are due to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase
28 Cholinergic Transmission: Site Skeletal Muscle Differences Neurotransmitter: Acetylcholine Receptor Type: Nicotinic Sectioning and degeneration of motor and postganglionic nerve fibers results in: an enhanced post-synaptic responsiveness, denervation hypersensitivity. Denervation hypersensivity in skeletal muscle is due to» increased expression of nicotinic cholinergic receptors» and their spread to regions aways from the endplate.
29 Autonomic Effectors Neurotransmitter: Acetylcholine Receptor type: Muscarinic effector coupled to receptor by a G protein In smooth muscle and in the cardiac conduction system, intrinsic electrical activity and mechanism activity is present, modifiable by autonomic tone. Activities include propagated slow waves of depolarization: Examples: intestinal motility and spontaneous depolarizations of cardiac SA nodal pacemakers. Acetylcholine decreases heart rate by decreases SA nodal pacemaker phase 4 depolarization
30 Autonomic Ganglia Neurotransmitter: Acetylcholine Receptor type: Nicotinic Generally similar to skeletal muscle site: initial depolarization is due to receptor activation. The receptor is a ligand-gated channel.
31 Blood vessels Choline ester administration results in blood vessel dilatation as a result of effects on prejunctional inhibitory synapses of sympathetic fibers and inhibitory cholinergic (non-innervated receptors). In isolated blood vessel preparations, acetycholine's vasodilator effects are mediated by activation of muscarinic receptors which cause release of nitric oxide, which produces relaxation.
32 Signal Transduction Nicotinic Receptors Ligand-gated ion channels Agonist effects blocked by tubocurarine Receptor activation results in: rapid increases of Na+ and Ca2+ conductance deplorization excitation Subtypes based on differing subunit composition: Muscle and Neuronal Classification
33 Muscarinic Receptors G-protein coupled receptor system Slower responses Agonist effects blocked by atropine At least five receptor subtypes have been described by molecular cloning. Variants have distinct anatomical locations and differing molecular specificities
37 Adrenergic Neurotransmission Introduction to the Neurotransmitters Norepinephrine: transmitter released at most postganglionic sympathetic terminals Dopamine: major CNS neurotransmitter of mammalian extrapyramidal system and some mesocortical and mesolimbic neurononal pathways. Epinephrine: most important hormone of the adrenal medulla
38 Catecholamine Synthesis, Storage, and Release
40 ß-adrenergic receptors Order of agonist potency Isoproterenol > epinephrine > norepinephrine ß-receptors are divided into two major categories: ß1 and ß2. ß1 receptors myocardium. ß2 receptors smooth muscle and most other sites. The subdivision of beta receptors followed from the observation that in the heart norepinephrine and epinephrine were equipotent, whereas epinephrine was many fold (10-50) more potent at smooth muscle.
41 A ß3 receptor has been found that is strongly activated by norepinephrine compared to epinephrine and may explain "atypical" pharmacological properties of adipose tissue. The ß3 -receptor is not blocked by propranolol, classified as a non selective beta-receptor blocker. Activation of ß1, ß2 and ß3 receptors increases adenylyl cyclase activity (Gs mediated) resulting in a rise of intracellular camp.
42 Cardiac inotropic effects result from increases in Ca2+ concentration, due to: phosphorylation of L-type Ca2+ channels phosphorylation of sarcolemmal Ca2+ pumps direct action Gs action on the L-type channel Effects on the liver lead to activation of glycogen phosphorylation ß2 receptor activation mediates relaxation of vascular smooth muscle ß2 receptor activation mediates relaxation of G.I. smooth muscle. alpha2 adrenergic receptor activation acts presynaptically to reduce Ach release and promote G.I. smooth muscle relaxation. The alpha2 receptor effect is the more important.
