1 Ay Fall 2004 The Sun And The Birth of Neutrino Astronomy This printout: Many pictures missing, in order to keep the file size reasonable
2 Why Study the Sun? The nearest star - can study it in a greater detail than any others. This can help us understand better the overall stellar physics and phenomenology Radiation transfer, convection Photospheric and chromospheric activity Kind of important for the life on Earth Solar luminosity as major driver for the climate? A gateway to the neutrino astronomy (and physics) Thermometry of stellar cores and the standard model Neutrino oscillations
3 A Theoretical Model of the Energy Transfer in the Sun Hydrogen fusion takes place in a core extending out to about 0.25 solar radius The core is surrounded by a radiative zone extending to about 0.71 solar radius. Energy transfer through radiative diffusion The radiative zone is surrounded by a rather opaque convective zone of gas at relatively low temperature and pressure. Energy transfer through convection
4 Standard Solar Model
5 Standard Solar Model
6 Standard Solar Model (Bahcall et al.)
7 So, How Good Is This Model? Looks pretty good! The excellent agreement between the calculated sound speeds for the Standard solar model and the helioseismologically measured sound speed (Bahcall et al.)
8 We can probe the solar interior using the Sun s own vibrations Helioseismology is the study of how the Sun vibrates These vibrations have been used to infer pressures, densities, chemical composition, and rotation rates within the Sun Major contributions from Caltech (Libbrecht et al.) Radial velocity image from the Doppler shifts in spatially-resolved spectra. The Sun oscillates at a range of frequencies, and if a time sequence of such images is obtained, we can map the waves on the Solar surface.
10 Rotation of the Solar Interior
11 Solar Atmosphere / Surface Layers The Sun s atmosphere has three main layers: 1. the photosphere 2. the chromosphere 3. the corona The visible surface of the Sun, the photosphere, is the lowest layer in the solar atmosphere
12 Convection in the photosphere produces granules
13 The chromosphere is characterized by spikes of rising gas - spicules Above the photosphere is a layer of less dense but higher temperature gases called the chromosphere Spicules extend upward from the photosphere into the chromosphere along the boundaries of supergranules
15 The outermost layer of the solar atmosphere, the corona, is made of very hightemperature gases at extremely low density The solar corona blends into the solar wind at great distances from the Sun
16 The corona ejects mass into space to form the solar wind Activity in the corona includes coronal mass ejections and coronal holes
17 Sunspots are low-temperature regions in the photosphere Sunspots come in groups, and follow the Sun s differential rotation. They start from the higher latitudes and migrate towards the Solar equator. They correlate well with other manifestations of the Solar activity.
19 Sunspots and other manifestations of Solar activity are produced by a 22 year cycle in the Sun s magnetic field
20 These changes are caused by convection and the Sun s differential rotation: the Solar Dynamo The magnetic-dynamo model suggests that many features of the solar cycle are due to changes in the Sun s magnetic field. Typical field strengths ~ kga.
21 The Sun s magnetic field also produces A solar flare is a brief eruption of hot, ionized gases from a sunspot group A coronal mass ejection is a much larger eruption that involves immense amounts of gas from the corona other forms of solar activity
22 The Sun s surface features (including sunspot numbers) vary in an 11-year cycle; it is really a 22-year cycle in which the surface magnetic field increases, decreases, and then increases again with the opposite polarity There are probably also longer period cycles
23 The Long-Term Solar Variability and Its Effect on the Climate All of the human energy production now is < 0.1% of the Solar flux intercepted by the Earth (and it was less in the past) Solar luminosity and activity does seem to vary on long time scales, and seems to correlate well with various measures of global temperatures A politically loaded question!
