The History of the Bunge Group

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1 Collection presents: The History of the Bunge Group Av.: Maria Coelho Aguiar, 215 Block D 5th floor Centro Empresarial de São Paulo - Jd. São Luis - São Paulo - SP - Cep.: / Tel.:

2 Index Profile 03 The History of Bunge in Brazil and the World - Chronological 04 Bunge Vision and Values 46 Bunge Units in Brazil 47 Fertilizers 48 Agribusiness 50 Foods & Ingredients 51 Sugar & Bioenergy 52 Bunge Sustainability 54 Bunge Foundation 57 Fertimport 59 Credits 60 2

3 Profile Bunge, present in Brazil since 1905, is one of the country's leading food and agribusiness companies, gaining leadership in grain origination and the processing of soybeans and wheat, the production of fertilizers, the manufacture of food products and port services. One of the largest exporters in Brazil (number one in agribusiness), it contributes substantially to the favorable balance of trade and currency for the domestic economy. Since 2006, it has also been operating in the sugar and bioenergy sectors. Present in 16 states across all regions of the country, Bunge currently has more than 17,000 employees and about 150 units, divided into industries, distribution centers, silos and port facilities. The company's gross sales in 2009 reached the figure of R$ 27.2 billion. Brands such as Serrana, Manah, Iap, Ouro Verde, Salada, Soya, Cyclus, Delícia, Primor and Bunge Pró are deeply connected not only to economic history, but also to customs, scientific research, pioneering technology and the training of various generations of professionals. Bunge Brazil belongs to the holding company Bunge Limited, founded in 1818 and headquartered in White Plains, New York, USA. Bunge's 30,000 employees, located in over 30 countries, improve people's lives by improving the global food chain and agribusiness. 3

4 1818 The History of Bunge in Brazil and the World Chronological The history of Bunge began in 1818, when Bunge & Co. was founded in Amsterdam, Netherlands, by a dealer from Germany, Johann Peter G. Bunge, to market products imported from the Dutch colonies (wood, spices, cotton and rubber) and grain. Some years later, the firm's headquarters moved to Rotterdam and subsidiaries were opened in other European countries In 1859, at the invitation of the newly-created Kingdom of Belgium, Bunge relocated its headquarters to Antwerp, becoming the commercial arm of the international expansion of the new Kingdom. Trade in grain was added to that of imported products. Businesses were started in Asia and Africa under the command of Edouard Bunge, grandson of the founder Ernest Bunge, Edouard's brother and also grandson of the founder, left for Latin America, and when he arrived in Argentina, he found a booming economy In 1884, Ernest Bunge moved to Argentina where, along with other partners, Georges Born being one of them, he created a related company called Bunge Y Born, in order to participate in the export market for grains in the country Bunge arrived in Brazil by associating themselves with S.A. Moinho Santista Indústrias Gerais, a company buying and milling wheat in Santos, São Paulo. The first flours produced at the Santos mill were the Sol in 1906, Santista and Paulista. 4

5 1914 The company Just Basto & Cia., which operated in the business of the export and import of wheat flour originating in Hungary and the United States, not having enough capital for its business, joined the Bunge Group and on May 30 established the Grandes Moinhos do Brasil S.A., which in 1966 added the name Indústrias Gerais. In 1986, its name was changed to Moinho Recife S.A. Empreendimentos e Participações, one of Bunge's largest units in the industrialization of wheat with port structure. In 1993, following the restructuring of the Bunge Group, it was incorporated by Moinho Santista Alimentos. Moinho Recife forms an integral part of the history of Recife. It became operational in 1919, but was officially established in Milling began only four years after the completion of works and importation of the first 300 tons of wheat. The Bunge Group took over Moinho Recife in In the same year, Bunge purchased Moinho Fluminense, the starting point for any historical research on wheat in Brazil. This mill was established in 1887 by a decree issued by Princess Isabel. In 1889, it became known as Moinho Fluminense Corporation. The history of Moinho Fluminense is intertwined with the history of Rio de Janeiro, since its manufacturing facilities have been the scene of major political, economic and social events, as well as changes in consumer habits both in Brazil and the world: the outbreak of the Armed Revolt in 1893 that would lead Rui Barbosa, the first Minister of Finance of the Republican era, to seek refuge inside Moinho Fluminense, with the help of his friend and owner of the Mill, Carlos Gianelli. Four years later, the Mill was again the stage of political conflict, when soldiers from the Canudos campaign settled near the Ministry of Defense, in Morro da Providência, alongside its facilities, where there was a plant known as "faveleira" which, according to historians, gave the name "favela" ("slum") to the hillside covered with shacks, the first in Brazil. Another important historical event was the Vaccine Revolt in 1904, when people set up barricades in front of the Mill against mandatory vaccination, established by the then director-general of public health, the doctor Oswaldo Cruz; the neighborhood of Saúde being one of the sites of these protests. In 1906, the construction of the Port of Rio de Janeiro began, from which the Mill benefited greatly due to its close proximity. The earthworks for the construction of the Port 5