43 Alpha Adrenergic Receptors Order of agonist potency epinephrine > norepinephrine >> isoproterenol Multiple alpha receptor subtypes have been identified. Multiple forms were suggested when, after administration of an alpha-receptor antagonist, repetitive nerve stimulation resulted in increasing amount of norepinephrine release.
44 This findings suggested a presynaptic alphareceptor binding site. Post-synaptic receptors alpha1. Pre-synaptic receptors alpha2. Alpha2 receptors are also present postsynaptically. This site is involved in the action of some centrally-acting antihypertensive agents, e.g. clonidine. Some drugs, such as clonidine are more active at alpha2 receptors.
45 Catecholamine Refractoriness Following exposure to catecholamines, there is a progressive loss of the ability of the target site to respond to catecholamines. This phenomenon is termed tachyphylaxis, desensitization or refractoriness. Regulation of catecholamine responsiveness occurs at several levels: Receptors G proteins Adenylyl cyclase Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase Stimulation of ß-adrenergic receptors rapidly causes receptor phosphorylation and decreased responsiveness. The phosphorylated receptor exhibits: decreased coupling to Gs and decreased stimulation of adenylyl cyclase.
48 Predominant Sympathetic or ParasympatheticTone Antatomical Site Arterioles Veins Heart Ciliary Muscle Gastrointestinal Tract Salivary Glands Predominant Autonomic Tone Sympathetic-adrenergic Sympathetic-adrenergic Parasympathetic-cholinergic Parasympathetic-cholinergic Parasympathetic-cholinergic Parasympathetic-cholinergic Sweat Glands Sympathetic-cholinergic
49 Pharmacological Modification of Autonomic Function
50 Transmitter Synthesis: Site 1 Cholinergic Hemicholinium (HC-3) blocks the choline transport system into the nerve ending, thus limiting acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis. Adrenergic Alpha-methyltyrosine inhibits tyrosine hydroxylase thus preventing synthesis of norepinephrine. Methyldopa inhibits aromatic amino acid decarboxylase and is itself decarboxylated and hydroxylated to form the "false transmitter" alpha-methyl norepinephrine
51 Transmitter Release: Site 2 Cholinergic Botulinum toxin can be used clinically to treat ocular muscle spasms, muscle dystonias, and spasms. Botulinus toxin binding at a presynaptic site blocks ACh release. Vesamicol blocks ACh transport into storage vesicles, thus limiting release.
52 Adrenergic Bretylium and guanethidine prevent actionpotential mediated norepinephrine release. Transient release may occur with these agents because they displace norepinephrine from storage sites. Tyramine, amphetamine, and ephedrine can produce a brief liberation of transmitter. Reserpine, by inhibiting vesicular uptake, produces a slow, depletion of norepinephrine, ultimately causing adrenergic blockade. Cytoplasmic MAO metabolizes the neurotransmitter. Reserpine similarly depletes dopamine and serotonin. Physiological effects of reserpine are due to depletion of many transmitters.
53 Receptor Interactions: Site 3 Cholinergic Tetraethylammonium, trimethaphan and hexamethonium are nicotinic ganglionic antagonists. Decamethonium, a depolarizing drug, selectively causes neuromuscular blockade. All classes of muscarinic receptors are blocked by atropine.
54 Adrenergic Phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine): an alpha1 receptor agonist. Clonidine (Catapres): an alpha2 receptor agonist. Prazosin (Minipress): an example of an alpha1 receptor antagonist. Yohimbine (Yocon): an example of an alpha2 receptor antagonist. Isoproterenol (Isuprel): ß1 and ß2 receptor agonist. Dobutamine (Dobutrex): a relatively selective myocardial ß1 receptor agonist. Terbutaline (Brethine): relatively selective ß2 receptor agonist. Propranolol (Inderal): an example of a non-selective betaadrenergic receptor blocker. Metoprolol (Lopressor): an example of a relatively selective ß1 receptor antagonist
55 Termination of Transmitter Effects: Site 4 Cholinergic Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors prevent breakdown and inactivation of acetylcholine. ACh accumulation at the neuromuscular junction causes flacid paralysis. ACh accumulation at postganglionic muscarinic sites results in either excessive stimulation (contraction & secretion) or inhibition (hyperpolarization), depending on the site. ACh accumulation at autonomic ganglia cause increased transmission.
