Introduction to Astronomy. Lecture 4: Our star, the Sun

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Introduction to Astronomy. Lecture 4: Our star, the Sun"

Transcription

1 Introduction to Astronomy Lecture 4: Our star, the Sun 1

2 Sun Facts Age = 4.6 x 10 9 years Mean Radius = 7.0x10 5 km = 1.1x10 2 R = 1R Volume = 1.4x10 18 km 3 = 1.3x10 6 R = 1V Mass = 2x10 30 kg = 3.3x10 5 M = 1M Surface Temperature = 5,778K Rotation Period: (sidereal) at equator = days at poles = 34.4 days SOHO (ESA & NASA) 2

3 Sun Facts "EffectiveTemperature 300dpi e" by Sch - Drawn by myself. The solar spectrum is the WRC spectrum provided by M. Iqbal: An Introduction to Solar Radiation, Academic Press 1983, Table C1. The black body spectral irradiance has been computed from a black-body spectrum for T equal 5777 K and assuming a solid angle of 6.8e-5 steradian for the source (the solar disk).. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:EffectiveTemperature_300dpi_e.png#/media/File:EffectiveTemperature_300dpi_e.png 3

4 Structure SOHO (ESA & NASA) 4

5 Core very center of sun high temperature and pressure temperature is about 15.7 million K (0 o C=273K) 20 25% of solar radius energy generated through fusion H->He Fusion = two atoms forced together to form a heavier atom "FusionintheSun" by Borb - Own work. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike via Wikimedia Commons - File:FusionintheSun.svg#mediaviewer/File:FusionintheSun.svg Proton-Proton chain fusion reaction 5

6 Radiative Zone outside of core of solar radius energy transferred through radiation H and He ions emit and reabsorb photons radiation -> light of all wavelengths SOHO (ESA & NASA) 6

7 Convection Zone outside of radiative zone 0.70 of solar radius to surface energy transferred through convection lower temperature and density convection -> hot gas rises, cooler gas falls similar to boiling pot of water SOHO (ESA & NASA) 7

8

9 Convection Heat transfer through the motion of a hot material When a material heats, it expands The expanded material is less dense The material then rises, carrying heat 9

10 Photosphere visible surface of sun in visible wavelengths T~5800K not solid surface <500km deep dense enough to emit light but not so dense that light can t escape so bright it dominates view without filters SOHO (ESA & NASA) 10

11 Chromosphere the lower atmosphere of the sun located above photosphere much hotter and less dense than the photosphere this is where most activity occurs prominences flares magnetic loops "Solar eclipse NR" by Luc Viatour - Own work Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons - wiki/file:solar_eclipse_1999_4_nr.jpg#mediaviewer/file:solar_eclipse_1999_4_nr.jpg 11

12 Solar Transition Region Between the chromosphere and the corona Rapid rise in temperature 2x10 4 K-1x10 6 K Helium becomes fully ionized "Transition-region" by TRACE - TRACE spacecraft Picture of the Day web site trace.lmsal.com/pod/images/t195_020226_03_04_filamenteruption.jpg. Licensed under Public domain via Wikimedia Commons - 12

13 Corona the outer atmosphere of the sun low density, high temperature normally too faint to be seen photosphere is too bright can be seen during solar eclipse SOHO sees by blocking out bright photosphere "Solar eclipse NR" by Luc Viatour - Own work Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons - wiki/file:solar_eclipse_1999_4_nr.jpg#mediaviewer/file:solar_eclipse_1999_4_nr.jpg 13

14 Interior Structure What is the interior structure of the Sun? Density The density is highest at the center Drops off rapidly toward surface Temperature The temperature is highest at the center Drops off rapidly toward surface 14

15 15

16 Appearance Look at the following views of the sun and describe what you see The following images and video come from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) "NASA SOHO spacecraft" by Cgruda - SOHOLower2.htmlFile:SOHO nasa.tif. Licensed under Public domain via Wikimedia Commons - File:NASA_SOHO_spacecraft.png 16

17 Photosphere Very bright visible surface Need filter to take picture SOHO (ESA & 17 NASA)

18 Sun Spots Darker cooler spots on the photosphere Still very hot Need filter to see them Features? SOHO Elizabeth (ESA & NASA) Charlton,

19 Other wavelengths As we look in other wavelengths, we see other features besides just the photosphere Wavelength related to temperature SOHO (ESA & NASA) 19

20 Granulation light and dark speckling of the photosphere caused by convection underneath very small scale and short time 20

21 Chromosphere Looking in UV Features? SOHO (ESA & NASA) 21

22 Corona Outer edges of atmosphere Overwhelmed by photosphere Seen in eclipses Features? SOHO (ESA & NASA) 22

23 Activity on the Sun The sun doesn t stay the same The changes are referred to as activity 23

24 Changes over month Photosphere Chromosphere soho_movie_theater Notice rotation and active regions 24

25 Changes over years activity increases and decreases in 11 year cycle Called solar cycle "Sunspot Numbers". Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons - File:Sunspot_Numbers.png 25

26 Current status Are we in high or low part of the cycle "Solar Cycle Prediction" by David Hathaway, NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center - predict.shtml. Licensed under Public domain via Wikimedia Commons - File:Solar_Cycle_Prediction.gif#mediaviewer/File:Solar_Cycle_Prediction.gif 26

