The current salmon lice situation in Norway & Introducing the Sea Lice Research Centre. Prof Frank Nilsen University of Bergen

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1 The current salmon lice situation in Norway & Introducing the Sea Lice Research Centre Prof Frank Nilsen University of Bergen

2 Salmon louse a major problem Why is sea lice difficult to control? Life cycle properties Long lived, reproductive capacity, dispersal stages Adapted to low and variable host density Increased number of available hosts Wild reservoir (i.e. wild salmonids)

3 But first a little taste of lice biology

4 Naupli I hatch from the egg-strings Dark mature eggs 1 egg = copepodids Copepodid Naupli I

5 Time (days) Temperature

6 Post settlement growth of copepodids

7 Copepodid chalimus transition

8 Secretion Immunomodulation Strong immune responce from lice BUT, does not remove the parasite Stressrelated responce Visible damage

9 Salmon louse on farmed fish: Coordinated treatment to obtain low lice levels in May/June Based on medicine Goal: Low lice levels when wild Atlantic salmon smolt migrates Infection pressure on wild stocks is monitored Limit of lice larvae release not known

10 Treatment effort

11 Anti salmon louse drug consumption

12 Large increase in drug usage

13 Drug resistance -NORWAY Large problems related to organophosphates early/midd 1990 New highly efficient drugs available from /2007 cases with treatment failure Resistance identified in 2007 (Trøndelag) 2010 resistance occurring from Rogaland to Lofoten, against 1, 2 or 3 drugs Limited cost seen in resistant lice strains

14 Increase in production

15 Salmon louse and the big numbers salmon in a farm, 0.1 female/fish What does that mean? 75 copepodids/lice/day Produce copepodids/day What if these lice are resistant? With few available medicines new tools need to be developed

16 Sea Lice Research Centre 4 academic partners: University of Bergen (host) Norwegian School of Veterinary Sciences Institute of Marine Research, Norway UNI Research 5 industrial partners: Novartis AH Ewos Innovation Pathogen Analysis Marine Harvest Lerøy Seafood gr.

17 What is an SFI? SFI = Centre for Research based Innovation One of two centre funding from Norwegian Research Council (NRC) Selection based on free competition between diverse application NRC provides 5+3 years of funding (~10 mill NOKs/year), requires 50% own funding (> 25% industrial funding)

18 Sea Lice Research Centre Research to develop new control measures against sea lice Main goal: The Salmon Louse Research Centre aims at becoming world leading on research on salmon louse and similar parasites. The nature of the centre will facilitate development of new methods for lice control and shorten the time from basic research to new products and tools for parasite control in the aquaculture sector to achieve a true integrated pest management in the future.

19 Broad approach based on life cycle 5. RNAi 1. Medicines 4. Immune control (specific) Adult III Preadult All stages II Copepodid I Chalimus 2. Anti-attachment 3. Immune control (non specific)

20 SLRC -Organisation Board of Directors Centre Leader (Nilsen) & project manager SAB Scientific Advisory Board Leader Group WP-leaders & Centre Leader WP1 Horsberg WP2 Wadswort WP3 Evensen WP4 Male WP5 Jonassen WP6 Hamre

21 Research (WP1-WP6) WP1 Medicine & Resistancy WP2 Antiattachment WP3 Immunomodulering WP4 Molecular parasitology (new control methods) WP5 LiceBase (genome recources/integrated database) WP6 LiceLab (wetlabs, experimental facility)

22 WP1 Chemotherapeutants & resistancy WP2 Anti attachment WP3 Immunomodulation WP4 Molecular parasitology WP5 LiceBase WP6 LiceLab Salmon louse Genome sequence

23 SLRC based on previous research Three examples Eichner, C., Frost, P., Dysvik, B., Kristiansen, B., Jonassen, I., Nilsen, F. (2008). Salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) transcriptomes during post molting maturation and egg production, revealed using EST-sequencing and microarray analysis. BMC Genomics 9: 126 Hamre, L., Glover, K. & Nilsen, F. (2009) Establishment and characterisation of salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) laboratory strains. Parasitology International 58: Dalvin, S., Frost, P. Biering, E., Hamre, L., Eichner, C., Krossøy, B. and Nilsen, F. (2009) Functional characterisation of the maternal yolk-associated protein (LsYAP) utilising systemic RNA interference in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) (Crustacea: Copepoda). International Journal for Parasitology, 39:

24 More knowledge about sea lice Research and eduacation in: Parasitology Molecular biology and genomics/functional genomics Pharmacology Host-parasite interactions Salmon louse genome: Key resource in research and innovation for SLRC Sequencing ~finished, assembly & annotation Infrastructure: LiceBase database for genome recources, linked to function LiceLab wet-labs, experiments

25 Experimental approach

26 Established: Lab strains Inbred strains Resistant strains We can: Breed/establish special lice strains Fitness studies Accurate experiments

27 Goals New medicines and resistance monitoring& control methods (WP 1) Anti attachment diets (WP 2) Immune controls (specific & non specific) (WP 3, WP 4) RNAi gene techniques for research tool and future controls (WP 4) In dept knowledge of the molecular biology of growth, reproduction and endocrine systems in sea lice (WP 4) Annotated genome sequence linked into an integrated database containing experimental data (WP 5, LiceBase) Updated microarray and other molecular tools (WP 3, 4, and 5) Larval detection and assessment techniques (WP 4) Sea lice facility (naïve lice population, challenge facility, etc) (WP 6, LiceLab) Development of true integrated pest management techniques for industry (Part V)

28 The consortium Host: University of Bergen (Department of Biologi), Department of Molecular Biology, Department of Informatics Academic partners: Institute of Marine Research Norwegian School of Veterinary Sciences UNI Research Industripartnarar: Novartis Animal Health EWOS Innovation Patogen Analyse AS Marine Harvest ASA Lerøy Seafood Group Director: Prof Frank Nilsen, BIO, UiB

29 Partner Cost Funding % Funding Cash In Kind UoB , NSVS , IMR , Novartis Animal Health , EWOS innovation , Patogen Analyse AS , Marine Harves ASA , Lerøy Seafood ASA , Sum commercial partners , NRC , TOTAL , Budget: ~ 25 mill NOKs/year (2.6 million pounds/year)

30 SFI all lice problmes solved? SFI is: years support long term Evaluation after 3.5 years SFI success criteria: Research Innovation & vallue creation International collaboration Education Partners & funding Organization No garanty for success (e.g. vaccine development)

31 SLRC will provide tools for better sea lice control Long term we can work with difficult tasks Put together the best people in Norway & International The industry is contributing and has an active role More difficult to be sea lice in the future!

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