56 Adrenergic Interference with neurotransmitter reuptake results in potentiation of catecholamine effects. Cocaine and imipramine are examples of drugs that inhibit the reuptake system. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors potentiate actions of tyramine; whereas catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitors (pyrogallol and tropolone) only slightly increase catecholamine effects.
page 1 INTRODUCTION A. Divisions of the Peripheral Nervous System 1. Somatic nervous system (voluntary) a. tissues innervated: skeletal muscle b. action: always excitatory (cause muscle contraction) c.
The Autonomic Nervous System Chapter 15 The subconscious involuntary nervous system Regulates activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle & certain glands The Autonomic Nervous System 1 2 ANS vs. SNS Somatic
Mammalian Physiology Autonomic Nervous System UNLV 1 UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA LAS VEGAS PHYSIOLOGY, Chapter 11 Berne, Levy, Koeppen, Stanton Objectives Describe the organization of the autonomic nervous system
*Definition: The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) The autonomic system is the part of the peripheral nervous system that is responsible for regulating involuntary body functions. *Organization of the Nervous
PHC 313 The 7 th. Lecture Adrenergic Agents Introduction Introduction Adrenergic agents are a broad class of agents employed in the treatment of many disorders. They are those chemical agents that exert
Autonomic Nervous System Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi Nervous System Divisions of the nervous system The human nervous system consists of the central nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).
Part II Autonomic Receptor Functions Summary of ANS overview Pharmacological classification of ANS is based on neurotransmitters: cholinergic, adrenergic, and dopaminergic. Major sites for pharmacological
Chapter 15: The Autonomic Nervous System Chapter Objectives COMPARISON OF SOMATIC AND AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEMS 1. List the structural and functional characteristics of the autonomic nervous system. 2.
Chapter 15 Neurotransmitters of the ANS Neurotransmitters and Receptors How can the same ANS neurons create different effects on different target tissue? Variety of neurotransmitters Secondly, different
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Somatic efferent and ANS Somatic Efferent Control is over skeletal muscles. External environment This division of the PNS responds to some change in the external environment. single
Lecture 1 Nervous system The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system (CNS; brain and spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system (somatic and autonomic nervous systems; comprised of nerves
Please read chapter 15,, complete this study guide, and study this material BEFORE coming to the first class. I. Introduction to the autonomic nervous system: Briefly describe the autonomic nervous system.