27 Magnetic Field the activity on the sun is caused by the magnetic field the sun's magnetic field gets twisted and knotted SOHO (ESA & NASA) 27

28 Solar Magnetic Activity SOHO (ESA & NASA) 28

29 Sun spots temporary cooler, darker spots on the surface caused by magnetic field lines bunching together last from hours to months 29

30 Sunspots SOHO (ESA & NASA) 30

31 Prominences Gas extends above the photosphere Most visible on the edges Features? "Sun earth jupiter whole 600" by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center - Solar Dynamics Observatory. Licensed under Public Domain via Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:Sun_earth_jupiter_whole_600.jpg#/media/ File:Sun_earth_jupiter_whole_600.jpg 31

32 Prominences SOHO (ESA & NASA) 32

33 Prominences Gas flows along the magnetic field of the prominences 33

34 Flares outbursts of activity on the sun's surface due to magnetic reconnection resulting in temporary brightening SOHO (ESA & NASA) 34

35 Coronal Mass Ejections Coronal Mass Ejections large amounts of gas thrown out into space caused by magnetic field breaking and reforming SOHO (ESA & NASA) 35

36 Auroras High energy particles are ejected by the Sun Particles interact with the Earth s magnetic field, flowing down toward the atmosphere at the poles Produces colored light through collisions with atoms in the atmosphere atomic excitation "Aurora Borealis and Australis Poster". Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 1.0 via Wikipedia - File:Aurora_Borealis_and_Australis_Poster.jpg#mediaviewer/ File:Aurora_Borealis_and_Australis_Poster.jpg 36

37 Auroras SOHO (ESA & NASA) 37

38 Solar Storms What happens if a large Solar Storm impacts the Earth? Geomagnetic Storms interact with the Earth s magnetic field Coronal Mass Ejection Solar Flare Solar Storm Video 38

Name Date Per Teacher

Name Date Per Teacher Reading Guide: Chapter 28.1 (read text pages 571-575) STRUCTURE OF THE SUN 1e Students know the Sun is a typical star and is powered by nuclear reactions, primarily the fusion of hydrogen to form helium.

More information

The Sun ASTR /14/2016

The Sun ASTR /14/2016 The Sun ASTR 101 11/14/2016 1 Radius: 700,000 km (110 R ) Mass: 2.0 10 30 kg (330,000 M ) Density: 1400 kg/m 3 Rotation: Differential, about 25 days at equator, 30 days at poles. Surface temperature: 5800

More information

The Sun: Our Star (Chapter 14)

The Sun: Our Star (Chapter 14) The Sun: Our Star (Chapter 14) Based on Chapter 14 No subsequent chapters depend on the material in this lecture Chapters 4, 5, and 8 on Momentum, energy, and matter, Light, and Formation of the solar

More information

The Sun. Astronomy 291 1

The Sun. Astronomy 291 1 The Sun The Sun is a typical star that generates energy from fusion of hydrogen into helium. Stars are gaseous bodies that support their weight by internal pressure. Astronomy 291 1 The Sun: Basic Properties

More information

Unit 8 Lesson 3 The Sun. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 8 Lesson 3 The Sun. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company The Sun: The Center of Attention Where is the sun located? The sun rises every day in the east and appears to travel across the sky before it sets in the west. This led astronomers to believe the sun moved

More information

Proton-proton cycle 3 steps PHYS 162 1

Proton-proton cycle 3 steps PHYS 162 1 Proton-proton cycle 3 steps PHYS 162 1 The proton proton chain in action PHYS 162 2 Layers of the Sun Mostly Hydrogen with about 25% Helium. Small amounts of heavier elements Gas described by Temperature,

More information

Our Sun: the view from outside

Our Sun: the view from outside Our Sun: the view from outside 1. The Sun is hot. Really hot. The visible "surface" of the Sun, called the photosphere, has a temperature of about 5800 Kelvin. That's equivalent to roughly 10,000 Fahrenheit.

More information

Chapter 10 Our Star. Why does the Sun shine? Radius: m (109 times Earth) Mass: kg (300,000 Earths)

Chapter 10 Our Star. Why does the Sun shine? Radius: m (109 times Earth) Mass: kg (300,000 Earths) Chapter 10 Our Star X-ray visible Radius: 6.9 10 8 m (109 times Earth) Mass: 2 10 30 kg (300,000 Earths) Luminosity: 3.8 10 26 watts (more than our entire world uses in 1 year!) Why does the Sun shine?

More information

The Sun. 1a. The Photosphere. A. The Solar Atmosphere. 1b. Limb Darkening. A. Solar Atmosphere. B. Phenomena (Sunspots) C.

The Sun. 1a. The Photosphere. A. The Solar Atmosphere. 1b. Limb Darkening. A. Solar Atmosphere. B. Phenomena (Sunspots) C. The Sun 1 The Sun A. Solar Atmosphere 2 B. Phenomena (Sunspots) Dr. Bill Pezzaglia C. Interior Updated 2006Oct31 A. The Solar Atmosphere 1. Photosphere 2. Chromosphere 3. Corona 4. Solar Wind 3 1a. The

More information

The Sun. We know the most about the sun. How does the sun produce energy? Inside the sun Models of the solar interior. We can see surface details.

