1 Warsaw International Forum on Science and Technology of Crystal Growth March , Sendai, Japan JAN CZOCHRALSKI ACHIEVEMENTS Anna Paj¹czkowska Kcynia
2 Father of the Czochralski method There are many scientists in the field of physics, chemistry and in general meaning material science whose name are well known all over the world. One of them is Jan Czochralski who has permanent position as a father of crystal growth method named the Czochralski method; CZ-method Jan Czochralski about 22 years old
3 1. Introduction C O N T E N T: 2. Jan Czochralski s life and family Education 4. Employment 5. Publications 6. Crystal growth method the Czochralski method the Czochralski method in the literature the Czochralski method in the Czochralski papers 7. Prof. J. Czochralski as a metallurgist Investigated materials Metods of investigation 8. Conclusions
4 His life and family: Prof. Dr Jan Czochralski was born on October 23, 1885 in Kcynia (small town situated in the central part of Poland near Toruñ Copernicus town ). Jan Czochralski was born as the eight child of the Polish craftsmen Franciszek Czochralski and Marta from the Suchomski family. The Czochralskis were carpenters for many generations. Jan Czochralski married in 1910 Marguerits Haase, a pianist of Dutch origin, the dauther of a rich owner of tenement houses. He died on April 22, 1953 in Poznan (heart disease) and was buried in Kcynia. Jan and Marta Czochralski had three children: two dauthers Leonia (1914) and Cecilia (1920,) and a son Borys (1918). All children died. At the present time his nephew prof. Jan Czochralski works at Warsaw University as a teacher of German language.
5 He was born in 1885 in Kcynia. INSTYTUT TECHNOLOGII MATERIA ÓW ELEKTRONICZNYCH E D U C A T I O N: Exercise school, 6-years at Teachers Seminar in Kcynia. Then he completed Teachers Seminar (his matriculation certificate was not found). In 1904 he moved to Berlin and started to work. Simultaneously he attended lectures on chemistry faculty in Charlottenburg Polytechnic in Berlin. In about 1910 he obtained the degree of chemist-engineer (the diplom was not found). From 1911 to 1914 he was an assistant of Wichard von Moellendorff. His first publication was devoted to metal crystallography, dislocation theory (Technologische Schluesse aus Kristallographie der Metalle Technological conclusions from metal crystallography) Z.d.V.d.Ing. 57(1913)931 and 1014.
6 In Germany: INSTYTUT TECHNOLOGII MATERIA ÓW ELEKTRONICZNYCH E M P L O Y M E N T 1904 he worked in pharmacy and drugstore of Dr A. Herbrand in Berlin Central Lab. of Kunheim&Co. in Niederschoenweide (near Berlin) 1907 Allgemeinen Elecrizitaets-Gesellschaft (AEG), Kabelwerk Oberspree in Oberschoenweide and Haelsenbau he was an assistant of Wichard von Moellendorff - first paper from 1916 he was the Head of Laboratory of Steel and Iron Research. He investigated purity and quality of metals and worked on copper refinement. The main task of Czochralski was the introduction of aluminium to electrical engeeneringproduction of aluminium products, alloys, standarizaton of metallographic studies he moved to Frankfurt on Mein, organized the Laboratory of metals Science of the Metall Gesselschaft A.G. metal B, patented in Pioneer investigations of anisotropy of hardness of single crystals ( )-important works for plastic treatment of materials.
