JAN CZOCHRALSKI ACHIEVEMENTS Anna Paj¹czkowska

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "JAN CZOCHRALSKI ACHIEVEMENTS Anna Paj¹czkowska"

Transcription

1 Warsaw International Forum on Science and Technology of Crystal Growth March , Sendai, Japan JAN CZOCHRALSKI ACHIEVEMENTS Anna Paj¹czkowska Kcynia

2 Father of the Czochralski method There are many scientists in the field of physics, chemistry and in general meaning material science whose name are well known all over the world. One of them is Jan Czochralski who has permanent position as a father of crystal growth method named the Czochralski method; CZ-method Jan Czochralski about 22 years old

3 1. Introduction C O N T E N T: 2. Jan Czochralski s life and family Education 4. Employment 5. Publications 6. Crystal growth method the Czochralski method the Czochralski method in the literature the Czochralski method in the Czochralski papers 7. Prof. J. Czochralski as a metallurgist Investigated materials Metods of investigation 8. Conclusions

4 His life and family: Prof. Dr Jan Czochralski was born on October 23, 1885 in Kcynia (small town situated in the central part of Poland near Toruñ Copernicus town ). Jan Czochralski was born as the eight child of the Polish craftsmen Franciszek Czochralski and Marta from the Suchomski family. The Czochralskis were carpenters for many generations. Jan Czochralski married in 1910 Marguerits Haase, a pianist of Dutch origin, the dauther of a rich owner of tenement houses. He died on April 22, 1953 in Poznan (heart disease) and was buried in Kcynia. Jan and Marta Czochralski had three children: two dauthers Leonia (1914) and Cecilia (1920,) and a son Borys (1918). All children died. At the present time his nephew prof. Jan Czochralski works at Warsaw University as a teacher of German language.

5 He was born in 1885 in Kcynia. INSTYTUT TECHNOLOGII MATERIA ÓW ELEKTRONICZNYCH E D U C A T I O N: Exercise school, 6-years at Teachers Seminar in Kcynia. Then he completed Teachers Seminar (his matriculation certificate was not found). In 1904 he moved to Berlin and started to work. Simultaneously he attended lectures on chemistry faculty in Charlottenburg Polytechnic in Berlin. In about 1910 he obtained the degree of chemist-engineer (the diplom was not found). From 1911 to 1914 he was an assistant of Wichard von Moellendorff. His first publication was devoted to metal crystallography, dislocation theory (Technologische Schluesse aus Kristallographie der Metalle Technological conclusions from metal crystallography) Z.d.V.d.Ing. 57(1913)931 and 1014.

6 In Germany: INSTYTUT TECHNOLOGII MATERIA ÓW ELEKTRONICZNYCH E M P L O Y M E N T 1904 he worked in pharmacy and drugstore of Dr A. Herbrand in Berlin Central Lab. of Kunheim&Co. in Niederschoenweide (near Berlin) 1907 Allgemeinen Elecrizitaets-Gesellschaft (AEG), Kabelwerk Oberspree in Oberschoenweide and Haelsenbau he was an assistant of Wichard von Moellendorff - first paper from 1916 he was the Head of Laboratory of Steel and Iron Research. He investigated purity and quality of metals and worked on copper refinement. The main task of Czochralski was the introduction of aluminium to electrical engeeneringproduction of aluminium products, alloys, standarizaton of metallographic studies he moved to Frankfurt on Mein, organized the Laboratory of metals Science of the Metall Gesselschaft A.G. metal B, patented in Pioneer investigations of anisotropy of hardness of single crystals ( )-important works for plastic treatment of materials.

7 In Poland: He did not accept the offer given by H. Ford to work in USA - he accepted the proposal given by the Polish President I. Moœcicki and in 1929 he came back to Poland 1929 the honorary doctorate given by Warsaw University of Technology (WUT) 1930 the title and position of professor in the Faculty of Chemistry of Warsaw University of Technology where he organized his laboratory: Department of Metallurgy and Metals Science at Warsaw University of Technology and then Institute of Metallurgy and Metal Science. He also founded Metallurgical Section in the Chemical Research Institute. He continued the studies of the rate of crystallization of metals, elastic properties, corrosion of metals and alloys 1939 II World War all laboratories in Warsaw were closed by German occupants In 1940 his laboratory was opened and then some others at the WUT In 1945 he moved to Kcynia and opened the firm BION produced chemicals for drugstore He died in 1953

8 Czochralski publications (about 250) in : German journals: Z. d. V. d. Ing. Zeitschrift des Vereins deutscher Ingeneurie Z. Met. Zeitschrift für Metallkunde Z. anorg. allg. Chem. Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie Z. angew. Chemie Zeitschrift für angewande Chemie Giess. Ztg. Giesserei Zeitung (organ des Gesamtverbandes Deutscher Metallgiessereien) Polish journals: Wiad. Inst. Met. Met. Wiadomoœci Instytutu Metalurgii i Metaloznawstwa Przem. Chem. - Przemys³ Chemiczny Przem. Mech. - Przegl¹d Mechaniczny Patents Books in Polish and German languages Conferences and visits European countries and USA Very rich citation, works from 1880, used languages: German, Polish, French Societies: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Metallkunde 1924, v-president and President 1926 Polish Chemical Society 1929 Society of Polish Mechanic Engineers honour member

9 the Czochralski method in the Czochralski papers: The results of the study of the rate of crystallization of tin, zinc and lead were published in Z.phys.Chem. 92 (1918) , Ein neues Verfahren zur Messung des Kristallisationsgeschwindigkeit der Metalle The paper was received by the editorial board on August 19, He found that the crystallization wire was single crystal of diam. about 1 mm and lengths up to 150 cm. The paper reported the description of a lifter and its junction with wire. The maximum rate of pulling of a crystal was recognized as the proper characteristics of the crystallizing material In the Polish journal: J. Czochralski, W. Garlicka, (Crystallization rate of sodium and the relations between atomic heat of solidification and crystallization rate) Wiad. Inst. Met. Met. 3 (1936) citated his method as the Czochralski method with reference to the paper 1918 Statement: the rate of crystallization is the best at the certain supercooling at the crystal-melt interface. The atomic, molecular Kossel s theory is discussed paper is citated in: Quantentheorie u. Chemie, J. Czochralski, J. Miko³ajczyk, as above, (1936) crystallization of Al % (rate of crystalization - dendritic and single crystal growth; rate mm/min -microscopic).

10 Historical outline of the Czochralski method -CZ-method (from the paper: J. Czochralski, 'Ein neues Verfahren zur Messung des Kristallisationsgeschwindigkeit der Metalle ' Z. phys. Chem. 92 (1918) ). The paper was received by the editorial board on August 19, Crystallization of tin, zinc and lead were performed. He found that the crystallization wire was single crystal of diam. about 1mm and lengths up to 150cm. The paper reported the description of a lifter and its junction with wire and the maximum rate of pulling of a crystal was recognized as the proper characteristics of the crystallizing material.