24 The Long-Term Solar Variability and Its Effect on the Climate (From Friis-Christensen & Lassen 1991, Science, 254, 698)
25 Sunspots Radiocarbon data Temperature
26 Solar Neutrinos and the Birth of Neutrino Astronomy Detection of Solar neutrinos offers a unique probe of deep stellar interiors - a fundamental test of our understanding of stars and their energy production For many years, there was a factor of 3 discrepancy between the theoretical predictions and the experiment (the Solar neutrino problem ). The resolution of it provided a fundamental physical insight (neutrino oscillations) To date, the only other identified astronomical source of neutrinos was SN1987A. This provided a fundamental test of our understanding of SNe. (Many slides from here on c/o P. Armitage)
27 Solar Neutrinos Overall result of the proton-proton (p-p) chain of reactions: 4 pæ 2 4 He + 2e + + 2n e +28 MeV of energy shared between the reaction products. Note that this reaction conserves: Charge (+4 in electron units on both sides) Baryon number (4 protons / 2 neutrons + 2 protons) Lepton number (zero on left-hand side / 2 electron neutrinos + 2 positrons `anti-electrons on right-hand side) Electron neutrino produced in this reaction can have a range of energies (E = MeV), but always a small fraction of the total energy release.
28 Note: experiments at CERN in the 1980s established that there are exactly three families of `electron-like particles (leptons): Particle Electron Muon Tau lepton Associated neutrino Lepton number is conserved within each family. So if we start with zero electrons, must form pairs of particle + antiparticle (e.g. electron + positron, or positron + neutrino + something else to conserve charge). In the Sun, energy is too low to create muons or tau leptons. Hence, p-p fusion reactions yield only positrons plus electron neutrinos. n e n m n t
29 What happens to the neutrinos? Cross-section for scattering of ~MeV neutrinos off matter is s ~ cm 2. Mean free path is: l = 1 sn where n is the density of particles. If we estimate r = 100 g cm -3, then n ~ 2r / m H which gives n ~ cm -3. l ~ cm ~ 1 3 pc The neutrinos escape the Sun without being scattered or absorbed. Since we get 2 neutrinos for each 28 MeV of energy, can use observed Solar luminosity to calculate neutrino flux at Earth: Neutrino flux = 2L sun 28 MeV 1 4pd 2 units of particles per second per cm 2
30 Neutrino flux = erg s erg 1 4p cm = cm -2 s -1 ( ) 2 Detecting these neutrinos on Earth would: confirm or falsify that these reactions were taking place in the Sun provide a direct window into the Solar core But, very difficult: Interaction rate = Flux target area ~ Ms m H Target area = number of particles x cross-section: where M is the mass of the detector. Taking M = 1000 kg, s = cm 2, rate is ~10-4 s -1 if we can detect 100% of the neutrinos. Need a large volume of detecting medium.
31 Neutrinos from the main p-p chain are of very low energy. Less important reactions (energetically) yield a smaller flux of higher energy neutrinos: p + e - + pæ 2 H + n e 3 He + pæ 4 He + e + + n e e BeÆ 7 Li + n e 8 BÆ 8 Be + e + + n e `pep MeV neutrino MeV 0.383, MeV 0-15 MeV Can t calculate the flux of these neutrinos just from knowing the Solar luminosity. Relative rates of these reactions (compared to normal p-p chain) depend sensitively on the core temperature. Can be calculated accurately using a model of the Sun + nuclear physics.
32 Prediction of the Solar neutrino flux
33 Where Do The Solar Neutrinos Come From? (Bahcall et al.)
34 Two methods for detecting neutrinos: 1) Absorption by a nucleon Reverse process from the nuclear reaction that formed the neutrino in the Sun. Yields a charged lepton, plus a different nucleus from the original one, either of which may be detected. 2) Scattering off an electron Neutrino gives up some of its energy to an electron, which is subsequently detected (for these energies, detection is usually via Cherenkov radiation) Highly energy dependent, and with very, very low cross sections
35 Homestake mine detector First attempt to detect Solar neutrinos began in the 1960s: Detector is a large tank containing 600 tons of C 2 Cl 4, situated at 1500m depth in a mine in South Dakota. Neutrinos interact with the chlorine to produce a radioactive isotope of argon: n e + 37 Cl Æ e Ar + an electron which is not observed.
36 Argon is periodically removed from the tank by bubbling helium through the liquid. Then: Argon is separated from the helium Placed in a proportional counter Wait to see the radioactive argon decay: e ArÆ 37 Cl + n e + additional electrons signal By adding non-radioactive argon as well, efficiency of extracting the radioactive isotope is measured - around 95% - almost all the chlorine atoms that undergo a reaction with neutrinos are able to be removed and measured!