6 allowed Moinho Fluminense to erect new buildings in 1912, interconnected by archways over the streets, which today characterize that stretch of Saúde A rapid expansion of the Bunge Group in Brazil began, acquiring several companies in the fields of food, agribusiness, chemicals and textiles and insurance, among others. Bunge has participated in various businesses, from the manufacture of nails and screws to a cinema, Cine São Bento in the street of the same name. In 1993, the Bunge Group began restructuring its activities, focusing its investments in food, cement and phosphates. Since then, it has decided to dispose of other activities In 1923, Bunge bought the company Cavalcanti & Cia., in Recife, PE, which resulted in the formation of the Sociedade Algodoeira do Nordeste Brasileiro - Sanbra, a company specializing in buying, processing and exporting cotton, Bunge's first company in the oleaginous plant segment. In the 1960s, Sanbra decided to invest in a plant hitherto unknown in Brazil. It was one of the precursors of encouraging the cultivation of soybeans in Brazil. Subsequently, Sanbra was renamed Santista Alimentos The shareholders of S.A. Moinho Santista decided to invest in the textile industry to supply its main milling operations with sacks. Thus, a small section of sack making began operations on August 25, 1925, at Avenida Celso Garcia in the São Paulo neighborhood of Tatuapé, producing some of the sacks needed for the Mill, which continued buying the remainder from other suppliers. 6

7 1929 Fábrica de Tecidos Tatuapé S.A., later Fábrica Celso Garcia, located at Avenida Celso Garcia, was established as a subsidiary of S.A. Moinho Santista. Since that time, it has been known as Santista Têxtil. Deposit S.A. Moinho Santista, an industrial unit in Água Branca, was a storehouse for bales of cotton which operated in Rua Carlos Vicari, in the neighborhood of Água Blanca. This cotton was shipped to the Fábrica de Tecidos Tatuapé S.A. This unit produced unbleached cotton fabrics that were sent for finishing to the Osasco factory, which was established in In February the Sociedade Anônima Moinhos Rio Grandenses - Samrig was established, resulting from the merger of two mills in Rio Grande do Sul: Viúva Albino Cunha e Companhia and S.A. Grandes Moinhos do Sul. That same year, President Getúlio Vargas granted Samrig an operating permit for the Porto Alegre Mill. It was run by Samrig until 1978, when its premises were leased to S.A. Moinho Santista Indústrias Gerais. The Moinho Porto Alegre building was inaugurated in 1891, built by British specialists and considered at the time to be the largest in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Its construction is of such architectural value that in 1983, it was declared Heritage of the City by decision of Porto Alegre City Hall. It was through Samrig that the Bunge Group started its soybean business in Brazil. From a commercial lease agreement with S.A. Moinho Santista Indústrias Gerais, Sanbra entered the São Paulo market with the launch of Óleo Salada, the first edible vegetable oil in the country, a product that transformed the eating habits of most of the population who, until then, had consumed imported olive oil or pork lard The success of the first textile company, Fábrica de Tecidos Tatuapé stimulated new investments in the sector and, in 1932, S.A. Moinho Santista acquired Fábrica de Tecidos Cambuci, with a spinning and weaving complex and another for wool. Although 7

8 the business was interesting, the factory was problematic, soon being deactivated because of its hugely outdated machinery S.A. Moinho Santista began construction and assembly of a large Wool Spinning Mill in the neighborhood of Belenzinho in São Paulo, S.A. Moinho Santista Indústrias Gerais Lanifício, which revolutionized the industry with the quality of its products. Built in the middle of a smallholding, the factory occupied area of 7,000 meters square, called Fiação Santista, which had no weaving department, being divided into two sections, the Wool and Cotton Sections making yarn for third parties and for knitting. Lanifício, which became known as Fábrica do Belenzinho, was planned to work primarily with Brazilian wool produced in reasonable quantities in the border region of Rio Grande do Sul. It was there, too, that, in 1939, SAMS - Sociedade de Assistência Médica e Social for employees was created With an initial staff of 650 employees, Belenzinho was the first major factory in Brazil to produce high-grade wool yarn in a systematic manner, comparable to the principal French yarns. The production was intended to avoid the need for importation, but it was difficult to enter the domestic wool market. Santista wools eventually won over the market by their quality and the hard work of winning hearts and minds undertaken in São Paulo. Belenzinho launched the brands Sibéria, Alaska and Sams, also enhancing the production of wool yarn Cimento Róseo, the embryonic Quimbrasil, was created, whose main activity was the sale of a special soil conditioner for paving and the application in hydraulics. Its headquarters was at Rua São Bento in the city of São Paulo. 8