11 the Czochralski method in the Czochralski papers: The results of the study of the rate of crystallization of tin, zinc and lead were published in Z.phys.Chem. 92 (1918) , Ein neues Verfahren zur Messung des Kristallisationsgeschwindigkeit der Metalle The paper was received by the editorial board on August 19, He found that the crystallization wire was single crystal of diam. about 1 mm and lengths up to 150 cm. The paper reported the description of a lifter and its junction with wire. The maximum rate of pulling of a crystal was recognized as the proper characteristics of the crystallizing material In the Polish journal: J. Czochralski, W. Garlicka, (Crystallization rate of sodium and the relations between atomic heat of solidification and crystallization rate) Wiad. Inst. Met. Met. 3 (1936) citated his method as the Czochralski method with reference to the paper 1918 Statement: the rate of crystallization is the best at the certain supercooling at the crystal-melt interface. The atomic, molecular Kossel s theory is discussed paper is citated in: Quantentheorie u. Chemie, J. Czochralski, J. Miko³ajczyk, as above, (1936) crystallization of Al % (rate of crystalization - dendritic and single crystal growth; rate mm/min -microscopic).

12 Crystallization rate of sodium and the relations between atomic heat of solidification and crystallization rate (J. Czochralski, W Garlicka, Wiad. Inst. Met. Met. 3 (1936) 39 41, in Polish) The method as the Czochralski method with reference to the paper is citated. Relations-rate of crystallization and atomic heat of crystallization, from 50 cal/g-ag to 61.8 kcal/g-p. Reciprocal relation of crystallization rate and atomic heat of solidification (equilibrium temperature between liquid and crystal). Most heat is transported by crystal A-mixer; B-junction; D-crank handle; E, R-transmission wheels; G-record player mechanism; K-ksylen; M-motor; S-scale; T 1, T 2, T 3 -thermometers; W-paraphine bath; Z-needle (seed)

13 the Czochralski method in the published papers: H. von Wartenberg (Verhandlung der Deutsche Phys. Gesellschaft 20(1918)113, Über elastische Nachwirkung bei Metallen ) used seeds (zinc wire) to grow the crystals of zinc. E.v.Gomperz (Z. Phys.8(1922)184, Untersuchungen an Einkristalldrähten ) called for the first time this method Czochralski s name then Linder (E.G.Linder, Phys. Rev. 26(1925)486, Thermo-electric effect in single crystal zinc wires ) used first time the English name the Czochralski method. Later works dealing with the method are given by Mark et al. (H. Mark, M.Polanyi and E. Schmidt, Z. Phys. 12(1923)58, Vorgänge bei der Dehnung von Zinkkristallen ), Sachs (G. Sachs, Z. Met. 17(1925)238, Die Herstellung von Metallkristallen ) and also Schmidt and Boas (E. Schmidt and W. Boas, Kristallplastizität, J. Springer, Berlin, 1935, Plasticity of crystals, Hughes, London, 1950). After the Second World War, during the time of transistor discovery, scientists at the Bell Lab. in Murray Hill (Gordon K. Teal et al.) extended the Czochralski method to the growth of non-metallic materials starting with germanium and then silicon. It seems that after publication of Buckley s book Crystal Growth in 1951 the name of Czochralski was widely spread and was definitively connected with the method of crystal pulling. Today the Czochralski method is used to grow other semiconductors, oxides, fluorides and a number of binary and multicomponents compounds. All the time the method is improved and developed.

14 Metals and their alloys INSTYTUT TECHNOLOGII MATERIA ÓW ELEKTRONICZNYCH M A T E R I A L S: Aluminium to electrotechnology in ~ 1907 only four countries produced Al products investigation of aluminium and their alloys (recrystallization, alloys with several metals), aluminium alloy-silumin, eutectic alloy of 87% Al + 13% Si high mechanical strength, light discovered by A. Pacz a in 1920 and investigated by J.Czoch. Z. Met.13(1921) 507; enriched by several metal dopants weak effects, Na, Li (1937) the best. investigation of rotguss - bronze of tin-zinc, doped with Pb, Sb, As, Bi (Z. Met. (1920) bearing alloy not containing tin, metal - B (Bahn - metal) with small amounts of Li, Na, Ca and Al (applications in railway and industry), patent in 1924 (after 12 years of investigations) old bearing alloy Pb + (13%, 50%, 86%) Sn new metal B Pb %Ca, 0.58% Na, 0.04 Li and % Al - high mechanical properties (hardness, bending stregth, high Tm) (metal Satco (USA) 98% Pb, 0.04% Li, 0.04% K, 0.075% Mg, 0.05% Al, 0.25% Hg, 1% Sn)

15 Materials investigations: studies on the rate of crystallization of metals resulted in the Czochralski method of growing single crystals which has become widely applied till now studies on the recrystallization of metals resulted in recrystallization diagrams used commonly for description of the properties of materials change of heat effects after recrystallization in time - calorimetric investigations (heat effects decrease to zero after few days) for the measurements of self - improvement of materials, among others, the method of analysis of heating curves has been developed studies of corrosion of different materials stimulated the development of homogeneous and controlled conditions of measurements reagents: wet ammonia, HgCl 2 and HgO, vapour of H 2 O+3%NaCl (Al high pure and techn.), investigations loss of mass and vol % of evaporated H 2 mechanical properties: elasticity, expansions, degree of squeeze, fissility, bending strength plastic deformations of single crystals, slip plane, slip band dislocation motion on crystall. planes metallographic investigations required the developing of new methods of etching which inter alia resulted in Czochralski reagents for the etching of gold Czochralski solutions: Gold etching - new solution better than aqua regia: HCl or 4p.HCl + 1p.H 2 O with anhydride chromic acid (CrO 3 )

16 Materials investigations: studies on the rate of crystallization of metals resulted in the Czochralski method of growing single crystals which has become widely applied till now studies on the recrystallization of metals resulted in recrystallization diagrams used commonly for description of the properties of materials change of heat effects after recrystallization in time - calorimetric investigations (heat effects decrease to zero after few days) for the measurements of self - improvement of materials, among others, the method of analysis of heating curves has been developed studies of corrosion of different materials stimulated the development of homogeneous and controlled conditions of measurements reagents: wet ammonia, HgCl 2 and HgO, vapour of H 2 O+3%NaCl (Al high pure and techn.), investigations loss of mass and vol % of evaporated H 2 mechanical properties: elasticity, expansions, degree of squeeze, fissility, bending strength plastic deformations of single crystals, slip plane, slip band dislocation motion on crystall. planes metallographic investigations required the developing of new methods of etching which inter alia resulted in Czochralski reagents for the etching of gold Czochralski solutions: Gold etching - new solution better than aqua regia: HCl or 4p.HCl + 1p.H 2 O with anhydride chromic acid (CrO 3 )

17 Diagram of calcium recrystalliztion (J. Czochralski, W. elewska, Wiad. Inst. Met. Met. 5 (1938) 1) Degree of deformation is a change of sample height, before and after annealing in different temperatures and cooled to room temperature. Recrystallization takes place after deformation of metals and during their return to an equilibrium state. Etching and polishing solutions to investigate size of grains. Experimental diagram is disordered by some thermochemical properties of metals as: phase transformations-non continuity. On the axis: size of grains, temperature in C and degree of deformation in %.

