CHALLENGES WHEN DESIGNING MODELS FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASES

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1 CHALLENGES WHEN DESIGNING MODELS FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASES L.-H. Johansen & A.-I. Sommer, Fiskeriforskning, Tromsø, Norway.

2 The interaction between host, virus and environment affects disease development virus host disease environment

3 1. The susceptibility of the host: -species -age -general health condition -immunological resistance/genetic background -other diseases -carrier condition

4

5 3. Environmental factors: -Temperature -Fish density -Water quality -Water flow -Oxygen level -etc.

6 Procedures of infection Route of infection; bath or injection Duration time (bath) Number of parallels Number of fish in each group

7 An experimental model of IPN Use natural infection route; waterborne infection Standardize the model as far as possible Achieve reproducible mortality in unvaccinated smolts Possibilities to test oil-based - and DNA vaccines; mortality levels above 50%

8 IPNV carriers -carriers are widespread in Norwegian aquaculture -low to undetectable virus titres -amount of virus varies with time -virus present in few organs -IPNV specific antibodies not always detectable

9 Testing for IPNV carriers At the start of an experiment (before smoltification) and before sea water transfer Head kidney homogenates Fresh samples Seeding in cell culture bottles; -sensitive and reliable -detection limit 5-10 infectious particles/gram tissue

10 Bath challenge of Atlantic salmon with one IPNV strain at two different temperatures Cumulative mortality (%) Days after challenge IPNV A-10 IPNV A-15

11 Bath challenge of Atlantic salmon using 3 different duration times Cumulative mortality (%) Days after bath challenge Duration time 2h Duration time 4h Duration time 6h

12 Testing different doses of IPNV strain A Cumulative mortality (%) Days after bath challenge IPNV A dose 1 IPNV A dose 2

13 Bath challenge of Atlantic salmon with two different strains of IPNV 80 Cumulative mortality(%) Days after bath challenge IPNV-A IPNV-B

14 100 Efficacy of IPN vaccines early experiment Cumulative mortality (%) Vaccine A Vaccine B Saline Vaccine C Days after IPN virus challenge (Sommer, Knappskog og Rødseth, Norsk Fiskeoppdrett nr. 18, s ,1998).

15 Testing the protective effect of immunestimulants in Atlantic salmon Cumulative mortality (%) saline poly I:C 100 µg CpG 1 µg CpG 10 µg CpG 50 µg CpG 100 µg Days after IPN virus infection (J. Jørgensen, L-H Johansen, K Steiro and A Johansen (2003) CpG DNA induces protective antiviral immune responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Journal of Virology vol 77, no 21, pp )

16 Intensive rearing conditions and 80 increased risk of IPN Cumulative mortality (%) Days after seawater transfer and bath challenge Control challenged Control unchallenged Treated challenged Treated unchallenged (Sommer, A.-I., Johansen, L.-H & Toften, H.. (2001). Sammenhenger mellom intensivert drift og IPN-utbrudd hos smolt. Norsk Fiskeoppdrett, 8: )

17 Limitations of the model -The challenge is done within a week after sea water transfer -Different generations and families of Atlantic salmon have different susceptibility to IPN virus Every new generation of salmon is tested in an IPNV challenge at our own cost. The mortality level obtained is representative for the specific generation of salmon; some variation in mortality from year to year.

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