The Sun. We know the most about the sun. How does the sun produce energy? Inside the sun Models of the solar interior. We can see surface details. The Sun We know the most about the sun We can see surface details. Other stars are points of light. Magnetic fields, wind, flares How does the sun produce energy? Inside the sun Models of the solar interior

More information

4 th & 5 th lectures; Mon & Tues, July 7 & 8Crib notes 7/6/20087/6/2008. Sun and processes

4 th & 5 th lectures; Mon & Tues, July 7 & 8Crib notes 7/6/20087/6/2008. Sun and processes 4 th & 5 th lectures; Mon & Tues, July 7 & 8Crib notes 7/6/20087/6/2008 Topics Sun and processes Chart of spectrum and features has been uploaded To blackboard and web Ask how many students have accessed

More information

Unit 1: Astronomy, Part 1: The Big Bang

Unit 1: Astronomy, Part 1: The Big Bang Earth Science Notes Packet #1 Unit 1: Astronomy, Part 1: The Big Bang 1.1: Big Bang The universe is How do we know this? All matter and energy in the universe was once condensed into a single point bya

More information

Four Centuries of Discovery. Visions of the Universe. torms. on thes. supplemental materials

Four Centuries of Discovery. Visions of the Universe. torms. on thes. supplemental materials Visions of the Universe ~ Four Centuries of Discovery S torms on thes un supplemental materials Storms on the Sun Table of Contents - Exhibit Overview... 3 Science Background... 4 Science Misconceptions...

More information

Arrange the following forms of radiation from shortest wavelength to longest. optical gamma ray infrared x-ray ultraviolet radio

Arrange the following forms of radiation from shortest wavelength to longest. optical gamma ray infrared x-ray ultraviolet radio Arrange the following forms of radiation from shortest wavelength to longest. optical gamma ray infrared x-ray ultraviolet radio Which of the wavelength regions can completely penetrate the Earth s atmosphere?

More information

Assignment 6. Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Assignment 6. Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Assignment 6 Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which part of the Sun has the greatest density? a. the photosphere b. the core

More information

Astro Lecture 16 The Sun [Chapter 10 in the Essential Cosmic Perspective]

Astro Lecture 16 The Sun [Chapter 10 in the Essential Cosmic Perspective] Astro 110-01 Lecture 16 The Sun [Chapter 10 in the Essential Cosmic Perspective] Habbal Lecture 16 1 For problems with Mastering Astronomy Contact: Jessica Elbern Jessica.Elbern@Pearson.com 808-372-6897

More information

WELCOME to Aurorae In the Solar System. J.E. Klemaszewski

WELCOME to Aurorae In the Solar System. J.E. Klemaszewski WELCOME to Aurorae In the Solar System Aurorae in the Solar System Sponsoring Projects Galileo Europa Mission Jupiter System Data Analysis Program ACRIMSAT Supporting Projects Ulysses Project Outer Planets

More information

Worksheet 4.2 (Answer Key)

Worksheet 4.2 (Answer Key) Worksheet 4.2 (Answer Key) 1. How are the stars we see at night related to the Sun? How are they different? The Sun is a star, but the Sun is very close and the stars are very, very far away. 2. How big

More information

The Sun and It s Domain. Know about the Sun s Energy Know about the Sun s Core, Atmosphere, and Sunspots Comprehend the Solar System s Structure

The Sun and It s Domain. Know about the Sun s Energy Know about the Sun s Core, Atmosphere, and Sunspots Comprehend the Solar System s Structure The Sun and It s Domain Know about the Sun s Energy Know about the Sun s Core, Atmosphere, and Sunspots Comprehend the Solar System s Structure Lesson Overview The Sun s Energy The Sun s Core, Atmosphere,

More information

CHAPTER 9: STARS AND GALAXIES

CHAPTER 9: STARS AND GALAXIES CHAPTER 9: STARS AND GALAXIES Characteristics of the Sun 1. The Sun is located about 150 million kilometres from the Earth. 2. The Sun is made up of hot gases, mostly hydrogen and helium. 3. The size of

More information

8. The Sun as a Star

8. The Sun as a Star Astronomy 110: SURVEY OF ASTRONOMY 8. The Sun as a Star 1. Inside the Sun 2. Solar Energy 3. Solar Activity The Sun is not only the largest object in our solar system it is also the nearest example of

More information

Climate Discovery Teacher s Guide

Climate Discovery Teacher s Guide Unit: Sun-Earth Lesson: 3 Materials & Preparation Time: Preparation: 30 min Teaching: one or two class periods Materials for the Teacher: Overhead projector Transparency of p.5 Materials for the Class:

More information

The sun is one of the 100 billion stars that make up the Milky Way

The sun is one of the 100 billion stars that make up the Milky Way Section 24.3 24.3 The Sun FOCUS Section Objectives 24.7 Explain the structure of the sun. 24.8 Describe the physical features on the surface of the sun. 24.9 Explain how the sun produces energy. Build

More information

Grade 9 Academic Science (SNC 1D1) Unit # 15: ASTRONOMY The Sun, the Stars, & Planets