18 Orientation and etching of crystals (Tammann, Bridgman) J. Czochralski, J. Skowroñska, Przem. Chem. 3 (1937) 65 Spherical surface of AI, cubic face (etching sol % H 2 F 2 ) Twins on (1010) plane of Zn crystal ( etching sol. - conc. HCI)

19 Orientation and etching of crystals (Tammann, Bridgman) (J. Czochralski, J. Skowronska, Przem. Chem. 3 (1937) 65) Spherical surface of Zn crystal, hexagonal symmetry Triangular figures of (0001) plane of Zn (etching sol. - HCI + H 2 O)

20 Lattice dynamics at plastic deformations (J. Czochralski Z.Met. 15 (1923) 60 and 126) Formation of translation P-press Distorted lattice -displaced atoms

21 Metallographic investigations: Metallografic microscopy INSTYTUT TECHNOLOGII MATERIA ÓW ELEKTRONICZNYCH Methods of investigations: the method of quantitative determination of nonmetallic precipitates in iron and steel (microscopic observations and analysis of electrical resistivity of precipitates and the matrix) was born out of studies of the quality of materials Radiomicroscopy detection of electromagnetic waves an attemp to detect nonmetallic precipitates using a specially constructed radiomicroscope (investigation of the static and dynamic characteristic, the contact of the needle with the metal under study) (Z. anorg. allg. Chem. 144 (1925) ). Alloy of Al-Si is investigated as a detector in a radio circut and is placed under a microscope, and a needle connected to the earth through a pair of ear-phones is brought into contact with different parts of the surface of the alloy. There are areas where the detector action was very poor. J.Czoch. explained that the alloy was not homogeneous and Si crystal were separated from melt and were very pure and detector power was lost. Resistivity measurements, J. Czochralski, W. Garlicka, Wiad. Inst. Met. Met. 3 (1936) 39 Changes of resistivity of nonmetalic particles in alloys. Batery 4V, potentiometr, needle of gramophone, sample, miliampermeter (60 ma starting current), compared with conductivity measurements and micrography. Goniometr one circle, acc. 1 0 Œwiêtos³awski microcalorimeter heat effects

22 Radio technic in the service of metallography (detection of electromagnetic waves) J. Czochralski, Z. anorg. allgem. Chem. 144(1925)263 J. Czochralski,W. Sznuk, Wiad. Inst. Met. Met. 3(1936)5 A sample of alloy (Al-Si), (Fe-silicate, steel) is connected in the circuit and placed under a microscope, and a needle connected to earth through a pair of ear-phones is brought into contact with different parts of the surface of the alloy. That the alloy is not homogeneous is evidenced by the fact that there are areas where the detector action is very poor. J.C. believes that the poor Si has separated from the melt and that the areas of poor detector action are due to these crystals of pure Si. The cause of the poor detector action of these crystals may be: (1) a new modification of Si is present; (2) the Si is very pure, because of recrystallization and has lost its detector power as a result of loss its impurities. MT-microscope table, N-metal needle (copper, steel) D-investigated plate of metal, A-antene, E-earth, L-induction coil, T-ear-phone

23 Investigations of metal/alloys crystallinity, grain orientations (J. Czochralski Z.anorg.allg.Chem. 144 (1925) 131) optical methods, polished, etched samples, reflection light at different angles, goniometer Scheme of aparatus for optical measurements A-projection lamp, B' and B"-shutters, L ' and L "-lenses, K-crystal, W-angle measurement (not goniometr) Scheme of crystal with different oriented planes, grains A, B, C -regions of various orientation, reflected light

24 International Forum on Science and Technology of Crystal Growth March , Sendai, Japan Conclusions: Professor dr Jan Czochralski was a metallurgist and he investigated various processes of metal solidifications, crystallization and properties of crystals structural, mechanical, thermochemical His achievements were outstanding and marked out new roads in science and technology Professor dr Jan Czochralski remains in our memory as a great scientist, inventor, well-known in material science, electronics and crystallography the father of crystal growth method the Czochralski method CZ method Professor dr Jan Czochralski signature (named badgerdog ) as the Head of Research Institute of Chemical Metallurgy at the Technical University in Warsaw, from the document Nov. 11, 1936.

25 Kcynia INSTYTUT TECHNOLOGII MATERIA ÓW ELEKTRONICZNYCH Warsaw POLAND

26 Events devoted to Jan Czochralski memory Papers in Polish and international journals - dr P. Tomaszewski Meetings internationals, two visits of foreign scientists in Kcynia Workshop 2000 (ITME, Warsaw) the first visit VI Polish Conference on Crystal Growth, May, 2001 in Poznañ - the second visit Medals * Founded by the 1 st Asian Conference on Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology (CGCT-1), Aug.-Sept., 2000, in Sendai Two Awards-Jan Czochralski medal Award for Crystal Growth - Dr. Tomoki Inada Award for Crystal Technology Prof. Shuji Nakamura Foundation of Materials Science Development * Gold Medal of Jan Czochralski dr Paul Siffert, Nov., 2000, in Cracow, MRS Meeting in Central and Eastern Europe * Gold Medal of Jan Czochralski- Prof. Kazimierz J. Flaga, June 2001, Strasbourg, E-MRS Spring Meeting

27 th anniversary of Jan Czochralski death

28 45th anniversary of Jan Czochralski death

29 INSTYTUT TECHNOLOGII MATERIA ÓW ELEKTRONICZNYCH

TORUŃ and KCYNIA. April 26 27, 2003

TORUŃ and KCYNIA. April 26 27, 2003 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON 50 th ANNIVERSARY OF THE DEATH OF PROF. DR. JAN CZOCHRALSKI TORUŃ and KCYNIA April 26 27, 2003 Under the auspices of the President of the Republic of Poland Aleksander Kwaśniewski

More information

Wafer Manufacturing. Reading Assignments: Plummer, Chap 3.1~3.4

Wafer Manufacturing. Reading Assignments: Plummer, Chap 3.1~3.4 Wafer Manufacturing Reading Assignments: Plummer, Chap 3.1~3.4 1 Periodic Table Roman letters give valence of the Elements 2 Why Silicon? First transistor, Shockley, Bardeen, Brattain1947 Made by Germanium