7 In Poland: He did not accept the offer given by H. Ford to work in USA - he accepted the proposal given by the Polish President I. Moœcicki and in 1929 he came back to Poland 1929 the honorary doctorate given by Warsaw University of Technology (WUT) 1930 the title and position of professor in the Faculty of Chemistry of Warsaw University of Technology where he organized his laboratory: Department of Metallurgy and Metals Science at Warsaw University of Technology and then Institute of Metallurgy and Metal Science. He also founded Metallurgical Section in the Chemical Research Institute. He continued the studies of the rate of crystallization of metals, elastic properties, corrosion of metals and alloys 1939 II World War all laboratories in Warsaw were closed by German occupants In 1940 his laboratory was opened and then some others at the WUT In 1945 he moved to Kcynia and opened the firm BION produced chemicals for drugstore He died in 1953
8 Czochralski publications (about 250) in : German journals: Z. d. V. d. Ing. Zeitschrift des Vereins deutscher Ingeneurie Z. Met. Zeitschrift für Metallkunde Z. anorg. allg. Chem. Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie Z. angew. Chemie Zeitschrift für angewande Chemie Giess. Ztg. Giesserei Zeitung (organ des Gesamtverbandes Deutscher Metallgiessereien) Polish journals: Wiad. Inst. Met. Met. Wiadomoœci Instytutu Metalurgii i Metaloznawstwa Przem. Chem. - Przemys³ Chemiczny Przem. Mech. - Przegl¹d Mechaniczny Patents Books in Polish and German languages Conferences and visits European countries and USA Very rich citation, works from 1880, used languages: German, Polish, French Societies: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Metallkunde 1924, v-president and President 1926 Polish Chemical Society 1929 Society of Polish Mechanic Engineers honour member
9 the Czochralski method in the Czochralski papers: The results of the study of the rate of crystallization of tin, zinc and lead were published in Z.phys.Chem. 92 (1918) , Ein neues Verfahren zur Messung des Kristallisationsgeschwindigkeit der Metalle The paper was received by the editorial board on August 19, He found that the crystallization wire was single crystal of diam. about 1 mm and lengths up to 150 cm. The paper reported the description of a lifter and its junction with wire. The maximum rate of pulling of a crystal was recognized as the proper characteristics of the crystallizing material In the Polish journal: J. Czochralski, W. Garlicka, (Crystallization rate of sodium and the relations between atomic heat of solidification and crystallization rate) Wiad. Inst. Met. Met. 3 (1936) citated his method as the Czochralski method with reference to the paper 1918 Statement: the rate of crystallization is the best at the certain supercooling at the crystal-melt interface. The atomic, molecular Kossel s theory is discussed paper is citated in: Quantentheorie u. Chemie, J. Czochralski, J. Miko³ajczyk, as above, (1936) crystallization of Al % (rate of crystalization - dendritic and single crystal growth; rate mm/min -microscopic).
10 Historical outline of the Czochralski method -CZ-method (from the paper: J. Czochralski, 'Ein neues Verfahren zur Messung des Kristallisationsgeschwindigkeit der Metalle ' Z. phys. Chem. 92 (1918) ). The paper was received by the editorial board on August 19, Crystallization of tin, zinc and lead were performed. He found that the crystallization wire was single crystal of diam. about 1mm and lengths up to 150cm. The paper reported the description of a lifter and its junction with wire and the maximum rate of pulling of a crystal was recognized as the proper characteristics of the crystallizing material.
11 the Czochralski method in the Czochralski papers: The results of the study of the rate of crystallization of tin, zinc and lead were published in Z.phys.Chem. 92 (1918) , Ein neues Verfahren zur Messung des Kristallisationsgeschwindigkeit der Metalle The paper was received by the editorial board on August 19, He found that the crystallization wire was single crystal of diam. about 1 mm and lengths up to 150 cm. The paper reported the description of a lifter and its junction with wire. The maximum rate of pulling of a crystal was recognized as the proper characteristics of the crystallizing material In the Polish journal: J. Czochralski, W. Garlicka, (Crystallization rate of sodium and the relations between atomic heat of solidification and crystallization rate) Wiad. Inst. Met. Met. 3 (1936) citated his method as the Czochralski method with reference to the paper 1918 Statement: the rate of crystallization is the best at the certain supercooling at the crystal-melt interface. The atomic, molecular Kossel s theory is discussed paper is citated in: Quantentheorie u. Chemie, J. Czochralski, J. Miko³ajczyk, as above, (1936) crystallization of Al % (rate of crystalization - dendritic and single crystal growth; rate mm/min -microscopic).