Grade 9 Academic Science (SNC 1D1) Unit # 15: ASTRONOMY The Sun, the Stars, & Planets MARY WARD CATHOLIC SECONDARY SCHOOL Centre for Self-Directed Learning Grade 9 Academic Science (SNC 1D1) Unit # 15: ASTRONOMY The Sun, the Stars, & Planets Unit Last Revised: March 2013 ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION

More information

8.1 Radio Emission from Solar System objects

8.1 Radio Emission from Solar System objects 8.1 Radio Emission from Solar System objects 8.1.1 Moon and Terrestrial planets At visible wavelengths all the emission seen from these objects is due to light reflected from the sun. However at radio

More information

Solar Active Regions. Solar Active Regions E NCYCLOPEDIA OF A STRONOMY AND A STROPHYSICS

Solar Active Regions. Solar Active Regions E NCYCLOPEDIA OF A STRONOMY AND A STROPHYSICS Solar Active Regions Solar active regions form where the tops of loops of magnetic flux, shaped like the Greek letter omega ( ), emerge into the solar atmosphere where they can be seen. These loops are

More information

Counting Sunspots. Parent Prompts: Are there years with lots of sunspots? Are there years with very few sunspots?

Counting Sunspots. Parent Prompts: Are there years with lots of sunspots? Are there years with very few sunspots? Counting are magnetic storms on the Sun these dark areas are a little cooler than the rest of the Sun s atmosphere. They can be easily seen when the Sun s image is projected onto a white surface, using

More information

Jupiter (Earth for Scale) Galilean moons. Europa

Jupiter (Earth for Scale) Galilean moons. Europa OUTER PLANETS MINOR MEMBERS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM SUN Jupiter (Earth for Scale) Jupiter s bands are clouds Hubble view of Jupiter Arrow shows entry point of Galileo probe, Dec. 1995 Galilean moons Io True

More information

Climate Discovery Teacher s Guide

Climate Discovery Teacher s Guide Unit: Sun-Earth Lesson: 1 Materials & Preparation Time: Preparation: 30 min Teaching: 50 min Materials for the Teacher: Sun Image Thumbnails printed in color onto transparency PowerPoint presentation and

More information

Name Period Date Unit 5 Test: Earth-Sun-Moon System. 1. The diagram below shows the relative positions of Earth and the Moon and rays of sunlight.

Name Period Date Unit 5 Test: Earth-Sun-Moon System. 1. The diagram below shows the relative positions of Earth and the Moon and rays of sunlight. Name Period Date Unit 5 Test: Earth-Sun-Moon System Multiple Choice: 30 questions at 2 points each (60 points) 1. The diagram below shows the relative positions of Earth and the Moon and rays of sunlight.

More information

Solar Ast ro p h y s ics

Solar Ast ro p h y s ics Peter V. Foukal Solar Ast ro p h y s ics Second, Revised Edition WI LEY- VCH WILEY-VCH Verlag Co. KCaA Contents Preface 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.3

More information

STUDY GUIDE: Earth Sun Moon

STUDY GUIDE: Earth Sun Moon The Universe is thought to consist of trillions of galaxies. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, has billions of stars. One of those stars is our Sun. Our solar system consists of the Sun at the center, and all

More information

DeAnza College Astronomy 04 Practice Final Examination Fall 2011

DeAnza College Astronomy 04 Practice Final Examination Fall 2011 DeAnza College Astronomy 04 Practice Final Examination Fall 2011 Multiple Choice: Mark answer on Scantron. 1. Which of the following motions of Earth causes the Sun to rise in the east and set in the west?

More information

Astronomy 100 Exam 2

Astronomy 100 Exam 2 1 Prof. Mo Exam Version A Astronomy 100 Exam 2 INSTRUCTIONS: Write your name and ID number on BOTH this sheet and the computer grading form. Use a #2 Pencil on the computer grading form. Be careful to

More information

Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Test 2 f14 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Carbon cycles through the Earth system. During photosynthesis, carbon is a. released from wood

More information

Solar Energetic Particles: A Relay Race to Earth By Andrea Karelitz

Solar Energetic Particles: A Relay Race to Earth By Andrea Karelitz Karelitz 1 Solar Energetic Particles: A Relay Race to Earth By Andrea Karelitz Things move fast. If you re feeling daring, take a trip to Brazil and speed down the fastest water slide in the world at 65

More information

all night and eliminating any Auroral viewing. During these summer months it is just too bright to see them at higher latitudes.

all night and eliminating any Auroral viewing. During these summer months it is just too bright to see them at higher latitudes. NORTHERN LIGHTS NORTHERN LIGHTS Alias Aurora Borealis are natural light displays in the sky, particularly observed in a circle around the North Pole. (Near the South Pole they are called Southern Lights

More information

High resolution images obtained with Solar Optical Telescope on Hinode. SOLAR-B Project Office National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ)

High resolution images obtained with Solar Optical Telescope on Hinode. SOLAR-B Project Office National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) High resolution images obtained with Solar Optical Telescope on Hinode SOLAR-B Project Office National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) Temperature stratification of solar atmosphere G-band Ca

More information

MODULE P7: FURTHER PHYSICS OBSERVING THE UNIVERSE OVERVIEW

MODULE P7: FURTHER PHYSICS OBSERVING THE UNIVERSE OVERVIEW OVERVIEW More than ever before, Physics in the Twenty First Century has become an example of international cooperation, particularly in the areas of astronomy and cosmology. Astronomers work in a number