More information

PRECIPITATION HARDENING OF ZINC ALLOYS CASTINGS PRECIPITAČNÍ VYTVRZOVÁNÍ ODLITKŮ SLITIN ZINKU

PRECIPITATION HARDENING OF ZINC ALLOYS CASTINGS PRECIPITAČNÍ VYTVRZOVÁNÍ ODLITKŮ SLITIN ZINKU PRECIPITATION HARDENING OF ZINC ALLOYS CASTINGS PRECIPITAČNÍ VYTVRZOVÁNÍ ODLITKŮ SLITIN ZINKU Iva NOVÁ a, Iva NOVÁKOVÁ b, Jiří MACHUTA c a Technická univerzita v Liberci, Studentská 2, 463 17 Liberec,

More information

Defects Introduction. Bonding + Structure + Defects. Properties

Defects Introduction. Bonding + Structure + Defects. Properties Defects Introduction Bonding + Structure + Defects Properties The processing determines the defects Composition Bonding type Structure of Crystalline Processing factors Defects Microstructure Types of

More information

ME 612 Metal Forming and Theory of Plasticity. 1. Introduction

ME 612 Metal Forming and Theory of Plasticity. 1. Introduction Metal Forming and Theory of Plasticity Yrd.Doç. e mail: azsenalp@gyte.edu.tr Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü Gebze Yüksek Teknoloji Enstitüsü In general, it is possible to evaluate metal forming operations

More information

What is Manufacturing?

What is Manufacturing? MECH 421/6511 Shaping of Metals and Plastics DEPT. OF MECH. AND IND. ENG. MECH 421/6511 Shaping of Metals and Plastics LECTURES: Mon-Wed ER- 511-9 at 4:15 to 5:30 pm FACULTY: Dr. Mamoun Medraj e-mail:

More information

Crystal Structure of Aluminum, Zinc, and their Alloys By: Omar Fajardo Sebastian Henao Devin Baines ENGR45, F2014, SRJC

Crystal Structure of Aluminum, Zinc, and their Alloys By: Omar Fajardo Sebastian Henao Devin Baines ENGR45, F2014, SRJC Crystal Structure of Aluminum, Zinc, and their Alloys By: Omar Fajardo Sebastian Henao Devin Baines ENGR45, F2014, SRJC Purpose The purpose of this experiment was to examine and observe the microstructure

More information

Ch. 4: Imperfections in Solids Part 1. Dr. Feras Fraige

Ch. 4: Imperfections in Solids Part 1. Dr. Feras Fraige Ch. 4: Imperfections in Solids Part 1 Dr. Feras Fraige Outline Defects in Solids 0D, Point defects vacancies Interstitials impurities, weight and atomic composition 1D, Dislocations edge screw 2D, Grain

More information

Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 2 Lecture - 2 Part 2 of 2 Review of Atomic Bonding II We will continue

More information

Chapter Outline Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms

Chapter Outline Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms Chapter Outline Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms What is happening in material during plastic deformation? Dislocations and Plastic Deformation Motion of dislocations in response to stress Slip

More information

Types of Epitaxy. Homoepitaxy. Heteroepitaxy

Types of Epitaxy. Homoepitaxy. Heteroepitaxy Epitaxy Epitaxial Growth Epitaxy means the growth of a single crystal film on top of a crystalline substrate. For most thin film applications (hard and soft coatings, optical coatings, protective coatings)

More information

RAPIDLY SOLIDIFIED COPPER ALLOYS RIBBONS

RAPIDLY SOLIDIFIED COPPER ALLOYS RIBBONS Association of Metallurgical Engineers of Serbia AMES Scientific paper UDC:669.35-153.881-412.2=20 RAPIDLY SOLIDIFIED COPPER ALLOYS RIBBONS M. ŠULER 1, L. KOSEC 1, A. C. KNEISSL 2, M. BIZJAK 1, K. RAIĆ

More information

Introduction to Metallography

Introduction to Metallography Introduction to Metallography Metallography has been described as both a science and an art. Traditionally, metallography has been the study of the microscopic structure of metals and alloys using optical

More information

Using the PDF for material identification using elemental data. from XRF and SEM EDS.

Using the PDF for material identification using elemental data. from XRF and SEM EDS. XRF and SEM EDS Using the PDF for material identification using elemental data from XRF and SEM EDS. XRF and SEM EDS What? The Powder Diffraction File contains data on pure solid state compounds of well

More information

Precipitation hardened high copper alloys for connector pins made of wire

Precipitation hardened high copper alloys for connector pins made of wire Precipitation hardened high copper alloys for connector pins made of wire R. Zauter and D.V. Kudashov, Wieland-Werke AG, D-89070 Ulm, Germany Summary A new generation of high performance copper alloy wire

More information

THREE MAIN SOLIDIFICATION REACTIONS OF VANADIUM MODIFIED T1 TUNGSTEN HIGH SPEED TOOL STEEL. Hossam Halfa

THREE MAIN SOLIDIFICATION REACTIONS OF VANADIUM MODIFIED T1 TUNGSTEN HIGH SPEED TOOL STEEL. Hossam Halfa THREE MAIN SOLIDIFICATION REACTIONS OF VANADIUM MODIFIED T1 TUNGSTEN HIGH SPEED TOOL STEEL Hossam Halfa Steel Technology Department, Central Metallurgical R&D Institute (CMRDI), Helwan, Egypt, hossamhalfa@cmrdi.sci.eg;

More information

Lecture: 33. Solidification of Weld Metal

Lecture: 33. Solidification of Weld Metal Lecture: 33 Solidification of Weld Metal This chapter presents common solidification mechanisms observed in weld metal and different modes of solidification. Influence of welding speed and heat input on

More information

Unit 3 Lesson 1 Minerals. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 3 Lesson 1 Minerals. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Animal, Vegetable, or Mineral? What do minerals have in common? Not all minerals are sparkling gems, but they all have certain characteristics in common. A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid

More information

جامعة البلقاء التطبيقية

جامعة البلقاء التطبيقية AlBalqa Applied University تا سست عام 997 The curriculum of associate degree in Air Conditioning, Refrigeration and Heating Systems consists of (7 credit hours) as follows: Serial No. Requirements First

More information

Metals and Non-metals. Comparison of physical properties of metals and non metals

Metals and Non-metals. Comparison of physical properties of metals and non metals Metals and Non-metals Comparison of physical properties of metals and non metals PHYSICAL PROPERTY METALS NON-METALS Physical State Metallic lustre (having a shining surface) Mostly solids (Liquid -mercury)

More information

Corrosion-induced cracking of model train zincaluminium

Corrosion-induced cracking of model train zincaluminium Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR Corrosion-induced cracking of model train zincaluminium die castings R.J.H. Wanhill and T. Hattenberg This report may be cited

More information

Materials Sciences. Dr.-Ing. Norbert Hort norbert.hort@gkss.de. International Masters Programme in Biomedical Engineering