9 1937 Corporação Santista chose two paths: Food, based at Moinho Santos, and Textiles, based at Fábrica de Tecidos Tatuapé, and the two spinning mills of Belenzinho. The Textile area was expanded during this year with the purchase of two textile mills, one in São Bernardo do Campo and the other in Santo André, both deactivated The name Cimento Róseo was changed on July 20, 1938 to Cibra - Cimentífera Brasileira S.A., with the purpose of operating in the cement industry. The following year, its company name changed to Cibra - Sociedade Brasileira de Cimentos S.A. That same year, on October 14, the associated company Serrana S.A. was created, whose objective was to acquire and market deposits of limestone, clay and other minerals in the region of Cajati, Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo. Between the years 1930 and 1940, Serrana made major investments to create a minimal infrastructure capable of securing the manpower necessary for its industrial development in this region. It was necessary to construct a residential village, schools, recreational areas, as well as the premises needed to run the company themselves, and offices, warehouses, machine shops and electrical workshops were quickly erected. In 1940, together with Cibra, it became interested in the production of phosphate fertilizers. Serrana gave rise to Bunge Fertilizantes S.A. Moinho Santista - Lanifício, launched its Knitting and Crochet lines. During the 2 nd World War, the company did not cease operations, becoming the sole supplier of wool yarn to the domestic market, even ending up exporting wool yarn Santista launched its first magazine, Tricô e Crochê, which taught how to make items using Santista wool and yarns. 9

10 On the fourth anniversary of the founding of Cimento Róseo, Quimbrasil, still under the name Cibra, worked alongside Serrana in the business of fertilizers. Quimbrasil was a major importer of raw materials and mixer of fertilizers while Serrana marketed fertilizers manufactured by Quimbrasil and researched possible occurrences of basic nutrients, in an attempt to reduce dependence on imports. After years of research, the first occurrence of ore emerged in Jacupiranga, SP On May 26, 1941, Serrana S.A. changed its name to Serrana Sociedade Anônima de Mineração The participation of Quimbrasil in the livestock sector began in 1944 with the sale of imported treatments for mange Cibra - Companhia Brasileira de Indústrias Químicas changed its named to Quimbrasil Química Industrial Brasileira S.A In a warehouse in the region of the Central Market in São Paulo, IAP was founded, a producer of fertilizers The activities of Manah commenced in Descalvado, SP. IAP and Manah would be part of Bunge Fertilizantes. To transport the ore extracted from the Cajati mine to the port of Santos, a Swedish ship was bought and Serrana - Sociedade de Navegação founded, which gave rise to Fertimport, Bunge's international logistics company. 10

11 On September 18, 1950, at 10:00 pm, in São Paulo, the first Brazilian TV program aired on PR F-3 TV Tupi-Difusora, Channel 3. Brazil entered history as the 4 th country in the world to have television: only France, England and the United States maintained regular schedules. The person behind the achievement: Assis Chateaubriand Bandeira de Melo. To make his dream viable, in 1947, Chateaubriand managed advance advertising contracts with S.A. Moinho Santista and three more visionary companies: Sul América Seguros, Cia. Antártica Paulista and Laminação dos Pignatari. During the 1940s and 1950s, the Golden Age of Radio, the Bunge Group began investing in media, advertising their products on radio programs. 1947/1948 Within the textile sector, other plants were purchased and modernized until, in 1948, a plan emerged for restructuring the textile park. The old Cambuci and Santo André factories belonging to Moinho Santista were closed, along with obsolete units, and resources focused on building the Osasco plant, where a spinning mill, weaving, dyeing and finishing for indigo denim fabric were established from The Osasco plant was planned for great things. But initially it only manufactured fabric sacks, and this remained so until 1952, when Santista decided to enter the manufacture of sheets with the Ouro and Prata brands. At the same time, Fábrica Belenzinho was modernized The first product manufactured exclusively for the final consumer, the double bed sheet, caused a real stir by not only changing the habits of trade, but also family traditions: personal items for the home were embroidered by women before marriage and, until then, to have a double bed sheet it was necessary for the housewife to put together and stitch two single bed sheets. Industrializing these products was a bold innovation for its time. 11

