1 XRF and SEM EDS Using the PDF for material identification using elemental data from XRF and SEM EDS.
2 XRF and SEM EDS What? The Powder Diffraction File contains data on pure solid state compounds of well defined elemental composition. XRF and SEM-EDS methods can provide an experimental determination of a specimen s elemental composition. By matching experimental composition data to the database entries, materials can be identified. The more elements positively identified in the XRF or SEM-EDS experiment, the more narrow the selection of candidate phases will be. If additional data are used, such as physical properties (color, density) or chemical properties, a unique solution can often be identified.
3 XRF and SEM EDS Why? Scientists have long recognized that using multiple observations of a specimen increases the probability of a successful identification. The Powder Diffraction File is designed as a database for material identification. While characteristic diffraction and crystallographic data are a primary tool used in the database, other characteristics of a material are input into the database or calculated to increase the chances of a successful identification. Elemental composition has been experimentally determined or calculated for all entries in the Powder Diffraction File. Elemental data, from an XRF or SEM-EDS, are often available in global analysis and materials characterization facilities.
4 XRF and SEM EDS How? All entries in the PDF have calculated atomic and weight percent compositions. The former was designed for use with EDS data and the latter with XRF analyses. The PDF has composition searches so that experimental data can be compared to the references in the database. ESD s and elemental ranges can be applied to the search.
5 XRF and SEM EDS How? The more you know, the more efficient the search. XRF or SEM-EDS Elemental Composition Physical Properties Melting Point Density Molecular Weight Color Functional Groups (from IR or MS) Crystal shape and Habit PDF-4+ and PDF-2 both have >20 searches, including all shown Unique Solution Diffraction Pattern Crystal Data Material Class - Mineral - Metal or Alloy - Pharmaceutical - Excipient - Explosives
6 Material Identification Case 1 Meteor A specimen of a commercial meteorite was examined. The task was to evaluate the composition and verify the authenticity. What do you know? Elemental composition determined by XRF Do a composition search. The specimen is a meteorite Use the metal and alloy subfile and/or the mineral subfile. The specimen was also be examined visually. It appeared metallic, with minor surface corrosion and metallic gray underneath the surface layer. The specimen was heavy.
7 Data From the XRF Analysis of the Meteor Compound Formula nz Conc (wt-%) Stat. Dev. (wt-%) Line Peak Int (kcps) Bkg Int (kcps) Net Int (kcps) Na Na KA1-HS-Min Mg Mg KA1-HS-Min Al Al KA1-HS-Min Si Si KA1-HS-Min P P KA1-HS-Min S S KA1-HS-Min Cl Cl KA1-HR-Min K K KA1-HS-Min Ca Ca KA1-HS-Min Cr Cr KA1-HS-Min Fe Fe KA1-HS-Min Co Co KA1-HS-Min Ni Ni KA1-HS-Min Total
8 Composition Search Meteor Use the Elements search page in PDF-4+ Input major elements from the XRF analysis. Click on a search using weight percents.
9 Subfile Search Meteor Either Mineral or Metal & Alloys, or both, could be selected through the point and click interface.
10 Results This composition found 0 results when compared to >270,000 entries. Search broaden by increasing ESD ranges 4 compositions identified. Each reference can then be examined by clicking on the entry.
11 Results 2 Entries have a composition of 90% Fe and 10% Nickel and are man-made alloys. 2 Entries have a composition of 88% Fe and 12% Nickel, have an identified mineral names, and were found in a meteorite. The specimen contains 88.1(1)% Fe and 10.0(1)% Ni with many trace elements.
12 Results The reference and editors comment sections for the two mineral phases, Kamacite and Taenite, mention that they are Fe-Ni alloy polymorphs, and were analyzed from the Carlton meteorite in Hamilton, Texas. The two minerals have different morphologies and crystal habits.
13 Verification Meteor The commercial vendor of the meteorite claimed that the meteor was from the Tambo Quemada meteorite in Peru. Furthermore, it is classified as an Iron, Medium Octahedrite (IIIB) meteor with an 8.7% Nickel content. (Note: This class of meteorites commonly has taenite and kamacite Fe-Ni Minerals. Furthermore, taenites are often Ni rich, even though the reference from the Carlton meteorite was not.) Once the references point to taenite and kamacite, each of which has a specific crystal habit, the original specimen was reexamined. Visual examination showed evidence of the habit and color described for these minerals. Two different morphologies are clearly observed.
14 Conclusion The commercial vendor claims were verified. XRF data directed the user to specific minerals contained in the PDF database. References in the PDF direct the user to cross confirm visual evidence on color and habit. The Ni content in the specimen was slightly higher than that of reference Carlton meteorites, and that claimed by the vendors bulk analysis of the Tambo Quemada meteorite. The Ni variation can be easily explained by differences in concentrations of kamacite and taenite, which are both observed in the specimen.
15 How Searches Reduce the Candidate Lists >270,000 Entries in PDF-4 Database 957 Entries with Fe & Ni containing compounds 93 Fe-Ni Alloys 24 Fe-Ni Alloy Minerals 2 Fe-Ni Minerals with 88(2)% Fe
16 Alternate Search Strategy Simplier >270,000 Entries in PDF-4 Database 24 Minerals containing Ni and Fe 3 Fe-Ni Minerals with 88(2)% Fe In this case, the third mineral is Haxonite, an Fe-Ni-Co carbide. This mineral is found in meteorites and has 0.5 wt% Co, and is often mixed with the other 2 minerals. Since the specimen contains Co, this phase may be also be present.