Materials Sciences. Dr.-Ing. Norbert Hort norbert.hort@gkss.de. International Masters Programme in Biomedical Engineering Materials Sciences International Masters Programme in Biomedical Engineering Magnesium Innovations Center (MagIC) GKSS Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH Dr.-Ing. Norbert Hort norbert.hort@gkss.de Contents

More information

The particulate nature of matter

The particulate nature of matter The particulate nature of matter Solids, liquids and gases The kinetic theory of matter Explaining the states of matter Changes of state An unusual state of matter An unusual change of state Heating and

More information

EXAMPLE EXERCISE 4.1 Change of Physical State

EXAMPLE EXERCISE 4.1 Change of Physical State EXAMPLE EXERCISE 4.1 Change of Physical State State the term that applies to each of the following changes of physical state: (a) Snow changes from a solid to a liquid. (b) Gasoline changes from a liquid

More information

Paper 2. Science test. Remember. First name. Last name. School KEY STAGE 3 TIER 5 7

Paper 2. Science test. Remember. First name. Last name. School KEY STAGE 3 TIER 5 7 Sc KEY STAGE 3 TIER 5 7 Science test Paper 2 First name Last name School 2008 Remember The test is 1 hour long. You will need: pen, pencil, rubber, ruler, protractor and calculator. The test starts with

More information

Chapter Outline. 3 Elements and Compounds. Elements and Atoms. Elements. Elements. Elements 9/4/2013

Chapter Outline. 3 Elements and Compounds. Elements and Atoms. Elements. Elements. Elements 9/4/2013 3 Elements and Compounds Chapter Outline 3.1 Elements A. Distribution of Elements Foundations of College Chemistry, 14 th Ed. Morris Hein and Susan Arena Copyright This reclining Buddha in Thailand is

More information

The atomic packing factor is defined as the ratio of sphere volume to the total unit cell volume, or APF = V S V C. = 2(sphere volume) = 2 = V C = 4R

The atomic packing factor is defined as the ratio of sphere volume to the total unit cell volume, or APF = V S V C. = 2(sphere volume) = 2 = V C = 4R 3.5 Show that the atomic packing factor for BCC is 0.68. The atomic packing factor is defined as the ratio of sphere volume to the total unit cell volume, or APF = V S V C Since there are two spheres associated

More information

Conductivity of silicon can be changed several orders of magnitude by introducing impurity atoms in silicon crystal lattice.

Conductivity of silicon can be changed several orders of magnitude by introducing impurity atoms in silicon crystal lattice. CMOS Processing Technology Silicon: a semiconductor with resistance between that of conductor and an insulator. Conductivity of silicon can be changed several orders of magnitude by introducing impurity

More information

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following correctly represents 360 g of water? (i) 2 moles of H 2 0 (ii) 20 moles of water (iii) 6.022 10 23 molecules of water (iv)

More information

Science Standard Articulated by Grade Level Strand 5: Physical Science

Science Standard Articulated by Grade Level Strand 5: Physical Science Concept 1: Properties of Objects and Materials Classify objects and materials by their observable properties. Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 PO 1. Identify the following observable properties

More information

The Atom Atomic Number Mass Number Isotopes

The Atom Atomic Number Mass Number Isotopes The Atom Atomic Number Mass Number Isotopes 1 Atomic Theory Atoms are building blocks of elements Similar atoms in each element Different from atoms of other elements Two or more different atoms bond in

More information

Phase. Gibbs Phase rule

Phase. Gibbs Phase rule Phase diagrams Phase A phase can be defined as a physically distinct and chemically homogeneous portion of a system that has a particular chemical composition and structure. Water in liquid or vapor state

More information

hij GCSE Additional Science Chemistry 2 Higher Tier Chemistry 2H SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME Version 1.0

hij GCSE Additional Science Chemistry 2 Higher Tier Chemistry 2H SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME Version 1.0 hij GCSE Additional Science Chemistry 2 Higher Tier Chemistry 2H SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME Version.0 Copyright 20 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. The Assessment and Qualifications Alliance (AQA)

More information

2017A ALUMINUM ALLOY IN DIFFERENT HEAT TREATMENT CONDITIONS

2017A ALUMINUM ALLOY IN DIFFERENT HEAT TREATMENT CONDITIONS Acta Metallurgica Slovaca, Vol. 18, 2012, No. 2-3, p. 82-91 82 2017A ALUMINUM ALLOY IN DIFFERENT HEAT TREATMENT CONDITIONS K. Mroczka 1)*, A. Wójcicka 1), P. Kurtyka 1) 1) Department of Technology and

More information

Introduction to materials science and engineering. structures and properties of materials. Materials Engineering

Introduction to materials science and engineering. structures and properties of materials. Materials Engineering .Materials Science o The discipline of investigating the relationships that exist between the structures and properties of materials. Materials Engineering o The discipline of designing or engineering

More information

DURABILITY OF MORTAR LININGS IN DUCTILE IRON PIPES Durability of mortar linings

DURABILITY OF MORTAR LININGS IN DUCTILE IRON PIPES Durability of mortar linings DURABILITY OF MORTAR LININGS IN DUCTILE IRON PIPES Durability of mortar linings I. S. MELAND SINTEF Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cement and Concrete, Trondheim, Norway Durability of Building Materials

More information

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10. CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.102 10.1 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN IONS Ion-ion Interactions and Lattice Energy

More information

Solid Type of solid Type of particle

Solid Type of solid Type of particle QUESTION (2015:3) Complete the table below by stating the type of solid, the type of particle, and the attractive forces between the particles in each solid. Solid Type of solid Type of particle Cu(s)

More information

Introduction to VLSI Fabrication Technologies. Emanuele Baravelli

Introduction to VLSI Fabrication Technologies. Emanuele Baravelli Introduction to VLSI Fabrication Technologies Emanuele Baravelli 27/09/2005 Organization Materials Used in VLSI Fabrication VLSI Fabrication Technologies Overview of Fabrication Methods Device simulation

More information

How do single crystals differ from polycrystalline samples? Why would one go to the effort of growing a single crystal?