More information

Teaching Time: One 45-minute class period

Teaching Time: One 45-minute class period Lesson Summary Students will learn about the magnetic fields of the Sun and Earth. This activity is a questionanswer activity where the students re using minds-on rather than hands-on inquiry. Prior Knowledge

More information

Howard Eskildsen often uploads some of his wonderful and exquisite solar

Howard Eskildsen often uploads some of his wonderful and exquisite solar Solar Images Taken with Calcium K-Line Filters Howard L. Cohen January 2014 (Rev. March 2015) Howard Eskildsen s beautiful images of the Sun uploaded to the AAC website may appear strange and unfamiliar

More information

Solar atmosphere. Solar activity and solar wind. Reading for this week: Chap. 6.2, 6.3, 6.5, 6.7 Homework #2 (posted on website) due Oct.

Solar atmosphere. Solar activity and solar wind. Reading for this week: Chap. 6.2, 6.3, 6.5, 6.7 Homework #2 (posted on website) due Oct. Solar activity and solar wind Solar atmosphere Reading for this week: Chap. 6.2, 6.3, 6.5, 6.7 Homework #2 (posted on website) due Oct. 17 Photosphere - visible surface of sun. Only ~100 km thick. Features

More information

The Physics of Energy sources Stellar fusion

The Physics of Energy sources Stellar fusion The Physics of Energy sources Stellar fusion B. Maffei Bruno.maffei@manchester.ac.uk Stellar Fusion Introduction! Many sources of renewable energy rely on the Sun! From radiation directly Solar cells Solar

More information

Our Sun a typical but above average star

Our Sun a typical but above average star Our Sun a typical but above average star Relative Abundances of the Stellar Types Type Colour Proportion 0 Blue 0.003% B Blue-white 0.13% A White 0.63% F White-yellow 3.1% G Yellow 8% K Orange 13% M Red

More information

The sun and the solar corona

The sun and the solar corona The sun and the solar corona Introduction The Sun of our solar system is a typical star of intermediate size and luminosity. Its radius is about 696000 km, and it rotates with a period that increases with

More information

Read the lesson. Use the words in the box to complete the concept web. The Sun is a, star or a fiery ball of hot gases.

Read the lesson. Use the words in the box to complete the concept web. The Sun is a, star or a fiery ball of hot gases. Lesson 1 Study Guide What is? Read the lesson. Use the words in the box to complete the concept web. chromosphere corona innermost photosphere prominences solar flare star sunspots Use with pages 257 259.

More information

Francesco Piacentini. Title. Page 1

Francesco Piacentini. Title. Page 1 Page 1 Page 2 Layers core -- nuclear burning central part of the Sun radiative zone -- the layer below convection zone where energy is transported by photons convection zone -- layer of the Sun just below

More information

The Sun: Our nearest star

The Sun: Our nearest star The Sun: Our nearest star Property Surface T Central T Luminosity Mass Lifetime (ms) Value 5500K 15x10 6 K 2 x 10 33 ergs 4 x 10 33 grams 10 billion years Solar Structure Build a model and find the central

More information

Coronal Heating Problem

Coronal Heating Problem Mani Chandra Arnab Dhabal Raziman T V PHY690C Course Project Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Outline 1 2 3 Source of the energy Mechanism of energy dissipation Proposed mechanisms Regions of the

More information

1. has (have) wavelengths that are longer than visible light. a. Gamma-rays b. Ultraviolet light c. Infrared radiation d. X-rays e.

1. has (have) wavelengths that are longer than visible light. a. Gamma-rays b. Ultraviolet light c. Infrared radiation d. X-rays e. DeAnza College Astro 04 Practice Test 2 Fall Quarter 2007 Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Mark choice on Scantron. DO NOT MARK

More information

TEACHER RESOURCE INFORMATION

TEACHER RESOURCE INFORMATION EXPLORE T HE S UN TEACHER RESOURCE INFORMATION SUNSTRUCK AN INTEGRATED SOLAR EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE TEACHER RESOURCES Background Sun Earth Relationship Sun s Energy-Nuclear Fusion Light-Photons/distance

More information

Observing the Sun NEVER LOOK DIRECTLY AT THE SUN!!! Image taken from the SOHO web-site http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/gallery/solarcorona/uvc003.

Observing the Sun NEVER LOOK DIRECTLY AT THE SUN!!! Image taken from the SOHO web-site http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/gallery/solarcorona/uvc003. name Observing the Sun NEVER LOOK DRECTLY AT THE SUN!!! mage taken from the SOHO web-site http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/gallery/solarcorona/uvc003.html Explanation: The Sun is a pretty active star. You

More information

Astronomy 110 Homework #05 Assigned: 02/13/2007 Due: 02/20/2007. Name: (Answer Key)

Astronomy 110 Homework #05 Assigned: 02/13/2007 Due: 02/20/2007. Name: (Answer Key) Astronomy 110 Homework #05 Assigned: 02/13/2007 Due: 02/20/2007 Name: (Answer Key) Directions: Listed below are twenty (20) multiple-choice questions based on the material covered by the lectures thus

More information

How Matter Emits Light: 1. the Blackbody Radiation

How Matter Emits Light: 1. the Blackbody Radiation How Matter Emits Light: 1. the Blackbody Radiation Announcements n Quiz # 3 will take place on Thursday, October 20 th ; more infos in the link `quizzes of the website: Please, remember to bring a pencil.