12 Crystallization rate of sodium and the relations between atomic heat of solidification and crystallization rate (J. Czochralski, W Garlicka, Wiad. Inst. Met. Met. 3 (1936) 39 41, in Polish) The method as the Czochralski method with reference to the paper is citated. Relations-rate of crystallization and atomic heat of crystallization, from 50 cal/g-ag to 61.8 kcal/g-p. Reciprocal relation of crystallization rate and atomic heat of solidification (equilibrium temperature between liquid and crystal). Most heat is transported by crystal A-mixer; B-junction; D-crank handle; E, R-transmission wheels; G-record player mechanism; K-ksylen; M-motor; S-scale; T 1, T 2, T 3 -thermometers; W-paraphine bath; Z-needle (seed)
13 the Czochralski method in the published papers: H. von Wartenberg (Verhandlung der Deutsche Phys. Gesellschaft 20(1918)113, Über elastische Nachwirkung bei Metallen ) used seeds (zinc wire) to grow the crystals of zinc. E.v.Gomperz (Z. Phys.8(1922)184, Untersuchungen an Einkristalldrähten ) called for the first time this method Czochralski s name then Linder (E.G.Linder, Phys. Rev. 26(1925)486, Thermo-electric effect in single crystal zinc wires ) used first time the English name the Czochralski method. Later works dealing with the method are given by Mark et al. (H. Mark, M.Polanyi and E. Schmidt, Z. Phys. 12(1923)58, Vorgänge bei der Dehnung von Zinkkristallen ), Sachs (G. Sachs, Z. Met. 17(1925)238, Die Herstellung von Metallkristallen ) and also Schmidt and Boas (E. Schmidt and W. Boas, Kristallplastizität, J. Springer, Berlin, 1935, Plasticity of crystals, Hughes, London, 1950). After the Second World War, during the time of transistor discovery, scientists at the Bell Lab. in Murray Hill (Gordon K. Teal et al.) extended the Czochralski method to the growth of non-metallic materials starting with germanium and then silicon. It seems that after publication of Buckley s book Crystal Growth in 1951 the name of Czochralski was widely spread and was definitively connected with the method of crystal pulling. Today the Czochralski method is used to grow other semiconductors, oxides, fluorides and a number of binary and multicomponents compounds. All the time the method is improved and developed.
14 Metals and their alloys INSTYTUT TECHNOLOGII MATERIA ÓW ELEKTRONICZNYCH M A T E R I A L S: Aluminium to electrotechnology in ~ 1907 only four countries produced Al products investigation of aluminium and their alloys (recrystallization, alloys with several metals), aluminium alloy-silumin, eutectic alloy of 87% Al + 13% Si high mechanical strength, light discovered by A. Pacz a in 1920 and investigated by J.Czoch. Z. Met.13(1921) 507; enriched by several metal dopants weak effects, Na, Li (1937) the best. investigation of rotguss - bronze of tin-zinc, doped with Pb, Sb, As, Bi (Z. Met. (1920) bearing alloy not containing tin, metal - B (Bahn - metal) with small amounts of Li, Na, Ca and Al (applications in railway and industry), patent in 1924 (after 12 years of investigations) old bearing alloy Pb + (13%, 50%, 86%) Sn new metal B Pb %Ca, 0.58% Na, 0.04 Li and % Al - high mechanical properties (hardness, bending stregth, high Tm) (metal Satco (USA) 98% Pb, 0.04% Li, 0.04% K, 0.075% Mg, 0.05% Al, 0.25% Hg, 1% Sn)
15 Materials investigations: studies on the rate of crystallization of metals resulted in the Czochralski method of growing single crystals which has become widely applied till now studies on the recrystallization of metals resulted in recrystallization diagrams used commonly for description of the properties of materials change of heat effects after recrystallization in time - calorimetric investigations (heat effects decrease to zero after few days) for the measurements of self - improvement of materials, among others, the method of analysis of heating curves has been developed studies of corrosion of different materials stimulated the development of homogeneous and controlled conditions of measurements reagents: wet ammonia, HgCl 2 and HgO, vapour of H 2 O+3%NaCl (Al high pure and techn.), investigations loss of mass and vol % of evaporated H 2 mechanical properties: elasticity, expansions, degree of squeeze, fissility, bending strength plastic deformations of single crystals, slip plane, slip band dislocation motion on crystall. planes metallographic investigations required the developing of new methods of etching which inter alia resulted in Czochralski reagents for the etching of gold Czochralski solutions: Gold etching - new solution better than aqua regia: HCl or 4p.HCl + 1p.H 2 O with anhydride chromic acid (CrO 3 )
16 Materials investigations: studies on the rate of crystallization of metals resulted in the Czochralski method of growing single crystals which has become widely applied till now studies on the recrystallization of metals resulted in recrystallization diagrams used commonly for description of the properties of materials change of heat effects after recrystallization in time - calorimetric investigations (heat effects decrease to zero after few days) for the measurements of self - improvement of materials, among others, the method of analysis of heating curves has been developed studies of corrosion of different materials stimulated the development of homogeneous and controlled conditions of measurements reagents: wet ammonia, HgCl 2 and HgO, vapour of H 2 O+3%NaCl (Al high pure and techn.), investigations loss of mass and vol % of evaporated H 2 mechanical properties: elasticity, expansions, degree of squeeze, fissility, bending strength plastic deformations of single crystals, slip plane, slip band dislocation motion on crystall. planes metallographic investigations required the developing of new methods of etching which inter alia resulted in Czochralski reagents for the etching of gold Czochralski solutions: Gold etching - new solution better than aqua regia: HCl or 4p.HCl + 1p.H 2 O with anhydride chromic acid (CrO 3 )
17 Diagram of calcium recrystalliztion (J. Czochralski, W. elewska, Wiad. Inst. Met. Met. 5 (1938) 1) Degree of deformation is a change of sample height, before and after annealing in different temperatures and cooled to room temperature. Recrystallization takes place after deformation of metals and during their return to an equilibrium state. Etching and polishing solutions to investigate size of grains. Experimental diagram is disordered by some thermochemical properties of metals as: phase transformations-non continuity. On the axis: size of grains, temperature in C and degree of deformation in %.