Name: The Autonomic Nervous System Physiology Study Guide, Chapter 9 Lab Time: 1 Part I. Clinical Applications and Short Essay 1. After surgery, patients are often temporarily unable to urinate, and bowel
Adrenergic receptors lec 9, part 2 16/10/2014 Dr. Laila M. Matalqah Rama Kamal Ali Treany Pharmacology of ANS Adrenergic Agonists Adrenergic receptors:- - It is a receptor which is located in the peripheral
1 THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Chapter 15 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture 2 THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) regulates the activity of smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and certain
Pharmacology - Problem Drill 06: Autonomic Pharmacology - Adrenergic System Question No. 1 of 10 Instructions: (1) Read the problem and answer choices carefully, (2) Work the problems on paper as 1. What
1) The resting membrane potential: a. Is much closer to the equilibrium for Na+ than to the equilibrium potential for K+. b. Is much closer to the equilibrium for K+ than to the equilibrium potential for
Page 1 of 7 Dr. RAJENDRAN S INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL EDUCATION AIIMS NOVEMBER 2012 - QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS PHYSIOLOGY This contains only 3 out of 7 questions. For complete questions with explanatory answers,
Chapter 15 Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and Visceral Reflexes general properties Anatomy Autonomic effects on target organs Central control of autonomic function 15-1 Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies,
Adrenergic agonists R. A. Nimmi Dilsha Department of pharmacy Faculty of Health Sciences The Open University of Sri Lanka Outline Recall Introduction to adrenergic agonists Classification of adrenergic
Hormones & Chemical Signaling Part 2 modulation of signal pathways and hormone classification & function How are these pathways controlled? Receptors are proteins! Subject to Specificity of binding Competition
Unit 4: The Autonomic Nervous System 254 CHAPTER 16: THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Read: Chapter 16, pages 517-534. Read only the topics covered in lecture. We will not cover this chapter in detail. Complete
ADRENERGIC AND ANTI-ADRENERGIC DRUGS Mr. D.Raju, M.pharm, Lecturer SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Fight or flight response results in: 1. Increased BP 2. Increased blood flow to brain, heart and skeletal muscles
Stress & Catecholamines - Overview UNIVERSITY OF PNG SCHOOL OF MEDICINE AND HEALTH SCIENCES DISCIPLINE OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY PBL MBBS YEAR II SEMINAR VJ Temple Stress can due to: What is
Nerves and Nerve Impulse Terms Absolute refractory period: Period following stimulation during which no additional action potential can be evoked. Acetylcholine: Chemical transmitter substance released
Chapter 13 Drugs Affecting the Autonomic Basic Functions of the Recognizing changes in Internal environment External environment Processing and integrating changes Reacting to changes Upper Saddle River,
Adrenergic agonists:- A.) Catecholamines They are called catecholamines because they contain a catechol group, they are water-soluble and are 50% bound to plasma proteins, so they circulate in the bloodstream.
AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes 1. General information: passage of information occurs in two ways: Nerves - process and send information fast (eg. stepping on a tack) Hormones - process and send information
MOST FREQUENTLY USED DRUG CATEGORIES FOR AUTONOMIC SYSTEM THERAPY Beta 1 Adrenergic Blockers (Anatgonists) - Work on the Heart Beta 1 Adrenergic receptors are typically found on the heart and is a means
Resting membrane potential ~ -70mV - Membrane is polarized (ie) Electrical charge on the outside of the membrane is positive while the electrical charge on the inside of the membrane is negative Changes
Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour: The Nervous System: Part 1 Textbook p216-225 41 In all exercises, quizzes and tests in this class, always answer in your own words. That is the only way that you can show that
Chapter 7: The Nervous System Objectives Discuss the general organization of the nervous system Describe the structure & function of a nerve Draw and label the pathways involved in a withdraw reflex Define
Section 02: The Cardiovascular System Chapter 15 The Cardiovascular System Chapter 16 Cardiovascular Regulation and Integration Chapter 17 Functional Capacity of the Cardiovascular System HPHE 6710 Exercise
U N IT 10 NE RVOUS SYS TE M REVIEW 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. increased blood flow to muscle tissue
Adrenergic, Adrenergic Blockers, Cholinergic and Cholinergic Blockers Objective 1: Explain the difference between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic
2013 ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY Sample Tournament Station A: Use the diagram in answering Questions 1-5. 1. Give the name and functions of the structure labeled A on the diagram. 2. Give the name and functions
Name: Questions on The Nervous System and Gas Exchange Directions: The following questions are taken from previous IB Final Papers on Topics 6.4 (Gas Exchange) and 6.5 (Nerves, hormones and homeostasis).