37 Solar neutrino problem Results from the experiment; note units of atoms per day Express results in `SNU (Solar Neutrino Units). 1 SNU = 1 interaction per target atoms per s Average result: 2.6 ± 0.3 SNU
38 Theoretical predictions is: 7.6 ±1.0 SNU for this experiment, i.e. discrepant by roughly a factor of three. Solar neutrino problem Reaction on chlorine requires a neutrino with energy greater than about 0.8 MeV - so not measuring the full spectrum of neutrinos from the Sun here Actually miss all of the p-p neutrinos - only measure the rarer types Many possible solutions proposed over the years.
39 Existence of this deficit was subsequently confirmed by further experiments: SAGE - Soviet-American Gallium Experiment Measured: n e + 71 Ga Æ e Ge SAGE was sensitive to some p-p neutrinos Result: 67 ±10 SNU Very difficult experiment Theory: 129 SNU Plus a number of other radiochemical experiments
40 Theoretical Predictions of Detectable Neutrino Rates
41 Super Kamiokande Measure: n e + e - Æ n e + e - look for Cherenkov radiation from high energy electron in water Threshold of around 5 MeV Measure: 0.5 SNU Theory: 1.0 SNU
42 Status of the Solar neutrino problem ~2000 Several different experiments found neutrino fluxes smaller than the theoretical prediction: Chlorine (E > 0.8 MeV) - 34% Gallium (E > 0.2 MeV) - 55% Ordinary water (E > 5 MeV) - 48% Two possible explanations: Sun is producing fewer neutrinos than expected. Gallium results meant that a fairly serious error in Solar structure would have been implied by this Electron neutrinos are being produced in the Sun at the `right rate, but are being `lost on their way to Earth.
43 Sudbury Neutrino observatory Water cherenkov radiation detector, but uses heavy water D 2 O rather than H 2 O. ~1000 tons of D 2 O, situated at 7000 foot depth in a mine.
44 Use of D 2 O allows three separate classes of neutrino interaction to be detected: Charged current u e + d Æ p + p + e - Like the Cl -> Ar reaction (requires changing a neutron into a proton). Only works for electron neutrinos. Elastic scattering n x + e - Æ u x + e - Same reaction as in Super-Kamiokande. Works for all neutrinos, but much smaller cross-section (15%) for muon or tau neutrinos as compared to electron neutrinos. Neutral current u x + d Æ u x + n + p New reaction - neutrino breaks up a deuteron. Works equally for all neutrino flavours.
45 Results from Sudbury neutrino observatory fraction of expected number of events (based on a Solar model prediction) that are observed Total number of neutrinos agrees well with the theoretical expectation Number of n e is about one third of number produced in the Sun
46 Most straightforward interpretation of these results: 1) Solar models correctly predict the number of electron neutrinos formed in the core of the Sun Evidence: total flux of neutrinos at Earth (all three types) measured by SNO is in good agreement with this number. Probably do understand the astrophysics of the Solar interior pretty well 2) Electron neutrinos are converted into a mix of all three flavours en route to Earth SNO and all other detectors measure a flux of electron neutrinos that is much smaller than the predicted Solar flux.
47 Neutrino oscillations Basic idea: particles that are created / observed via nuclear interactions (the n e, n m, and n t ) are linear combinations of `different particles which propagate through space. e.g. for only two neutrino flavours can write this as: particle states that are created or observed via weak interactions u e = u 1 cosq + u 2 sinq u m = -u 1 sinq + u 2 cosq particle states that propagate through space (the `mass eigenstates ) Use factors of cos q and sin q for mathematical convenience, these are just constants. Call q the `mixing angle, measures how different the flavour states are from the mass states.