18 Orientation and etching of crystals (Tammann, Bridgman) J. Czochralski, J. Skowroñska, Przem. Chem. 3 (1937) 65 Spherical surface of AI, cubic face (etching sol % H 2 F 2 ) Twins on (1010) plane of Zn crystal ( etching sol. - conc. HCI)
19 Orientation and etching of crystals (Tammann, Bridgman) (J. Czochralski, J. Skowronska, Przem. Chem. 3 (1937) 65) Spherical surface of Zn crystal, hexagonal symmetry Triangular figures of (0001) plane of Zn (etching sol. - HCI + H 2 O)
20 Lattice dynamics at plastic deformations (J. Czochralski Z.Met. 15 (1923) 60 and 126) Formation of translation P-press Distorted lattice -displaced atoms
21 Metallographic investigations: Metallografic microscopy INSTYTUT TECHNOLOGII MATERIA ÓW ELEKTRONICZNYCH Methods of investigations: the method of quantitative determination of nonmetallic precipitates in iron and steel (microscopic observations and analysis of electrical resistivity of precipitates and the matrix) was born out of studies of the quality of materials Radiomicroscopy detection of electromagnetic waves an attemp to detect nonmetallic precipitates using a specially constructed radiomicroscope (investigation of the static and dynamic characteristic, the contact of the needle with the metal under study) (Z. anorg. allg. Chem. 144 (1925) ). Alloy of Al-Si is investigated as a detector in a radio circut and is placed under a microscope, and a needle connected to the earth through a pair of ear-phones is brought into contact with different parts of the surface of the alloy. There are areas where the detector action was very poor. J.Czoch. explained that the alloy was not homogeneous and Si crystal were separated from melt and were very pure and detector power was lost. Resistivity measurements, J. Czochralski, W. Garlicka, Wiad. Inst. Met. Met. 3 (1936) 39 Changes of resistivity of nonmetalic particles in alloys. Batery 4V, potentiometr, needle of gramophone, sample, miliampermeter (60 ma starting current), compared with conductivity measurements and micrography. Goniometr one circle, acc. 1 0 Œwiêtos³awski microcalorimeter heat effects
22 Radio technic in the service of metallography (detection of electromagnetic waves) J. Czochralski, Z. anorg. allgem. Chem. 144(1925)263 J. Czochralski,W. Sznuk, Wiad. Inst. Met. Met. 3(1936)5 A sample of alloy (Al-Si), (Fe-silicate, steel) is connected in the circuit and placed under a microscope, and a needle connected to earth through a pair of ear-phones is brought into contact with different parts of the surface of the alloy. That the alloy is not homogeneous is evidenced by the fact that there are areas where the detector action is very poor. J.C. believes that the poor Si has separated from the melt and that the areas of poor detector action are due to these crystals of pure Si. The cause of the poor detector action of these crystals may be: (1) a new modification of Si is present; (2) the Si is very pure, because of recrystallization and has lost its detector power as a result of loss its impurities. MT-microscope table, N-metal needle (copper, steel) D-investigated plate of metal, A-antene, E-earth, L-induction coil, T-ear-phone
23 Investigations of metal/alloys crystallinity, grain orientations (J. Czochralski Z.anorg.allg.Chem. 144 (1925) 131) optical methods, polished, etched samples, reflection light at different angles, goniometer Scheme of aparatus for optical measurements A-projection lamp, B' and B"-shutters, L ' and L "-lenses, K-crystal, W-angle measurement (not goniometr) Scheme of crystal with different oriented planes, grains A, B, C -regions of various orientation, reflected light
24 International Forum on Science and Technology of Crystal Growth March , Sendai, Japan Conclusions: Professor dr Jan Czochralski was a metallurgist and he investigated various processes of metal solidifications, crystallization and properties of crystals structural, mechanical, thermochemical His achievements were outstanding and marked out new roads in science and technology Professor dr Jan Czochralski remains in our memory as a great scientist, inventor, well-known in material science, electronics and crystallography the father of crystal growth method the Czochralski method CZ method Professor dr Jan Czochralski signature (named badgerdog ) as the Head of Research Institute of Chemical Metallurgy at the Technical University in Warsaw, from the document Nov. 11, 1936.