How do single crystals differ from polycrystalline samples? Why would one go to the effort of growing a single crystal? Crystal Growth How do single crystals differ from polycrystalline samples? Single crystal specimens maintain translational symmetry over macroscopic distances (crystal dimensions are typically 0.1 mm 10

More information

BINARY SYSTEMS. Definition of Composition: Atomic (molar) fraction. Atomic percent. Mass fraction. Mass percent (weight percent)

BINARY SYSTEMS. Definition of Composition: Atomic (molar) fraction. Atomic percent. Mass fraction. Mass percent (weight percent) BINARY SYSTEMS Definition of Composition: Atomic (molar) fraction Atomic percent Mass fraction Mass percent (weight percent) na =, x i n = A i i i Weight percent mainly in industry! x at % A = x 100 A

More information

Introduction to Iron Metallurgy. Lee Morin Houston Home Metal Shop Club October 2010

Introduction to Iron Metallurgy. Lee Morin Houston Home Metal Shop Club October 2010 Introduction to Iron Metallurgy Lee Morin Houston Home Metal Shop Club October 2010 Book I stole the pictures from We will start with a brief overview! Metals Are Crystals Fundamental geometry of a crystal

More information

REACTIONS IN THE SN CORNER OF THE CU-SN-ZN ALLOY SYSTEM

REACTIONS IN THE SN CORNER OF THE CU-SN-ZN ALLOY SYSTEM REACTIONS IN THE SN CORNER OF THE CU-SN-ZN ALLOY SYSTEM D.D. Perovic, L Snugovsky and J.W. Rutter Department of Materials Science and Engineering University of Toronto Toronto, ON, Canada doug.perovic@utoronto.ca

More information

B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal

B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal 1. The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing A) atomic mass B) atomic number C) molar mass D) oxidation number 2. Which list of elements consists of a metal, a metalloid, and

More information

Multicrystalline solar silicon production for development of photovoltaic industry

Multicrystalline solar silicon production for development of photovoltaic industry Multicrystalline solar silicon production for development of photovoltaic industry A.I. Nepomnyaschikh Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, E-mail: ainep@igc.irk.ru

More information

Name Date Class CHAPTER 1 REVIEW. Answer the following questions in the space provided.

Name Date Class CHAPTER 1 REVIEW. Answer the following questions in the space provided. CHAPTER 1 REVIEW Matter and Change SECTION 1 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. a Technological development of a chemical product often (a) lags behind basic research

More information

Chapter 1: Moles and equations. Learning outcomes. you should be able to:

Chapter 1: Moles and equations. Learning outcomes. you should be able to: Chapter 1: Moles and equations 1 Learning outcomes you should be able to: define and use the terms: relative atomic mass, isotopic mass and formula mass based on the 12 C scale perform calculations, including

More information

This is an author-deposited version published in: http://sam.ensam.eu Handle ID:.http://hdl.handle.net/10985/10324

This is an author-deposited version published in: http://sam.ensam.eu Handle ID:.http://hdl.handle.net/10985/10324 Science Arts & Métiers (SAM) is an open access repository that collects the work of Arts et Métiers ParisTech researchers and makes it freely available over the web where possible. This is an author-deposited

More information

MAL 201E: Materials Science. COURSE MATERIALS (with text) GRADING 25.09.2012 COURSE SCHEDULE

MAL 201E: Materials Science. COURSE MATERIALS (with text) GRADING 25.09.2012 COURSE SCHEDULE MAL 201E: Materials Science Course Objective... Introduce fundamental concepts in Materials Science You will learn about: material structure how structure dictates properties how processing can change

More information

The mechanical properties of metal affected by heat treatment are:

The mechanical properties of metal affected by heat treatment are: Training Objective After watching this video and reviewing the printed material, the student/trainee will learn the basic concepts of the heat treating processes as they pertain to carbon and alloy steels.

More information

Untitled Document. 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? 4. Which statement best describes the density of an atom s nucleus?

Untitled Document. 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? 4. Which statement best describes the density of an atom s nucleus? Name: Date: 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? A. protons and electrons grouped together in a random pattern B. protons and electrons grouped together in an alternating pattern C. a core

More information

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER The kinetic-molecular theory is based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion. The theory can be used to explain the properties of solids, liquids,

More information

FEATURES AND BENEFITS OF DIFFERENT PLATINUM ALLOYS. Kris Vaithinathan and Richard Lanam Engelhard Corporation

FEATURES AND BENEFITS OF DIFFERENT PLATINUM ALLOYS. Kris Vaithinathan and Richard Lanam Engelhard Corporation FEATURES AND BENEFITS OF DIFFERENT PLATINUM ALLOYS Kris Vaithinathan and Richard Lanam Engelhard Corporation Introduction There has been a significant increase in the world wide use of platinum for jewelry

More information

100% ionic compounds do not exist but predominantly ionic compounds are formed when metals combine with non-metals.

100% ionic compounds do not exist but predominantly ionic compounds are formed when metals combine with non-metals. 2.21 Ionic Bonding 100% ionic compounds do not exist but predominantly ionic compounds are formed when metals combine with non-metals. Forming ions Metal atoms lose electrons to form +ve ions. Non-metal

More information

Interfacial Reaction between Sn Ag Co Solder and Metals

Interfacial Reaction between Sn Ag Co Solder and Metals Materials Transactions, Vol. 46, No. 11 (25) pp. 2394 to 2399 Special Issue on Lead-Free ing in Electronics III #25 The Japan Institute of Metals Interfacial Reaction between Sn Ag Co and Metals Hiroshi

More information

Chapter Outline: Phase Transformations in Metals

Chapter Outline: Phase Transformations in Metals Chapter Outline: Phase Transformations in Metals Heat Treatment (time and temperature) Microstructure Mechanical Properties Kinetics of phase transformations Multiphase Transformations Phase transformations

More information

Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table Learning Outcomes

Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table Learning Outcomes Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table Learning Outcomes (a) Electronic structure (i) Electromagnetic spectrum and associated calculations Electromagnetic radiation may be described in terms of waves.

More information

Candidate Style Answer

Candidate Style Answer Candidate Style Answer Chemistry A Unit F321 Atoms, Bonds and Groups High banded response This Support Material booklet is designed to accompany the OCR GCE Chemistry A Specimen Paper F321 for teaching

More information

CHM 1311: General Chemistry 1, Fall 2004 Exam #1, September 8, 2004. Name (print) SSN

CHM 1311: General Chemistry 1, Fall 2004 Exam #1, September 8, 2004. Name (print) SSN CHM 1311: General Chemistry 1, Fall 2004 Exam #1, September 8, 2004 Name (print) SSN Pledge: I have neither given nor received aid on this exam: Signature For ALL problems: SHOW ALL WORK TO GET FULL CREDIT

More information

Question Bank Electrolysis

Question Bank Electrolysis Question Bank Electrolysis 1. (a) What do you understand by the terms (i) electrolytes (ii) non-electrolytes? (b) Arrange electrolytes and non-electrolytes from the following substances (i) sugar solution

More information

Crystal Structure of High Temperature Superconductors. Marie Nelson East Orange Campus High School NJIT Professor: Trevor Tyson

Crystal Structure of High Temperature Superconductors. Marie Nelson East Orange Campus High School NJIT Professor: Trevor Tyson Crystal Structure of High Temperature Superconductors Marie Nelson East Orange Campus High School NJIT Professor: Trevor Tyson Introduction History of Superconductors Superconductors are material which

More information

MICROSTRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GRAY CAST IRON AND AlSi ALLOY AFTER LASER BEAM HARDENING

MICROSTRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GRAY CAST IRON AND AlSi ALLOY AFTER LASER BEAM HARDENING Materials Science Forum Vols. 638-642 (2010) pp 769-774 Online available since 2010/Jan/12 at www.scientific.net (2010) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/msf.638-642.769