48 If the neutrinos (strictly now n 1 and n 2 ) have zero mass, this description does not describe any new physics. However, if at least one of the masses in non-zero, then the mass eigenstates propagate at different speeds. After traveling some distance L, this causes the flavour of the neutrino to oscillate between the two possibilities. Result is: Probability that an initially electron neutrino will be subsequently detected as an electron neutrino È Ê P ee =1- sin 2 2q sin 2 k Dm 2 ˆ Á Ë ev 2 Ê L ˆ Ê E ˆ Í Á Ë m Á Î Ë MeV -1 k = constant (k=1.27) Dm 2 is the square of the mass difference L is distance between source and detector E is the energy
49 Actually, things are (even) more complicated because: there are 3 types of neutrino, not 2 if the neutrinos travel through matter, not a vacuum, the oscillations can be altered Important point though, is that using a combination of: Different Solar neutrino experiments Observations of n m created in the Earth s atmosphere can measure (most) of the unknown parameters in the theory. Dm 2 - the mass difference (squared) between neutrino states q - the mixing angle(s)
50 Derived oscillation parameters are accessible to lab experiments. For MeV neutrinos, need to measure the flux as a function of distance over d ~ 100 km. Possible neutrino sources: Nuclear reactor (very large power but isotropic emission) Particle accelerator (smaller power but narrow beam) e.g. for a reactor with 1 GW power, each fission releases ~200 MeV. Rate of fissions is ~3 x s -1. Say one neutrino each, then flux is: few x cm -2 s -1 at d = 100 m few x 10 4 cm -2 s -1 at d = 100 km Comparable difficulty to the Solar neutrino experiments for distances of ~100 km
51 KamLAND experiment Experiment measured the flux of neutrinos at d = 160 km from a Japanese power station. Found to be ~60% of expected flux. Very strong evidence for reality of neutrino oscillations.
52 Neutrinos have mass: Implications So far constrained the mass difference between two neutrinos to be ~6 x 10-5 ev 2 Might be `reasonable to assume the masses are comparable to the mass difference i.e ~10-2 ev But this is just a guess, don t know for sure. Other limits indicate that the masses are < 1 ev. Learned more about neutrino physics than about the Sun - all existing data is consistent with theoretical models of fusion in the Sun, but enough free parameters in oscillation theory that haven t yet tested the details via neutrinos
53 The Only Other Identified Source of Astronomical Neutrinos: SN 1987A Detection by several neutrino experiments An excellent agreement with theory! We got the SN story right. Could use neutrino detections as a SN early warning system
54 Detection of high-energy neutrinos, via Cherenkov radiation produced by secondary muons. The detectors are PMTs on strings within highly transparent Antarctic ice. Similar experiments are also done in deep ocean or lake waters (DUMAND, Nestor, Baikal, )
55 Detection of Muon Neutrinos n m (n e ) cosmic radiation O(km) long muon tracks n m (n e ) ª 15 m atmospheric muons Earth acts as shield direction determination by Cherenkov light timing
56 AMANDA II Detector Amundsen-Scott Station South Pole Optical module (677)
Lecture 14 Introduction to the Sun ALMA discovers planets forming in a protoplanetary disc. Open Q: what physics do we learn about the Sun? 1. Energy - nuclear energy - magnetic energy 2. Radiation - continuum
: from their production to their detection Universitï degli Studi di Milano and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare E-mail: Lino.Miramonti@mi.infn.it Nuclear fusion reactions take place in the core of
The Sun: Our nearest star Property Surface T Central T Luminosity Mass Lifetime (ms) Value 5500K 15x10 6 K 2 x 10 33 ergs 4 x 10 33 grams 10 billion years Solar Structure Build a model and find the central
Test 2 f14 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Carbon cycles through the Earth system. During photosynthesis, carbon is a. released from wood
I The Sun and Solar Energy One of the most important forces behind global change on Earth is over 90 million miles distant from the planet. The Sun is the ultimate, original source of the energy that drives
Our Sun: the view from outside 1. The Sun is hot. Really hot. The visible "surface" of the Sun, called the photosphere, has a temperature of about 5800 Kelvin. That's equivalent to roughly 10,000 Fahrenheit.
Nuclear Composition - the forces binding protons and neutrons in the nucleus are much stronger (binding energy of MeV) than the forces binding electrons to the atom (binding energy of ev) - the constituents
WELCOME to Aurorae In the Solar System Aurorae in the Solar System Sponsoring Projects Galileo Europa Mission Jupiter System Data Analysis Program ACRIMSAT Supporting Projects Ulysses Project Outer Planets
1 MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE 1. The volume of a given mass of water at a temperature of T 1 is V 1. The volume increases to V 2 at temperature T 2. The coefficient of volume expansion of water may be calculated
Chapter 5 Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos Messages Interactions of Light and Matter The interactions determine everything we see, including what we observe in the Universe. What is light?