25 Kcynia INSTYTUT TECHNOLOGII MATERIA ÓW ELEKTRONICZNYCH Warsaw POLAND
26 Events devoted to Jan Czochralski memory Papers in Polish and international journals - dr P. Tomaszewski Meetings internationals, two visits of foreign scientists in Kcynia Workshop 2000 (ITME, Warsaw) the first visit VI Polish Conference on Crystal Growth, May, 2001 in Poznañ - the second visit Medals * Founded by the 1 st Asian Conference on Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology (CGCT-1), Aug.-Sept., 2000, in Sendai Two Awards-Jan Czochralski medal Award for Crystal Growth - Dr. Tomoki Inada Award for Crystal Technology Prof. Shuji Nakamura Foundation of Materials Science Development * Gold Medal of Jan Czochralski dr Paul Siffert, Nov., 2000, in Cracow, MRS Meeting in Central and Eastern Europe * Gold Medal of Jan Czochralski- Prof. Kazimierz J. Flaga, June 2001, Strasbourg, E-MRS Spring Meeting
27 th anniversary of Jan Czochralski death
28 45th anniversary of Jan Czochralski death
29 INSTYTUT TECHNOLOGII MATERIA ÓW ELEKTRONICZNYCH
INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON 50 th ANNIVERSARY OF THE DEATH OF PROF. DR. JAN CZOCHRALSKI TORUŃ and KCYNIA April 26 27, 2003 Under the auspices of the President of the Republic of Poland Aleksander Kwaśniewski
Wafer Manufacturing Reading Assignments: Plummer, Chap 3.1~3.4 1 Periodic Table Roman letters give valence of the Elements 2 Why Silicon? First transistor, Shockley, Bardeen, Brattain1947 Made by Germanium
Chapter 1 Introduction to Material science & Metallurgy 1. Material Science & Metallurgy (21419) State the importance of study of materials science and briefly. Explain Engineering requirements of materials.