NERVOUS SYSTEM B 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. increased blood flow to muscle tissue D. movement of food
Drugs, The Brain, and Behavior John Nyby Department of Biological Sciences Lehigh University What is a drug? Difficult to define Know it when you see it Neuroactive vs Non-Neuroactive drugs Two major categories
I. General Info Integration and Coordination of the Human Body A. Both the and system are responsible for maintaining 1. Homeostasis is the process by which organisms keep internal conditions despite changes
The Neuron and the Synapse The Neuron Functions of the neuron: Transmit information from one point in the body to another. Process the information in various ways (that is, compute). The neuron has a specialized
NEUROSCIENCE EXAM 1 FALL 2011 KEY Multiple Choice: Read the entire question and all answers before choosing (circle the letter ) the one best answer. Each question is worth 2 point 1. Which of the following
2 Neurophysiology 2.1 Equilibrium Potential An understanding of the concepts of electrical and chemical forces that act on ions, electrochemical equilibrium, and equilibrium potential is a powerful tool
Bi 360: Midterm Review Basic Neurobiology 1) Many axons are surrounded by a fatty insulating sheath called myelin, which is interrupted at regular intervals at the Nodes of Ranvier, where the action potential
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Topic 2: Control of the Digestive System Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1: Title Page The
THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM James Ziogas and Fred Mitchelson Department of Pharmacology, University of Melbourne, Parkville Victoria, 3010, Australia. Keywords: Autonomic neurotransmission, sympathetic,
Muscle Tissue Muscle Physiology Chapter 12 Specially designed to contract Generates mechanical force Functions locomotion and external movements internal movement (circulation, digestion) heat generation
12. Nervous System: Nervous Tissue I. Introduction to the Nervous System General functions of the nervous system The nervous system has three basic functions: 1. Gather sensory input from the environment
The h0rmones of adrenal medulla University of Debrecen, Department of Physiology Introduction Adrenal gland (6-10 g) Cortex (5-9 g) Medulla ( 1 g) Chromaffin cells alarm (Selye 1936) flight or fight (Cannon
QUESTIONSHEET 1 (a) In the box below is a list of drugs which affect the nervous system, (i) to (v), and a jumbled list of drug actions, A to E. Select the correct drug activity for each drug by placing
Case Study: Factors that Affect Blood Pressure Instructor Version Goal This activity (case study and its associated questions) is designed to be a student-centered learning activity relating to the factors
1. What does the word innervates mean? Refers to a nerve supplying a muscle or organ. For example, The phrenic nerve innervates the diaphragm muscle. 2. 3 parts of the Nervous System 1. Central Nervous
Amino acids as drug targets. Learning bjectives: To appreciate how many amino acids are modified to produce hormones and neurotransmitters To give examples; catecholamines, thyroxin, serotonin, histamine,
FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. Sensory input. Sensory receptors detects external and internal stimuli. 2. Integration. The brain and spinal cord process sensory input and produce responses. 3. Homeostasis.
Chapter 9 Nervous System Nervous System function: The nervous system is composed of neurons and neuroglia. at the ends of peripheral nerves gather information and convert it into nerve impulses. When sensory
PART I: Neurons and the Nerve Impulse Identify each of the labeled structures of the neuron below. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Identify each of the labeled structures of the neuron below. A. dendrites B. nucleus
Intro: Brain is made up of numerous, complex parts Frontal lobes by forehead are the brain s executive center Parietal lobes wave sensory information together (maps feeling on body) Temporal lobes interpret
Smooth Muscle. Learning Objectives. At the end of this course, you should be able to : 1. describe the structure of smooth muscle 2. describe where smooth muscle occurs within the body 3. discuss the structural
Norepinephrine Effects On the System NE Conversion to Epinephrine in the Circulation Under stress, the increased norepinephrine produced is transmitted throughout the system. This increased level represents