More information

Introduction to the Sun by Stephen Ramsden

Introduction to the Sun by Stephen Ramsden Introduction to the Sun by Stephen Ramsden Solar astronomy is the fastest growing hobbyist segment of astronomy in the world today. Solar astronomers use highly refined, narrowband telescopes to observe

More information

Study Guide due Friday, 1/29

Study Guide due Friday, 1/29 NAME: Astronomy Study Guide asteroid chromosphere comet corona ellipse Galilean moons VOCABULARY WORDS TO KNOW geocentric system meteor gravity meteorite greenhouse effect meteoroid heliocentric system

More information

What Are Stars? continued. What Are Stars? How are stars formed? Stars are powered by nuclear fusion reactions.

What Are Stars? continued. What Are Stars? How are stars formed? Stars are powered by nuclear fusion reactions. What Are Stars? How are stars formed? Stars are formed from clouds of dust and gas, or nebulas, and go through different stages as they age. star: a large celestial body that is composed of gas and emits

More information

HF Radio Wave Propagation

HF Radio Wave Propagation HF Radio Wave Propagation Introduction Understanding radio wave propagation can mean the difference between making and missing a contact to a particular part of the world. This presentation examines HF

More information

Earth Systems Quarter 1 Credit Recovery Overview

Earth Systems Quarter 1 Credit Recovery Overview Earth Systems Quarter 1 Credit Recovery Overview Reference textbooks: Glencoe Earth Science (2008) ISBN: 9780078778025 AND Glencoe Ecology Module (2008) ISBN: 9780078778209 Pre-Assessment 3 English versions

More information

NATS 101 Section 13: Lecture 6. The Greenhouse Effect and Earth-Atmosphere Energy Balance

NATS 101 Section 13: Lecture 6. The Greenhouse Effect and Earth-Atmosphere Energy Balance NATS 101 Section 13: Lecture 6 The Greenhouse Effect and Earth-Atmosphere Energy Balance FOUR POSSIBLE FATES OF RADIATION: 1.Transmitted 2. Reflected 3. Scattered 4. Absorbed The atmosphere does ALL of

More information

Astro 130, Fall 2011, Homework, Chapter 17, Due Sep 29, 2011 Name: Date:

Astro 130, Fall 2011, Homework, Chapter 17, Due Sep 29, 2011 Name: Date: Astro 130, Fall 2011, Homework, Chapter 17, Due Sep 29, 2011 Name: Date: 1. If stellar parallax can be measured to a precision of about 0.01 arcsec using telescopes on Earth to observe stars, to what distance

More information

Name Date Hour Table. Cosmic Relations (Select each location and record how the Earth fits into the universe.)

Name Date Hour Table. Cosmic Relations (Select each location and record how the Earth fits into the universe.) Open the Solar System App Cosmic Relations (Select each location and record how the Earth fits into the universe.) 1. Earth 2. Solar System 3. Milky Way 4. Universe The Milky Way is the home of Earth s

More information

ALFVEN VELOCITY SOLAR WINDS

ALFVEN VELOCITY SOLAR WINDS ALFVEN VELOCITY SOLAR WINDS SOLAR WIND The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun. This plasma consists of mostly electrons, protons and alpha particles

More information

Astronomy 421. Lecture 8: Stellar Spectra

Astronomy 421. Lecture 8: Stellar Spectra Astronomy 421 Lecture 8: Stellar Spectra 1 Key concepts: Stellar Spectra The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution The Boltzmann Equation The Saha Equation 2 UVBRI system Filter name Effective wavelength (nm)

More information

How is E-M Radiation Produced?

How is E-M Radiation Produced? How is E-M Radiation Produced? 1. Accelerate charged particle back and forth like they do at the radio station. 2. All solids or liquids with temperature above Absolute Zero emit E-M radiation. Absolute

More information

Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere

Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Essential Questions How does energy transfer from the sun to Earth and the atmosphere? How are air circulation patterns with the atmosphere created? Vocabulary Radiation:

More information

Principles of Astrophysics and Cosmology

Principles of Astrophysics and Cosmology Principles of Astrophysics and Cosmology Welcome Back to PHYS 3368 Welcome Back to PHYS 3368 Ejnar Hertzsprung October 1873 - October 1967 Henry Russell October 1877 - February 1957 Announcements - Office

More information

Lecture 8: Radiation Spectrum. Radiation. Electromagnetic Radiation

Lecture 8: Radiation Spectrum. Radiation. Electromagnetic Radiation Lecture 8: Radiation Spectrum The information contained in the light we receive is unaffected by distance The information remains intact so long as the light doesn t run into something along the way Since

More information

Astro 102 Practice Test 3

Astro 102 Practice Test 3 Class: Date: Astro 102 Practice Test 3 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Interstellar gas clouds may collapse to form stars if they a. have

More information

Progress Towards the Solar Dynamics Observatory

Progress Towards the Solar Dynamics Observatory Progress Towards the Solar Dynamics Observatory Barbara J. Thompson SDO Project Scientist W. Dean Pesnell SDO Assistant Project Scientist Page 1 SDO OVERVIEW Mission Science Objectives The primary goal

More information

7. In which part of the electromagnetic spectrum are molecules most easily detected? A. visible light B. radio waves C. X rays D.