More information

SUS. Company Profile. Ulrich Nell, Feldstr.23, D - 46149 Oberhausen, Tel. 0049(0)208/658535 Fax 0049(0)208/658536

SUS. Company Profile. Ulrich Nell, Feldstr.23, D - 46149 Oberhausen, Tel. 0049(0)208/658535 Fax 0049(0)208/658536 SUS Ulrich Nell, Feldstr.23, D - 46149 Oberhausen, Tel. 0049(0208/658535 Fax 0049(0208/658536 Company Profile SUS was founded in 1986 in Oberhausen in the Ruhr area (close to Düsseldorf, in order to meet

More information

SAND CAST CHILL CAST LM4 - TF

SAND CAST CHILL CAST LM4 - TF 1 This alloy conforms with British Standards 1490 and is similar to the obsolete specifications BS.L79 and D.T.D 424A. Castings may be in the cast (M) of fully heat treated (TF) conditions. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

More information

Periodic Table Questions

Periodic Table Questions Periodic Table Questions 1. The elements characterized as nonmetals are located in the periodic table at the (1) far left; (2) bottom; (3) center; (4) top right. 2. An element that is a liquid at STP is

More information

Material Deformations. Academic Resource Center

Material Deformations. Academic Resource Center Material Deformations Academic Resource Center Agenda Origin of deformations Deformations & dislocations Dislocation motion Slip systems Stresses involved with deformation Deformation by twinning Origin

More information

CVD SILICON CARBIDE. CVD SILICON CARBIDE s attributes include:

CVD SILICON CARBIDE. CVD SILICON CARBIDE s attributes include: CVD SILICON CARBIDE CVD SILICON CARBIDE is the ideal performance material for design engineers. It outperforms conventional forms of silicon carbide, as well as other ceramics, quartz, and metals in chemical

More information

Mechanical Properties of Metals Mechanical Properties refers to the behavior of material when external forces are applied

Mechanical Properties of Metals Mechanical Properties refers to the behavior of material when external forces are applied Mechanical Properties of Metals Mechanical Properties refers to the behavior of material when external forces are applied Stress and strain fracture or engineering point of view: allows to predict the

More information

Unit 12 Practice Test

Unit 12 Practice Test Name: Class: Date: ID: A Unit 12 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A solid has a very high melting point, great hardness, and

More information

Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete each sentence. 11. Ammonia can be reacted with an acid to produce the salt ammonium nitrate.

Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete each sentence. 11. Ammonia can be reacted with an acid to produce the salt ammonium nitrate. Q. This question is about salts of ammonia and salts of lead. (a) Ammonia dissolves in water to make an alkaline solution. Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete each sentence. The ph of a solution

More information

2.5 The Modern View of Atomic Structure: An Introduction

2.5 The Modern View of Atomic Structure: An Introduction 2.5 The Modern View of Atomic Structure: An Introduction Figure 2.13 a & b (a) Expected Results of the Metal Foil Experiment if Thomson's Model Were Correct (b) Actual Results Copyright Houghton Mifflin

More information

Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram (a review) see Callister Chapter 9

Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram (a review) see Callister Chapter 9 Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram (a review) see Callister Chapter 9 University of Tennessee, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering 1 The Iron Iron Carbide (Fe Fe 3 C) Phase Diagram In their simplest form,

More information

Solidification, Crystallization & Glass Transition

Solidification, Crystallization & Glass Transition Solidification, Crystallization & Glass Transition Cooling the Melt solidification Crystallization versus Formation of Glass Parameters related to the formaton of glass Effect of cooling rate Glass transition

More information

You have already seen how precipitation reactions are used in qualitative

You have already seen how precipitation reactions are used in qualitative Chemistry 112 Laboratory: Precipitation of Metal Sulfides Page 17 Precipitation Reactions You have already seen how precipitation reactions are used in qualitative analysis. The separation of the ions

More information

(1) e.g. H hydrogen that has lost 1 electron c. anion - negatively charged atoms that gain electrons 16-2. (1) e.g. HCO 3 bicarbonate anion

(1) e.g. H hydrogen that has lost 1 electron c. anion - negatively charged atoms that gain electrons 16-2. (1) e.g. HCO 3 bicarbonate anion GS106 Chemical Bonds and Chemistry of Water c:wou:gs106:sp2002:chem.wpd I. Introduction A. Hierarchy of chemical substances 1. atoms of elements - smallest particles of matter with unique physical and

More information

Size effects. Lecture 6 OUTLINE

Size effects. Lecture 6 OUTLINE Size effects 1 MTX9100 Nanomaterials Lecture 6 OUTLINE -Why does size influence the material s properties? -How does size influence the material s performance? -Why are properties of nanoscale objects

More information

Mechanical Energy. Mechanical Energy is energy due to position or motion.

Mechanical Energy. Mechanical Energy is energy due to position or motion. Mechanical Energy Mechanical Energy is energy due to position or motion. Position: This means that matter can have energy even though it is not moving. If you knock something off of your kitchen counter,

More information

phys4.17 Page 1 - under normal conditions (pressure, temperature) graphite is the stable phase of crystalline carbon

phys4.17 Page 1 - under normal conditions (pressure, temperature) graphite is the stable phase of crystalline carbon Covalent Crystals - covalent bonding by shared electrons in common orbitals (as in molecules) - covalent bonds lead to the strongest bound crystals, e.g. diamond in the tetrahedral structure determined

More information

Lecture 19: Eutectoid Transformation in Steels: a typical case of Cellular

Lecture 19: Eutectoid Transformation in Steels: a typical case of Cellular Lecture 19: Eutectoid Transformation in Steels: a typical case of Cellular Precipitation Today s topics Understanding of Cellular transformation (or precipitation): when applied to phase transformation

More information

Objectives/Introduction Extraction of zinc Physical properties of zinc Zinc casting alloys Wrought zinc alloys Engineering design with zinc alloys

Objectives/Introduction Extraction of zinc Physical properties of zinc Zinc casting alloys Wrought zinc alloys Engineering design with zinc alloys Lecture 7 Zinc and its alloys Subjects of interest Objectives/Introduction Extraction of zinc Physical properties of zinc Zinc casting alloys Wrought zinc alloys Engineering design with zinc alloys Objectives

More information

47374_04_p25-32.qxd 2/9/07 7:50 AM Page 25. 4 Atoms and Elements

47374_04_p25-32.qxd 2/9/07 7:50 AM Page 25. 4 Atoms and Elements 47374_04_p25-32.qxd 2/9/07 7:50 AM Page 25 4 Atoms and Elements 4.1 a. Cu b. Si c. K d. N e. Fe f. Ba g. Pb h. Sr 4.2 a. O b. Li c. S d. Al e. H f. Ne g. Sn h. Au 4.3 a. carbon b. chlorine c. iodine d.