Nuclear Physics Nuclear Physics comprises the study of: The general properties of nuclei The particles contained in the nucleus The interaction between these particles Radioactivity and nuclear reactions
.1.1 Measure the motion of objects to understand.1.1 Develop graphical, the relationships among distance, velocity and mathematical, and pictorial acceleration. Develop deeper understanding through representations
The sun and the solar corona Introduction The Sun of our solar system is a typical star of intermediate size and luminosity. Its radius is about 696000 km, and it rotates with a period that increases with
Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity 1. The number of electrons in an atom of atomic number Z and mass number A is 1) A 2) Z 3) A+Z 4) A-Z 2. The repulsive force between the positively charged protons does
OVERVIEW More than ever before, Physics in the Twenty First Century has become an example of international cooperation, particularly in the areas of astronomy and cosmology. Astronomers work in a number
Sputtering Vacuum Evaporation Recap Use high temperatures at high vacuum to evaporate (eject) atoms or molecules off a material surface. Use ballistic flow to transport them to a substrate and deposit.
California Standards Grades 912 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping Earth Sciences Earth s Place in the Universe 1. Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system s structure,
Solar Neutrinos 4 p He 4 + 2e + + 2 ν e + 26.7 MeV Neutrino light from the Sun (Super-Kamiokande) energy of the neutrinos in MeV Solar Neutrinos: pioneering experiment Nobelprize 2002 Since 1970 ν e 37
Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016 Pre-course assessment In order to grant two graduate credits for the workshop, we do require you to spend some hours before arriving at Penn State. We encourage all of
Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission A basic background in nuclear physics for those who want to start at the beginning. Some of the terms used in this factsheet can be found in IEER s on-line glossary.
The Nature of Light Light and other forms of radiation carry information to us from distance astronomical objects Visible light is a subset of a huge spectrum of electromagnetic radiation Maxwell pioneered
Data Provided: A formula sheet and table of physical constants is attached to this paper. DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY Autumn Semester (2014-2015) DARK MATTER AND THE UNIVERSE 2 HOURS Answer question
The Hot Big Bang http://www.bayho.com/info/vote universe @ the big bang was dense at the Planck time (t ~ 10-43 sec) our visible universe was ~ 0.01 cm across (10 30 smaller) but any observer only sees
Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Our Solar System is a collection of gravitationally interacting bodies that include Earth and the Moon. Universal
The Solar Neutrino Problem Martin Lahrz firstname.lastname@example.org University Umeå Abstract Since neutrinos are the only known particles being able to leave the core of the Sun directly, they were supposed
Introduction to Astronomy Lecture 4: Our star, the Sun 1 Sun Facts Age = 4.6 x 10 9 years Mean Radius = 7.0x10 5 km = 1.1x10 2 R = 1R Volume = 1.4x10 18 km 3 = 1.3x10 6 R = 1V Mass = 2x10 30 kg = 3.3x10
7 Fission In 1939 Hahn and Strassman, while bombarding U-235 nuclei with neutrons, discovered that sometimes U-235 splits into two nuclei of medium mass. There are two important results: 1. Energy is produced.