7. In which part of the electromagnetic spectrum are molecules most easily detected? A. visible light B. radio waves C. X rays D. 1. Most interstellar matter is too cold to be observed optically. Its radiation can be detected in which part of the electromagnetic spectrum? A. gamma ray B. ultraviolet C. infrared D. X ray 2. The space

More information

Stars. Flux and luminosity Brightness of stars Spectrum of light Temperature and color/spectrum How the eye sees color

Stars. Flux and luminosity Brightness of stars Spectrum of light Temperature and color/spectrum How the eye sees color Stars Flux and luminosity Brightness of stars Spectrum of light Temperature and color/spectrum How the eye sees color Which is of these part of the Sun is the coolest? A) Core B) Radiative zone C) Convective

More information

ASTR 101 Final Study Guide. about 29.5 days for the Moon to go through a complete set of phases

ASTR 101 Final Study Guide. about 29.5 days for the Moon to go through a complete set of phases ASTR 101 Final Study Guide I received study guides for Chapters 1, 2, 6, 7, 10, 12, and 14. Chapter 1 - What is the celestial sphere? - What is the ecliptic? - What is the zodiac? - What are the two reasons

More information

radio telescopes satellites visible light space probes rockets reflecting telescopes space shuttles refracting telescopes

radio telescopes satellites visible light space probes rockets reflecting telescopes space shuttles refracting telescopes Name Date Class BOOK Review Packet Astronomy Overview Exploring Space Directions:Complete the concept map the terms in the list below. radio telescopes satellites visible light space probes rockets reflecting

More information

Chapter 5 Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos

Chapter 5 Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos Chapter 5 Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos Messages Interactions of Light and Matter The interactions determine everything we see, including what we observe in the Universe. What is light?

More information

11-2. What is the most dense element formed in the cores of any stars? a) helium b) lead c) iron X d) carbon

11-2. What is the most dense element formed in the cores of any stars? a) helium b) lead c) iron X d) carbon Quiz Oct 31 2012 Chapter 11 11-1. A nova is believed to occur when which of the following pairs of stars are in a binary system? a) white dwarf, main sequence star X b) white dwarf, neutron star c) neutron

More information

Astronomy 103: First Exam

Astronomy 103: First Exam Name: Astronomy 103: First Exam Stephen Lepp October 25, 2010 Each question is worth 2 points. Write your name on this exam and on the scantron. 1 Short Answer A. What is the largest of the terrestrial

More information

TO GO TO ANY OF THE PAGES LISTED BELOW, CLICK ON ITS TITLE

TO GO TO ANY OF THE PAGES LISTED BELOW, CLICK ON ITS TITLE TO GO TO ANY OF THE PAGES LISTED BELOW, CLICK ON ITS TITLE CHAPTER 18 The Sun and Other Stars 1 18-1 How are stars formed? 2 18-2 How is spectroscopy used to study stars? 3 18-3 What is magnitude? 4 18-4

More information

Gravity slows down the expansion

Gravity slows down the expansion Key Concepts: Lecture 33: The Big Bang! Age of the Universe and distances from H 0 Gravity slows down the expansion Closed, Flat and Open Universes Evidence for the Big Bang (Galactic Evolution; Microwave

More information

The Milky Way Galaxy Chapter 15

The Milky Way Galaxy Chapter 15 The Milky Way Galaxy Chapter 15 Topics to be covered: 1. Contents of our Galaxy: Interstellar Medium(ISM) and Stars. Nebulae 2. Distribution of galactic clusters and center of our Galaxy. 3. Structure

More information

Spectra in the Lab ATOMS AND PHOTONS

Spectra in the Lab ATOMS AND PHOTONS Spectra in the Lab Every chemical element has a unique ``signature'' which can be revealed by analyzing the light it gives off. This is done by spreading the light out into a rainbow of color. It may seem

More information

Solar Wind: Theory. Parker s solar wind theory

Solar Wind: Theory. Parker s solar wind theory Solar Wind: Theory The supersonic outflow of electrically charged particles, mainly electrons and protons from the solar CORONA, is called the SOLAR WIND. The solar wind was described theoretically by

More information

Blackbody radiation. Main Laws. Brightness temperature. 1. Concepts of a blackbody and thermodynamical equilibrium.