Exampro GCSE Chemistry C Chapter higher Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 56 Marks: 56 Comments: Page of 8 Q. The hip joint sometimes has to be replaced. Early replacement hip joints were made from stainless
Crystal Structure and Growth Source: USNA EE 452 Course on IC Technology EE-452 13-1 Atomic Order of a Crystal Structure EE-452 13-2 Amorphous Atomic Structure EE-452 13-3 Unit Cell in 3-D Structure Unit
CHAPTER 1 The Nature of Chemistry Objectives You will be able to do the following. 1. Describe how science in general is done. 2. Given a description of a property of a substance, identify the property
Introduction to Metallography Metallography has been described as both a science and an art. Traditionally, metallography has been the study of the microscopic structure of metals and alloys using optical
Chapter 1: Matter, Energy, and the Origins of the Universe Problems: 1.1-1.40, 1.43-1.98 science: study of nature that results in a logical explanation of the observations chemistry: study of matter, its
Epitaxy Epitaxial Growth Epitaxy means the growth of a single crystal film on top of a crystalline substrate. For most thin film applications (hard and soft coatings, optical coatings, protective coatings)
Effect of trace Sn on corrosion behaviors of high voltage anode aluminum foil SONG Jing-bo( ) 1, MAO Wei-min( ) 1, 2, YANG Hong( ) 1, FENG Hui-ping( ) 1 1. Department of Materials, University of Science
Crystal Structure of Aluminum, Zinc, and their Alloys By: Omar Fajardo Sebastian Henao Devin Baines ENGR45, F2014, SRJC Purpose The purpose of this experiment was to examine and observe the microstructure
Q1. (a) The diagram represents an atom of nitrogen. Label the diagram. (3) (b) Ammonia has the formula NH 3. It is made from nitrogen and hydrogen. How many atoms are in an ammonia molecule?... (c) The
Physics 610/Chemistry 678 Semiconductor Processing and Characterization Quiz I July 18, 2014 Part I: Short-answer questions on basic principles. (5 points each) 1. Briefly describe the CZ method and the
The 17 th International Conference on Crystal Growth in conjunction with The 15 th International Conference on Vapor Growth and Epitaxy Warsaw, Poland August 11-16, 2013 The 17 th International Conference
Ch. 4: Imperfections in Solids Part 1 Dr. Feras Fraige Outline Defects in Solids 0D, Point defects vacancies Interstitials impurities, weight and atomic composition 1D, Dislocations edge screw 2D, Grain
CHEM 10113, Quiz 7 December 7, 2011 Name (please print) All equations must be balanced and show phases for full credit. Significant figures count, show charges as appropriate, and please box your answers!
Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 2 Lecture - 2 Part 2 of 2 Review of Atomic Bonding II We will continue
Chapter Outline Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms What is happening in material during plastic deformation? Dislocations and Plastic Deformation Motion of dislocations in response to stress Slip
AlBalqa Applied University تا سست عام 997 The curriculum of associate degree in Air Conditioning, Refrigeration and Heating Systems consists of (7 credit hours) as follows: Serial No. Requirements First
Association of Metallurgical Engineers of Serbia AMES Scientific paper UDC:669.35-153.881-412.2=20 RAPIDLY SOLIDIFIED COPPER ALLOYS RIBBONS M. ŠULER 1, L. KOSEC 1, A. C. KNEISSL 2, M. BIZJAK 1, K. RAIĆ
XRF and SEM EDS Using the PDF for material identification using elemental data from XRF and SEM EDS. XRF and SEM EDS What? The Powder Diffraction File contains data on pure solid state compounds of well
Precipitation hardened high copper alloys for connector pins made of wire R. Zauter and D.V. Kudashov, Wieland-Werke AG, D-89070 Ulm, Germany Summary A new generation of high performance copper alloy wire
Lecture: 33 Solidification of Weld Metal This chapter presents common solidification mechanisms observed in weld metal and different modes of solidification. Influence of welding speed and heat input on
EXAMPLE EXERCISE 4.1 Change of Physical State State the term that applies to each of the following changes of physical state: (a) Snow changes from a solid to a liquid. (b) Gasoline changes from a liquid
THREE MAIN SOLIDIFICATION REACTIONS OF VANADIUM MODIFIED T1 TUNGSTEN HIGH SPEED TOOL STEEL Hossam Halfa Steel Technology Department, Central Metallurgical R&D Institute (CMRDI), Helwan, Egypt, firstname.lastname@example.org;
Animal, Vegetable, or Mineral? What do minerals have in common? Not all minerals are sparkling gems, but they all have certain characteristics in common. A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid
The particulate nature of matter Solids, liquids and gases The kinetic theory of matter Explaining the states of matter Changes of state An unusual state of matter An unusual change of state Heating and
Phase transformation Phase Transformation Topics o Basic principles relating to transformations o Kinetics of phase transformation: Nucleation and growth o Metastable and equilibrium state o Shape memory
Metals and Non-metals Comparison of physical properties of metals and non metals PHYSICAL PROPERTY METALS NON-METALS Physical State Metallic lustre (having a shining surface) Mostly solids (Liquid -mercury)
Sc KEY STAGE 3 TIER 5 7 Science test Paper 2 First name Last name School 2008 Remember The test is 1 hour long. You will need: pen, pencil, rubber, ruler, protractor and calculator. The test starts with
THE WAY TO SOMEWHERE Sub-topics 1 Diffusion Diffusion processes in industry RATE PROCESSES IN SOLIDS At any temperature different from absolute zero all atoms, irrespective of their state of aggregation