The Universe is thought to consist of trillions of galaxies. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, has billions of stars. One of those stars is our Sun. Our solar system consists of the Sun at the center, and all
5. The Nature of Light Light travels in vacuum at 3.0. 10 8 m/s Light is one form of electromagnetic radiation Continuous radiation: Based on temperature Wien s Law & the Stefan-Boltzmann Law Light has
Chapter 27: The Early Universe The plan: 1. A brief survey of the entire history of the big bang universe. 2. A more detailed discussion of each phase, or epoch, from the Planck era through particle production,
1 Strontium-90 decays with the emission of a β-particle to form Yttrium-90. The reaction is represented by the equation 90 38 The decay constant is 0.025 year 1. 90 39 0 1 Sr Y + e + 0.55 MeV. (a) Suggest,
The Birth of the Universe Newcomer Academy High School Visualization One Chapter Topic Key Points of Discussion Notes & Vocabulary 1 Birth of The Big Bang Theory Activity 4A the How and when did the universe
Lecture Outlines Chapter 27 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 27 The Early Universe Units of Chapter 27 27.1 Back to the Big Bang 27.2 The Evolution of the Universe More on Fundamental
Review 1 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When hydrogen nuclei fuse into helium nuclei a. the nuclei die. c. particles collide. b. energy
The Sun Solar Factoids (I) The sun, a medium-size star in the milky way galaxy, consisting of about 300 billion stars. (Sun Earth-Relationships) A gaseous sphere of radius about 695 500 km (about 109 times
Chapter 2: Nuclear Chemistry Nuclear Reactions vs. Chemical Reactions There are some very distinct differences between a nuclear reaction and a chemical reaction. in a chemical reaction bonds break, atoms
A Study of Background Particles for the Implementation of a Neutron Veto into SuperCDMS Johanna-Laina Fischer Mentor: Dr. Lauren Hsu [FNAL, CDMS] September 23, 2011 PSS Colloquium 1 Part 1: BRIEF EXPLANATION
Chapter 4 Calibration The accurate calibration of all detectors is crucial for the subsequent data analysis. The stability of the gain and offset for energy and time calibration of all detectors involved
Low- and high-energy neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts Hylke B.J. Koers Low- and high-energy neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts Hylke B.J. Koers HK and Ralph Wijers, MNRAS 364 (2005), 934 (astro-ph/0505533)
PS-2.1 Compare the subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, electrons) of an atom with regard to mass, location, and charge, and explain how these particles affect the properties of an atom (including identity,
Introduction to Nuclear Physics 1. Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table According to the Bohr-Rutherford model of the atom, also called the solar system model, the atom consists of a central nucleus
Name Date Period 30 GALAXIES AND THE UNIVERSE SECTION 30.1 The Milky Way Galaxy In your textbook, read about discovering the Milky Way. (20 points) For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching
Progress Towards the Solar Dynamics Observatory Barbara J. Thompson SDO Project Scientist W. Dean Pesnell SDO Assistant Project Scientist Page 1 SDO OVERVIEW Mission Science Objectives The primary goal
Specific Intensity Initial question: A number of active galactic nuclei display jets, that is, long, nearly linear, structures that can extend for hundreds of kiloparsecs. Many have two oppositely-directed
Solar activity and solar wind Solar atmosphere Reading for this week: Chap. 6.2, 6.3, 6.5, 6.7 Homework #2 (posted on website) due Oct. 17 Photosphere - visible surface of sun. Only ~100 km thick. Features
1. In the general symbol cleus, which of the three letters Z A X for a nu represents the atomic number? 2. What is the mass number of an alpha particle? 3. What is the mass number of a beta particle? 4.
WHERE DID ALL THE ELEMENTS COME FROM?? In the very beginning, both space and time were created in the Big Bang. It happened 13.7 billion years ago. Afterwards, the universe was a very hot, expanding soup
The Universe The Universe is everything. All us, the room, the U.S. the earth, the solar system, all the other stars in the Milky way galaxy, all the other galaxies... everything. How big and how old is
Nuclear Reactions- chap.31 Fission vs. fusion mass defect..e=mc 2 Binding energy..e=mc 2 Alpha, beta, gamma oh my! Definitions A nucleon is a general term to denote a nuclear particle - that is, either
Lecture 15 Fundamentals of Physics Phys 120, Fall 2015 Cosmology A. J. Wagner North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108 Fargo, October 20, 2015 Overview A history of our view of the universe The Big
Be Stars By Carla Morton Index 1. Stars 2. Spectral types 3. B Stars 4. Be stars 5. Bibliography How stars are formed Stars are composed of gas Hydrogen is the main component of stars. Stars are formed