More information

Name Date Class STATES OF MATTER. SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages 385 389)

Name Date Class STATES OF MATTER. SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages 385 389) 13 STATES OF MATTER SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages 385 389) This section introduces the kinetic theory and describes how it applies to gases. It defines gas pressure and explains how temperature

More information

ATOMIC THEORY. Name Symbol Mass (approx.; kg) Charge

ATOMIC THEORY. Name Symbol Mass (approx.; kg) Charge ATOMIC THEORY The smallest component of an element that uniquely defines the identity of that element is called an atom. Individual atoms are extremely small. It would take about fifty million atoms in

More information

Chapter Outline Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms

Chapter Outline Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms Chapter Outline Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms What is happening in material during plastic deformation? Dislocations and Plastic Deformation Motion of dislocations in response to stress Slip

More information

Additional Lecture: TITRATION BASICS

Additional Lecture: TITRATION BASICS Additional Lecture: TITRATION BASICS 1 Definition and Applications Titration is the incremental addition of a reagent solution (called titrant) to the analyte until the reaction is complete Common applications:

More information

SOLIDIFICATION. (a)formation of stable nuclei. Growth of a stable nucleus. (c) Grain structure

SOLIDIFICATION. (a)formation of stable nuclei. Growth of a stable nucleus. (c) Grain structure SOLIDIFICATION Most metals are melted and then cast into semifinished or finished shape. Solidification of a metal can be divided into the following steps: Formation of a stable nucleus Growth of a stable

More information

- particle with kinetic energy E strikes a barrier with height U 0 > E and width L. - classically the particle cannot overcome the barrier

- particle with kinetic energy E strikes a barrier with height U 0 > E and width L. - classically the particle cannot overcome the barrier Tunnel Effect: - particle with kinetic energy E strikes a barrier with height U 0 > E and width L - classically the particle cannot overcome the barrier - quantum mechanically the particle can penetrated

More information

1332 CHAPTER 18 Sample Questions

1332 CHAPTER 18 Sample Questions 1332 CHAPTER 18 Sample Questions Couple E 0 Couple E 0 Br 2 (l) + 2e 2Br (aq) +1.06 V AuCl 4 + 3e Au + 4Cl +1.00 V Ag + + e Ag +0.80 V Hg 2+ 2 + 2e 2 Hg +0.79 V Fe 3+ (aq) + e Fe 2+ (aq) +0.77 V Cu 2+

More information

The OPERA Emulsions. Jan Lenkeit. Hamburg Student Seminar, 12 June 2008. Institut für Experimentalphysik Forschungsgruppe Neutrinophysik

The OPERA Emulsions. Jan Lenkeit. Hamburg Student Seminar, 12 June 2008. Institut für Experimentalphysik Forschungsgruppe Neutrinophysik The OPERA Emulsions Jan Lenkeit Institut für Experimentalphysik Forschungsgruppe Neutrinophysik Hamburg Student Seminar, 12 June 2008 1/43 Outline The OPERA experiment Nuclear emulsions The OPERA emulsions

More information

Summer Assignment Coversheet

Summer Assignment Coversheet Summer Assignment Coversheet Course: A.P. Chemistry Teachers Names: Mary Engels Assignment Title: Summer Assignment A Review Assignment Summary/Purpose: To review the Rules for Solubility, Oxidation Numbers,

More information

Liquids and Solids. AP Chemistry Chapter 10. 9/20/2009 Jodi Grack; Wayzata High School; images used with permission from Zumdahl

Liquids and Solids. AP Chemistry Chapter 10. 9/20/2009 Jodi Grack; Wayzata High School; images used with permission from Zumdahl Liquids and Solids AP Chemistry Chapter 10 Liquids and Solids Gases are much easier to study because molecules move independent of each other. In liquids and solids forces between molecules become very

More information

March 20. Physics 272. Spring 2014 Prof. Philip von Doetinchem

March 20. Physics 272. Spring 2014  Prof. Philip von Doetinchem Physics 272 March 20 Spring 2014 http://www.phys.hawaii.edu/~philipvd/pvd_14_spring_272_uhm.html Prof. Philip von Doetinchem philipvd@hawaii.edu Phys272 - Spring 14 - von Doetinchem - 129 Summary No magnetic

More information

Experiment 12- Classification of Matter Experiment

Experiment 12- Classification of Matter Experiment Experiment 12- Classification of Matter Experiment Matter can be classified into two groups: mixtures and pure substances. Mixtures are the most common form of matter and consist of mixtures of pure substances.

More information

Lösungen Übung Verformung

Lösungen Übung Verformung Lösungen Übung Verformung 1. (a) What is the meaning of T G? (b) To which materials does it apply? (c) What effect does it have on the toughness and on the stress- strain diagram? 2. Name the four main

More information

Amount of Substance. http://www.avogadro.co.uk/definitions/elemcompmix.htm

Amount of Substance. http://www.avogadro.co.uk/definitions/elemcompmix.htm Page 1 of 14 Amount of Substance Key terms in this chapter are: Element Compound Mixture Atom Molecule Ion Relative Atomic Mass Avogadro constant Mole Isotope Relative Isotopic Mass Relative Molecular

More information

X-Ray Diffraction HOW IT WORKS WHAT IT CAN AND WHAT IT CANNOT TELL US. Hanno zur Loye

X-Ray Diffraction HOW IT WORKS WHAT IT CAN AND WHAT IT CANNOT TELL US. Hanno zur Loye X-Ray Diffraction HOW IT WORKS WHAT IT CAN AND WHAT IT CANNOT TELL US Hanno zur Loye X-rays are electromagnetic radiation of wavelength about 1 Å (10-10 m), which is about the same size as an atom. The

More information

Martensite in Steels

Martensite in Steels Materials Science & Metallurgy http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/2002/martensite.html H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia Martensite in Steels The name martensite is after the German scientist Martens. It was used

More information

39. The determination of copper in brass

39. The determination of copper in brass Microscale Chemistry 163 39. The determination of copper in brass Topic Level Timing Description Metals chemical analysis. Post-16. 25 min. Apparatus (per group) In this experiment students dissolve some

More information

ANALYSIS OF ASPIRIN INFRARED (IR) SPECTROSCOPY AND MELTING POINT DETERMINATION

ANALYSIS OF ASPIRIN INFRARED (IR) SPECTROSCOPY AND MELTING POINT DETERMINATION Chem 306 Section (Circle) M Tu W Th Name Partners Date ANALYSIS OF ASPIRIN INFRARED (IR) SPECTROSCOPY AND MELTING POINT DETERMINATION Materials: prepared acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), stockroom samples

More information

APPENDIX B: EXERCISES

APPENDIX B: EXERCISES BUILDING CHEMISTRY LABORATORY SESSIONS APPENDIX B: EXERCISES Molecular mass, the mole, and mass percent Relative atomic and molecular mass Relative atomic mass (A r ) is a constant that expresses the ratio

More information