17 Mineral Sample Case 2 In this experiment, the specimen was a commercial raw material intended for a manufacturing process. The objective was to verify purity and Composition, claimed by the producer.
18 Mineral Specimen Case 2 Compound Formula nz Concentration Line 1 Concentr. 1 Stat. Dev. 1 Depth 1 Al2O Al KA1-HS-Min um SiO Si KA1-HS-Min um P2O P KA1-HS-Min um K2O K KA1-HS-Min mm CaO Ca KA1-HS-Min mm TiO Ti KA1-HS-Min mm Cr2O Cr KA1-HS-Min mm Fe2O Fe KA1-HS-Min mm SrO Sr KA1-HS-Min mm ZrO Zr KA1-HS-Min mm XRF analysis of a mineral specimen all data expressed as oxides.
19 Convert to Element Concentration Experimental Data Calculated Data* 56.8% Al2O % Al 41.5% SiO % Si *Can use MW s provided in the ICDD database.
20 Use a Composition Search This composition only matches 1 entry, and that entry (Si 6 Al 10 O 21 N 4 ) is not a Mineral, but a synthetic ceramic! Input experimental concentrations
21 No Success Try a New Search Broaden composition range put ESD s at 5 wt%. Restrict to minerals (eliminates synthetic ceramics)
22 New Search Case 2 5 Minerals identified as candidates None match manufacturer s label.
23 Verification The manufacturer s mineral does have several reference compounds in the database. Composition data for these references are shown below. Database References XRF Analysis 30.1% Al 19.4% Si Al / Si = 1.92 Al / Si = 1.55 The Al and Si concentrations, as well as the Al/Si concentration ratio, indicate that the specimen is not pure. The mineral is often found with SiO2. The lack of additional elements in the XRF would rule out many other minerals. The Al analysis would indicate ~90% purity.
24 Conclusion Case 2 In this case, the analysis indicates that the specimen is not pure. Comparison of the data with standards in the database, suggests impurities, which could be verified with some simple additional testing (i.e. light microscopy examination).
25 XRF Analysis of the Liberty Bell Copper Tin Lead Zinc Iron Silver Antimony Arsenic Gold Nickel Range reflects 10 specimens taken from the bell in Analysis taken from the Liberty Bell Internet site.
26 Liberty Bell Case 3 Input Composition (prior slide) There are 59 references of the Cu-Znalloy system bronze. Four alloy matches.
27 Liberty Bell Bronze References Case 3 There are several bronze phases, (alpha, beta, gamma) of similar composition within the Sn ranges, found in the Liberty Bell. This shows a few of them. Closest Match
28 From Cambridge University Google Search: trans/2005/bell/bell.html Metallurgy of Bronze Bells and Castings H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia Bronze used for making bells and gongs is essentially an alloy of copper and tin. Copper, containing about wt% of tin, is often known as bell metal, because it has a pleasing sound quality when struck. (Note: This citation was not in reference to the Liberty Bell, but elemental analyses of ancient gongs in Korea).
29 General Searches Strategies The prior examples assume that the user has a quantitative elemental analysis, so the preferred search mechanism is the composition search. Qualitative analyses can also be used. In these cases, a general periodic table search is effective. Semi-quantitative results might use combinations of the composition search with wide ESD s and a periodic table search and/or an elements search. Any of the above searches can be combined with diffraction data for dramatically improved results see the Advanced Identification Tutorial for details. The results of any elemental analysis search can be directly fed into the identification Programs, SIeve or SIeve+, as shown in the tutorial.
30 Periodic Table Search Click Search Icon From the Toolbar. Click Periodic Table.
31 Elements Search The number of elements selected for the search. For example, in Case 1 (meteor), 2 elements account for 98 wt% of the specimen. If 1 element was selected, only single elements would be considered. If 2 elements were selected, all binary alloys would be searched. If both 1 and 2 were selected, all combinations of elements and binary alloys would be searched. Composition Search Shown in all 3 cases. If you have a candidate formula, as in Case 2, it can be searched here.
32 Case 1 Revisited Assume Qualitative XRF Data Input Fe and Ni into the Periodic Table Search by point and clicking the elements Input All 1 and 2 element combinations (elements and binaries) >270,000 Entries Input Search for Minerals 93 Entries 24 Minerals
33 Case 1 Revisted Qualitative XRF Data You now have 24 candidate materials in 8 mineral families (mineral name) However, we also know the specimen is claimed to be from a meteorite! Search for meteorites!
34 Case 1 Revisited Qualitative XRF Data Two good places to search for meteorites : - The title of the references - The editors comments (includes specimen details) Reference Search Page Miscellaneous Search Page
35 Case 1 Revisited Qualitative XRF Data Searching meteor in the comment section finds 18 entries of Fe Ni composition and four minerals. Searching meteor in the title finds 13 entries of Fe Ni composition and three mineral types including taenite and kamacite.
36 Conclusions Since the PDF is a collection of pure single phase materials, identification is enhanced when the specimen is phase pure. This means that this application improves with either XRF or SEM EDS microanalysis. The literature citations, reference histories, physical and chemical properties in the database, can all be used to cross reference with experimental elemental data to assist in material identification.
37 Thank you for viewing our tutorial. Additional tutorials are available at the ICDD web site ( International Centre for Diffraction Data 12 Campus Boulevard Newtown Square, PA Phone: Fax:
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