Outline MAE 493R/593V- Renewable Energy Devices Solar Energy Electromagnetic wave Solar spectrum Solar global radiation Solar thermal energy Solar thermal collectors Solar thermal power plants Photovoltaics
Main properties of atoms and nucleus. Atom Structure.... Structure of Nuclei... 3. Definition of Isotopes... 4. Energy Characteristics of Nuclei... 5. Laws of Radioactive Nuclei Transformation... 3. Atom
Solar Active Regions Solar active regions form where the tops of loops of magnetic flux, shaped like the Greek letter omega ( ), emerge into the solar atmosphere where they can be seen. These loops are
Homework #8 203-1-1721 Physics 2 for Students of Mechanical Engineering Part A 1. Four particles follow the paths shown in Fig. 32-33 below as they pass through the magnetic field there. What can one conclude
Pearson Physics Level 30 Unit VIII Atomic Physics: Chapter 17 Solutions Student Book page 831 Concept Check Since neutrons have no charge, they do not create ions when passing through the liquid in a bubble
Basic Concepts in Nuclear Physics Paolo Finelli Corso di Teoria delle Forze Nucleari 2011 Literature/Bibliography Some useful texts are available at the Library: Wong, Nuclear Physics Krane, Introductory
Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions 1 Self study: The history of the development of atomic theory. 9 th Ed: pp. 36-41 or 10 th Ed: pp. 38-42. 2 The Atomic Theory of Matter John Dalton (1766-1844), began
Page 1 Page 2 Layers core -- nuclear burning central part of the Sun radiative zone -- the layer below convection zone where energy is transported by photons convection zone -- layer of the Sun just below
Solar Radiation Solar radiation i The Sun The Sun is the primary natural energy source for our planet. It has a diameter D = 1.39x10 6 km and a mass M = 1.989x10 30 kg and it is constituted by 1/3 of He
Stellar Evolution: a Journey through the H-R Diagram Mike Montgomery 21 Apr, 2001 0-0 The Herztsprung-Russell Diagram (HRD) was independently invented by Herztsprung (1911) and Russell (1913) They plotted
Forensic Science Standards and Standard 1: Understands and applies principles of scientific inquiry Power : Identifies questions and concepts that guide science investigations Uses technology and mathematics
ÉRETTSÉGI VIZSGA 2011. május 17. FIZIKA ANGOL NYELVEN KÖZÉPSZINTŰ ÍRÁSBELI VIZSGA 2011. május 17. 8:00 Az írásbeli vizsga időtartama: 120 perc Pótlapok száma Tisztázati Piszkozati NEMZETI ERŐFORRÁS MINISZTÉRIUM
2 Absorbing Solar Energy 2.1 Air Mass and the Solar Spectrum Now that we have introduced the solar cell, it is time to introduce the source of the energy the sun. The sun has many properties that could
Old Science 30 Physics Practice Test A on Fields and EMR Test Solutions on the Portal Site Use the following image to answer the next question 1. Which of the following rows identifies the electrical charge
Titan: The Solar System s Abiotic Petroleum Factory J. Hunter Waite, Ph.D. Institute Scientist Space Science & Engineering Division Southwest Research Institute Titan: The Solar System s Abiotic Petroleum
The Early Universe Lecture 27-1 Back to the Big Bang The total energy of the universe consists of both radiation and matter. As the Universe cooled, it went from being radiation dominated to being matter
The Standard Model or Particle Physics 101 Nick Hadley Quarknet, July 7, 2003 Thanks Thanks to Don Lincoln of Fermilab who provided some of the pictures and slides used in this talk. Any errors are mine
Homework #4 Solutions ASTR100: Introduction to Astronomy Fall 2009: Dr. Stacy McGaugh Chapter 5: #50 Hotter Sun: Suppose the surface temperature of the Sun were about 12,000K, rather than 6000K. a. How
13 C NMR Spectroscopy Introduction Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) is the most powerful tool available for structural determination. A nucleus with an odd number of protons, an odd number
ctivity BP RDIOCTIVE DECY Section 8: RDIOCTIVE DECY In this section, we describe radioactivity - how unstable nuclei can decay - and the laws governing radioactive decay. Radioactive Decay Naturally occurring
Ay 122 - Fall 2004 Electromagnetic Radiation And Its Interactions With Matter (This version has many of the figures missing, in order to keep the pdf file reasonably small) Radiation Processes: An Overview
Lecture 4 lackbody radiation. Main Laws. rightness temperature. Objectives: 1. Concepts of a blackbody, thermodynamical equilibrium, and local thermodynamical equilibrium.. Main laws: lackbody emission:
Nuclear fusion in stars Collapse of primordial density fluctuations into galaxies and stars, nucleosynthesis in stars The origin of structure in the Universe Until the time of formation of protogalaxies,
Monday 11 June 2012 Afternoon A2 GCE PHYSICS B (ADVANCING PHYSICS) G495 Field and Particle Pictures *G412090612* Candidates answer on the Question Paper. OCR supplied materials: Data, Formulae and Relationships