CONTROL OF BLOOD FLOW AND BLOOD PRESSURE (Lectures 3b and 4) 63 CONTROL OF BLOOD FLOW 1) REASON: Body needs different levels of nutrient delivery and metabolic removal for differing levels of activities
chapter 11 Acetylcholine Palmer Taylor Joan Heller Brown CHEMITY F ACETYCHINE 186 GANIZATIN F THE CHINEGIC NEVU YTEM 186 Acetylcholine receptors have been classified into subtypes based on early studies
Overactive bladder is a common condition thought to FADE UP TO WIDE SHOT OF FEMALE MODEL WITH TRANSPARENT SKIN. URINARY BLADDER VISIBLE IN PELVIC REGION affect over 16 percent of adults. It affects men
Anatomy & Physiology Bio 2401 Lecture Instructor: Daryl Beatty Nervous System Introduction Part 1 Nervous System Introduction Chapter 11 Section A Sequence 4.1 DB Nervous system 1 Intro Presentations 4.2,
Actions of Hormones on Target Cells Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Actions of Hormones on Target Cells Hormones
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION The present study demonstrated that isolated atria and tracheas from guinea-pigs received chronic pretreatment with cocaine for 14 days, developed supersensitivity to both epinephrine
1 hapter-21b: Hormones and Receptors Hormone classes Hormones are classified according to the distance over which they act. 1. Autocrine hormones --- act on the same cell that released them. Interleukin-2
Biology 1 of 38 2 of 38 35-2 The Nervous System What are the functions of the nervous system? 3 of 38 35-2 The Nervous System 1. Nervous system: a. controls and coordinates functions throughout the body
B6 Brain & Mind B6 Key Questions How do animals respond to changes in their environment? How is information passed through the nervous system? What can we learn through conditioning? How do humans develop
Metabolic Pathways - absorptive GI tract Hormonal Control of Blood Triglyceride Amino Acids α-ketoacids protein All tissue adipose Metabolic Pathways - postabsorptive Lactate & pyruvate protein Lactate
The Ideal Local Anesthetic Pain and Anxiety University of Minnesota Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Ma Ann C. Sabino, DDS PhD Water soluble/stable in solution Non-irritating to nerve Low systemic
1 OBI 836 The Autonomic Nervous System-Sympathomimetics M.T. Piascik August 29, 2012 Learning Objectives Lecture II The student should be able to explain or describe 1. The potential sites of action for
Chapter 11: Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue Multiple Choice 1. The nervous system A) monitors internal and external stimuli. B) transmits information in the form of action potentials. C) interprets
Adrenergic receptors: Anatomy, physiology, and pharmacological interactions SANDRA M. MAREE, BS, CRNA Winston-Salem, North Carolina The author presents a review of the peripheral autonomic nervous system
Smooth Muscle Spindle-shaped Small (2-5 um wide, 50-300 um long) 1 centrally placed nucleus per cell Usually organized in small to moderate sized clusters of cells Lack sarcomeres No T-tubules or terminal
Pharmacology of the Autonomic Nervous System Lecture Outline I. Introduction II. Anatomy III. Biochemistry A. Neurotransmitters B. Nonclassical Neurotransmitters C. Synthesis and Metabolism of Acetylcholine
5.1. SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION CHAPTER 5 SIGNALLING IN NEURONS One of the main functions of neurons is to communicate with other neurons. An individual neuron may receive information from many different sources.
Neural Communication by Richard H. Hall, 1998 Forces and Membranes Now that we've considered the structure of the cells of the nervous system it is important to address their principal function, communication.
10 Adrenomimetic Drugs Tony J.-F. Lee and Robert E. Stitzel DRUG LIST GENERIC NAME AGE GENERIC NAME AGE Albuterol 105 Amphetamine 106 Dobutamine 105 Dopamine 103 Ephedrine 105 Epinephrine 101 Isoproterenol
Biology/ANNB 261 Exam 1 Spring, 2006 Name * = correct answer Multiple Choice: 1. Axons and dendrites are two types of a) Neurites * b) Organelles c) Synapses d) Receptors e) Golgi cell components 2. The
One of the most remarkable examples of cell communication is the fight or flight response. When a threat occurs, cells communicate rapidly to elicit physiological responses that help the body handle extraordinary