Laboratory 1 Tensile Testing Objectives Students are required to understand the principle of a uniaxial tensile testing and gain their practices on operating the tensile testing machine. Students are able
Free Electrons in a Metal - in a typical metal each atom contributes one electron to the delocalized electron gas describing the conduction electrons - if these electrons would behave like an ideal gas
Chapter 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following correctly represents 360 g of water? (i) 2 moles of H 2 0 (ii) 20 moles of water (iii) 6.022 10 23 molecules of water (iv)
Concept 1: Properties of Objects and Materials Classify objects and materials by their observable properties. Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 PO 1. Identify the following observable properties
CMOS Processing Technology Silicon: a semiconductor with resistance between that of conductor and an insulator. Conductivity of silicon can be changed several orders of magnitude by introducing impurity
Association of Metallurgical Engineers Serbia and Montenegro AME UDC:669.721.5.14-146=20 PRECIPITATION IN Mg ALLOY AZ61 IN DEPENDENCE OF VARIOUS HEAT TREATMENTS PROCESSES EDLIRA DHUKA 1, NEXHMEDIN LOHJA
Lead/Tin Solder Lab 1. Select a labeled cup(s) and sign your names on the table of lead/tin percentages. 2. Mass out 50 grams total of your assigned lead and tin alloy. 3. Melt the metals together in an
CHAPTER 3 Metals and Non-metals Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following property is generally not shown by metals? (a) Electrical conduction (b) Sonorous in nature (c) Dullness (d) Ductility
Crystal Growth How do single crystals differ from polycrystalline samples? Single crystal specimens maintain translational symmetry over macroscopic distances (crystal dimensions are typically 0.1 mm 10
CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.102 10.1 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN IONS Ion-ion Interactions and Lattice Energy
The Atom Atomic Number Mass Number Isotopes 1 Atomic Theory Atoms are building blocks of elements Similar atoms in each element Different from atoms of other elements Two or more different atoms bond in
hij GCSE Additional Science Chemistry 2 Higher Tier Chemistry 2H SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME Version.0 Copyright 20 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. The Assessment and Qualifications Alliance (AQA)
Material Strengthening Mechanisms Academic Resource Center Agenda Definition of strengthening Strengthening mechanisms Grain size reduction Solid solution alloying Cold Working (strain hardening) Three
3.5 Show that the atomic packing factor for BCC is 0.68. The atomic packing factor is defined as the ratio of sphere volume to the total unit cell volume, or APF = V S V C Since there are two spheres associated
Introduction to Iron Metallurgy Lee Morin Houston Home Metal Shop Club October 2010 Book I stole the pictures from We will start with a brief overview! Metals Are Crystals Fundamental geometry of a crystal
Elements, Compounds and Mixtures Science Junior Cert Quick Notes Elements, Compounds and Mixtures CHEMISTRY The world is made up of a variety of substances. Some of these occur naturally in our environment,
Learn Chemistry Starter for Ten 3. Bonding Developed by Dr Kristy Turner, RSC School Teacher Fellow 2011-2012 at the University of Manchester, and Dr Catherine Smith, RSC School Teacher Fellow 2011-2012
Tunnel Diode - in a heavily doped p-n junction the depletion region is very small (~ 10 nm) - the bottom of the n-side conduction band overlaps the p-side valence band, see (a) - with a small forward bias
Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR Corrosion-induced cracking of model train zincaluminium die castings R.J.H. Wanhill and T. Hattenberg This report may be cited
Questions Periodic Table Live! can help students answer. The questions in the Periodic Table Live! (PTL!) are divided into five categories: 1. Introductory questions are meant to familiarize users with
Phase diagrams Phase A phase can be defined as a physically distinct and chemically homogeneous portion of a system that has a particular chemical composition and structure. Water in liquid or vapor state
No Brain Too Small Level 1 Science 2015 90944 Demonstrate understanding of aspects of acids and bases Credits: Four Achievement Achievement with Merit Achievement with Excellence Demonstrate understanding
DURABILITY OF MORTAR LININGS IN DUCTILE IRON PIPES Durability of mortar linings I. S. MELAND SINTEF Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cement and Concrete, Trondheim, Norway Durability of Building Materials
Chapter 1: Moles and equations 1 Learning outcomes you should be able to: define and use the terms: relative atomic mass, isotopic mass and formula mass based on the 12 C scale perform calculations, including
Chemistry 10 with Mrs. Howland MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE FORMAT: 60 multiple choice (1 pt each) 5 short answer or calculation problem OPEN RESPONSE (8 pts each) MIDTERM DATES: MY MIDTERM Lab Safety and Equipment
CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS Matter is classified into solids, liquids and gases. However this is not the only way of classification of the matter. It is also classified into elements, compounds and mixtures
Module 6 : PHYSICS OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Lecture 34 : Intrinsic Semiconductors Objectives In this course you will learn the following Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. Fermi level in a semiconductor.