Blackbody radiation. Main Laws. Brightness temperature. 1. Concepts of a blackbody and thermodynamical equilibrium. Lecture 4 lackbody radiation. Main Laws. rightness temperature. Objectives: 1. Concepts of a blackbody, thermodynamical equilibrium, and local thermodynamical equilibrium.. Main laws: lackbody emission:

More information

Absorption and Addition of Opacities

Absorption and Addition of Opacities Absorption and Addition of Opacities Initial questions: Why does the spectrum of the Sun show dark lines? Are there circumstances in which the spectrum of something should be a featureless continuum? What

More information

Ay 122 - Fall 2004. The Sun. And The Birth of Neutrino Astronomy. This printout: Many pictures missing, in order to keep the file size reasonable

Ay 122 - Fall 2004. The Sun. And The Birth of Neutrino Astronomy. This printout: Many pictures missing, in order to keep the file size reasonable Ay 122 - Fall 2004 The Sun And The Birth of Neutrino Astronomy This printout: Many pictures missing, in order to keep the file size reasonable Why Study the Sun? The nearest star - can study it in a greater

More information

Purpose To study real stellar spectra and understand how astronomers defined spectral classes of stars

Purpose To study real stellar spectra and understand how astronomers defined spectral classes of stars Name: Partner(s): 1102 or 3311: Desk # Date: Spectroscopy Part II Purpose To study real stellar spectra and understand how astronomers defined spectral classes of stars Preliminary questions: Use the following

More information

Chapter 14 The Solar System. Greek Word Origins. astron chroma geo helios kentron photo sphaira

Chapter 14 The Solar System. Greek Word Origins. astron chroma geo helios kentron photo sphaira Greek Word Origins Greek Word Meaning Key Terms astron chroma geo helios kentron photo sphaira star color Earth sun near the center; central light sphere astronomy, asteroid chromosphere geocentric, geology

More information

Today. Kirchoff s Laws. Emission and Absorption. Stellar Spectra & Composition

Today. Kirchoff s Laws. Emission and Absorption. Stellar Spectra & Composition Today Kirchoff s Laws Emission and Absorption Stellar Spectra & Composition 1 Three basic types of spectra Continuous Spectrum Intensity Emission Line Spectrum Absorption Line Spectrum Wavelength Spectra

More information

Lecture 7: Light Waves. Newton s Laws of Motion (1666) Newton s First Law of Motion

Lecture 7: Light Waves. Newton s Laws of Motion (1666) Newton s First Law of Motion Lecture 7: Light Waves Isaac Newton (1643-1727) was born in the year Galileo died He discovered the Law of Gravitation in 1665 He developed the Laws of Mechanics that govern all motions In order to solve

More information

Astronomy 110 Homework #04 Assigned: 02/06/2007 Due: 02/13/2007. Name:

Astronomy 110 Homework #04 Assigned: 02/06/2007 Due: 02/13/2007. Name: Astronomy 110 Homework #04 Assigned: 02/06/2007 Due: 02/13/2007 Name: Directions: Listed below are twenty (20) multiple-choice questions based on the material covered by the lectures this past week. Choose

More information

TRANSIT OF VENUS 2012, Observation with PICARD/SODISM during transit

TRANSIT OF VENUS 2012, Observation with PICARD/SODISM during transit TRANSIT OF VENUS 2012, Observation with PICARD/SODISM during transit SODISM (Solar Diameter Imager and Surface Mapper): An instrument of the PICARD payload, is a high resolution imaging telescope. SODISM

More information

From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation?

From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation? From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation? From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly

More information

Moon 101. Date. Name Monday, January 14. By Patti Hutchison

Moon 101. Date. Name Monday, January 14. By Patti Hutchison Monday, January 14 Moon 101 By Patti Hutchison It's made of green cheese. There is a man up there looking down on you. When it's full, people turn into werewolves. These are stories about the moon you

More information

Lecture 2: Radiation/Heat in the atmosphere

Lecture 2: Radiation/Heat in the atmosphere Lecture 2: Radiation/Heat in the atmosphere TEMPERATURE is a measure of the internal heat energy of a substance. The molecules that make up all matter are in constant motion. By internal heat energy, we

More information

Spectral Line Shapes. Line Contributions

Spectral Line Shapes. Line Contributions Spectral Line Shapes Line Contributions The spectral line is termed optically thin because there is no wavelength at which the radiant flux has been completely blocked. The opacity of the stellar material

More information

Earth s Atmosphere. Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere. 3. All the energy from the Sun reaches Earth s surface.

Earth s Atmosphere. Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere. 3. All the energy from the Sun reaches Earth s surface. CHAPTER 12 LESSON 2 Earth s Atmosphere Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Key Concepts How does energy transfer from the Sun to Earth and to the atmosphere? How are air circulation patterns within the atmosphere

More information

The Electromagnetic Spectrum and Observing for Educators

The Electromagnetic Spectrum and Observing for Educators YAAYS course: The Electromagnetic Spectrum and Observing for Educators February 19, 2008 Rich Kron from last week: visible light, radio, infrared, X-rays etc. are all electromagnetic radiation, differing

More information

Suggested Activity Time. Preparation Time. Materials* Magnetic Fields of the Earth and Sun

Suggested Activity Time. Preparation Time. Materials* Magnetic Fields of the Earth and Sun Activity Name Grades Suggested Activity Time Preparation Time Materials* Magnetic Fields of the Earth and Sun 5-12 15 min 5 min For each group: Three cow magnets, one magnaprobe, magnetic field images

More information

Solar Energy Production

Solar Energy Production Solar Energy Production We re now ready to address the very important question: What makes the Sun shine? Why is this such an important topic in astronomy? As humans, we see in the visible part of the

More information

The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos. Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Clickers

The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos. Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Clickers Reading Quiz Clickers The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos 5.1 Light in Everyday Life How do we experience light? How do light and matter interact?

More information