Interactions between rodent borne diseases and climate, and the risks for public and animal health

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1 Interactions between rodent borne diseases and climate, and the risks for public and animal health Mare Lõhmus Climate centrum / SMS / KMF National Veterinary Institute Uppsala, Sweden

2 The source of many human and domestic animal infections is the wildlife reservoir

3 Interactions between rodents diseases and climate Vectors Rodent susceptibility (e.g. genetic predisposition) Human susceptibility (varies over time) Climate Pathogen status # of rodent infections human populations Food availability Rodent density Distance to humans/animals animals Habitat quality Other host species Predator/rodent control influence Rodent prevention influence Meerburg et al Rodent-borne diseases and their risks for public health. Critical Reviews in Microbiology, 35(3): , Fig. 2.

4 Interactions between rodent borne diseases and climate Vectors Rodent susceptibility (e.g. genetic predisposition) Human susceptibility (varies over time) Climate Pathogen status # of rodent infections human populations Food availability Rodent density Distance to humans/animals animals Habitat quality Other host species Predator/rodent control influence Rodent prevention influence Meerburg et al Rodent-borne diseases and their risks for public health. Critical Reviews in Microbiology, 35(3): , Fig. 2.

5 Climatic variables constrain the geographic range of infectious diseases precipitation temperature intensity of disease outbreaks rate of maturation, and multiplication timing of disease outbreaks survival

6 Interactions between rodent borne diseases and climate Vectors Rodent susceptibility (e.g. genetic predisposition) Human susceptibility (varies over time) Climate Pathogen status # of rodent infections human populations Food availability Rodent density Distance to humans/animals animals Habitat quality Other host species Predator/rodent control influence Rodent prevention influence Meerburg et al Rodent-borne diseases and their risks for public health. Critical Reviews in Microbiology, 35(3): , Fig. 2.

7 Climate exerts a profound effect on the life-history of arthropod vectors Occurrence Metabolism Activity Reproduction

8 Interactions between rodent borne diseases and climate Vectors Rodent susceptibility (e.g. genetic predisposition) Human susceptibility (varies over time) Climate Pathogen status # of rodent infections human populations Food availability Rodent density Distance to humans/animals animals Habitat quality Other host species Predator/rodent control influence Rodent prevention influence Meerburg et al Rodent-borne diseases and their risks for public health. Critical Reviews in Microbiology, 35(3): , Fig. 2.

9 Climate influences ecology and physiology of rodents through habitat quality and food availability Occurrence of species specialists and generalists predators Competition within species between species Seasonal effects reproduction predators length of winter snow depth

10 Changes in climate beneficial to rodents land temperature precipitation seeding CO 2 plant biomass land temperature vegetative season

11 Changes in climate disadvantageous to rodents land temperature snow

12 Interactions between rodent borne diseases and climate Vectors Rodent susceptibility (e.g. genetic predisposition) Human susceptibility (varies over time) Climate Pathogen status # of rodent infections human populations Food availability Rodent density Distance to humans/animals animals Habitat quality Other host species Predator/rodent control influence Rodent prevention influence Meerburg et al Rodent-borne diseases and their risks for public health. Critical Reviews in Microbiology, 35(3): , Fig. 2.

13 Dilution effect Vector borne pathogens (specialists) Vectors (generalists) Infected vectors Increased biodiversity More incompetent host species Decreased exposure of competent hosts

14 Effect of climate change New invading vectors More vectors More infected vectors Climate change Decreased biodiversity Fewer incompetent host species Greater exposure of competent hosts More pathogens New invading pathogens

15 Interactions between rodent borne diseases and climate Vectors Rodent susceptibility (e.g. genetic predisposition) Human susceptibility (varies over time) Climate Pathogen status # of rodent infections human populations Food availability Rodent density Distance to humans/animals animals Habitat quality Other host species Predator/rodent control influence Rodent prevention influence Meerburg et al Rodent-borne diseases and their risks for public health. Critical Reviews in Microbiology, 35(3): , Fig. 2.

16 Genotype/pathogen interactions: Red Queen dynamics Pathogen type A Selection with in the host to gain resistance to A Pathogen type A ; Selective advantage of type B Selection with in the host to gain resistance to B Pathogen type B Pathogen A Pathogen B

17 Interactions between rodent borne diseases and climate Vectors Rodent susceptibility (e.g. genetic predisposition) Human susceptibility (varies over time) Climate Pathogen status # of rodent infections human populations Food availability Rodent density Distance to humans/animals animals Habitat quality Other host species Predator/rodent control influence Rodent prevention influence Meerburg et al Rodent-borne diseases and their risks for public health. Critical Reviews in Microbiology, 35(3): , Fig. 2.

18 Dispersal of rodent-borne zoonoses Rodent Rodent Arthropod Livestock Food products Human Human Meerburg et al Rodent-borne diseases and their risks for public health. Critical Reviews in Microbiology, 35(3): , Fig. 1.

19 Climate change is likely to cause geographic expansion of infections geographic expansion of vectors increased uncertainty around the occurrence and outcome of disease outbreaks increased occurrence of rodents in urban and farm landscape decreased occurrence of rodents in wild landscapes decreased biodiversity = decreased dilution effect

20 Thanks!

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