An-Najah National University Faculty of Engineering Industrial Engineering Department Engineering Materials and Metallurgy (65332) Lecturer: Eng. Tamer H. Haddad Time: 10:00-11:00 & 15:00-16:00 (Sun, Tue,
Materials Transactions, Vol. 46, No. 11 (25) pp. 2394 to 2399 Special Issue on Lead-Free ing in Electronics III #25 The Japan Institute of Metals Interfacial Reaction between Sn Ag Co and Metals Hiroshi
The Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Behavior of an Al-Fe-Si (AA8079) Twin Roll Cast Foil Kemal Delijić 1, Dragan Radonjić 1 1 University of Montenegro, Faculty of Metallurgy and Technology, Cetinjski
Analog & Digital Electronics Course No: PH-218 Lecture 1: Semiconductor Materials Course Instructors: Dr. A. P. VAJPEYI Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India 1 Semiconductors
Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table Learning Outcomes (a) Electronic structure (i) Electromagnetic spectrum and associated calculations Electromagnetic radiation may be described in terms of waves.
Candidate Style Answer Chemistry A Unit F321 Atoms, Bonds and Groups High banded response This Support Material booklet is designed to accompany the OCR GCE Chemistry A Specimen Paper F321 for teaching
1. The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing A) atomic mass B) atomic number C) molar mass D) oxidation number 2. Which list of elements consists of a metal, a metalloid, and
PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS Lavoisier s classification of elements In 1789, Lavoisier first attempted to classify the elements into two divisions namely Metals and Non-metals. Dobereiner s classification
Science Arts & Métiers (SAM) is an open access repository that collects the work of Arts et Métiers ParisTech researchers and makes it freely available over the web where possible. This is an author-deposited
CHAPTER 1 REVIEW Matter and Change SECTION 1 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. a Technological development of a chemical product often (a) lags behind basic research
Crystal Structure of High Temperature Superconductors Marie Nelson East Orange Campus High School NJIT Professor: Trevor Tyson Introduction History of Superconductors Superconductors are material which
Materials Science Forum Vols. 638-642 (2010) pp 769-774 Online available since 2010/Jan/12 at www.scientific.net (2010) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/msf.638-642.769
Training Objective After watching this video and reviewing the printed material, the student/trainee will learn the basic concepts of the heat treating processes as they pertain to carbon and alloy steels.
SECOND GRADE CHEMISTRY 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES ROCK CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SECOND GRADE CHEMISTRY WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing the states of matter. LAB: Observing the elements on the periodic table. POST:
REACTIONS IN THE SN CORNER OF THE CU-SN-ZN ALLOY SYSTEM D.D. Perovic, L Snugovsky and J.W. Rutter Department of Materials Science and Engineering University of Toronto Toronto, ON, Canada email@example.com
CVD SILICON CARBIDE CVD SILICON CARBIDE is the ideal performance material for design engineers. It outperforms conventional forms of silicon carbide, as well as other ceramics, quartz, and metals in chemical
Name: Date: 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? A. protons and electrons grouped together in a random pattern B. protons and electrons grouped together in an alternating pattern C. a core
184.108.40.206 Period 3 elements 173 minutes 169 marks Page 1 of 17 Q1. (a) Explain why certain elements in the Periodic Table are classified as p-block elements. Illustrate your answer with an example of a p-block
Q. This question is about salts of ammonia and salts of lead. (a) Ammonia dissolves in water to make an alkaline solution. Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete each sentence. The ph of a solution
Lecture 19: Eutectoid Transformation in Steels: a typical case of Cellular Precipitation Today s topics Understanding of Cellular transformation (or precipitation): when applied to phase transformation