12 1954 Soybeans came onto the scene. Samrig and Sanbra began to promote the culture of soybean processing in Brazil, initially in Rio Grande do Sul. From the beginning, they provided credit to small farmers and assured technical assistance to the crops To commemorate 50 years of operations in Brazil, the Moinho Santista Foundation was established in 1955, currently known as the Bunge Foundation, social in nature and aimed at encouraging scientific, artistic and cultural development of the country through the creation of the Moinho Santista Prize, currently the Bunge Foundation Prize. Over the years, the Bunge Foundation initiatives have expanded considerably. It started to act directly in the training of educators, corporate volunteerism in public schools and the preservation of corporate memory, among other fields of with an emphasis on education and knowledge. In October of that year, the first Coral Paints factory began operating, one year after construction on it began. Its origins are linked to Argentina, and the business group BUNGE Y BORN, its founder and owner maintaining, since the late 1920s, the paint factory Alba S.A., and then being the market leader and using high-technology in the paints and varnishes sector. The company would also have inherited its name from its origins, were it not for the fact that an industry from another sector already existed in the country with the same name. A solution was found through the purchase of a brand of paint for the marine market, marketed by Mesbla. Thus emerged Coral S.A. Fábrica de Tintas, Esmaltes, Lacas e Vernizes, which replaced the previous name from December It first executives were chosen from among the staff of other companies such as Moinho Santista, while the technological and scientific framework was guaranteed by Alba chemists and technicians. All this know-how, incorporated by the new company in its initial phase, was of paramount importance, as it secured a professional and competitive 12

13 structure capable of operating in a successful and streamlined manner within the market sector. At the time, the paint industry in the country was undergoing profound changes. Dominated by small regional companies and domestic production until the early 1940s, the market was being gradually occupied by large multinational companies such as: Sherwin-Williams and American Marieta - both North American. The new companies painted the market with new colors, changing and innovating old production and distribution techniques. In this sense, the establishment of Coral S.A. was a milestone in the history of development of the sector. It was a modern company with an industrial park, technologically advanced and with high standards. In 1996, the British Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) group purchased the Bunge Group's paint operations. With this acquisition, ICI entered the Latin American market. The negotiations included firms Tintas Coral, from Brasil - and its subsidiaries, Alba S.A., from Argentina and Pinturas Inca S.A., from Uruguay, which were part of Bunge Paints - the paint industries division of the Bunge Group for the Mercosul region. With the purchase, a new company, ICI Paints Mercosul, emerged, with factories in Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay Santista launched the first mixes for cakes and savory snacks in the country The experience with the sheets provided Santista with the know how to face a new phase in the domestic textile industry: the manufacture and sale of the first fabrics for making work clothing (uniforms), Solasol and Tapé. With the launch of manufactured sheets in 1952, and work clothing, in 1958, the Santista Textile Sector 13

14 changed direction and pace. Santista work clothes represented the milestone from which the clothing industry gained importance in the industrial sector. The domestic importance of this sector was formally revealed to the country in late 1958, with the completion of the first National Convention of Clothing Industries in São Paulo. It was an event marked by the official launch of Santista work clothes, with big fashion parade and distribution of an album with 100 models of uniform. Launched in 1958, when soybeans first began in the country, Primor oil was anchored on the strength of a wheat flour brand widely respected by the southern gaúchos. Primor oil was first produced by Fábrica de Óleos e Gorduras Comestíveis em Esteio (RS) da Samrig - S.A. Moinhos Rio Grandenses. Samrig's new product was advertised in various cities and on highways in Rio Grande do Sul, through billboards typical of the time. Big cans of Primor Oil were strategically placed in several regions of Rio Grande do Sul state Launch of Delícia margarine. For this product, Sanbra took an important and pioneering step in distribution: the use of thermally insulated vehicles using blocks of dry ice to ensure that the consumer could access the product without having to suffer variations in temperature. Subsequently, the system was modernized and adopted compressor trucks similar to refrigerators. Concerned about the quality of its products, Sanbra brought three pioneering actions to the consumer: placement of Delícia margarine only at points of sale with refrigeration, control of the date of manufacture and validity and removal of margarines past their sell-by dates from locations of sale Launch of Primor margarine by Sociedade Anônima Moinhos Rio Grandenses - Samrig. Primor margarine was launched by Samrig in September Its manufacture was preceded by patient studies and long trials in which the company made enormous 14

15 technical and scientific investments, thus reaching its goal, which was to produce a top quality product and an affordable price. This year, the company embarked on a plan aimed at spreading the placement of cold stores in the major centers of consumption of the time in the country and expanding its respective industrial capacity. The aim of these measures was to facilitate the acquisition of Primor margarine Flotation, Brazilian independence in fertilizers. In the early 1960s, when the amount of phosphorus began to fall dramatically in Cajati, where Serrana main mine was located, heavy investments were channeled into research in order to render the processing of low-phosphorus ore economically viable. Under the leadership of Professor Dr. Paulo Abib, from the Polytechnic School of the University of São Paulo, Serrana constituted a team of technicians who tried something new: grinding the ore low in phosphorus, putting it into a liquid medium and forcing the concentration of particles with higher phosphorus content through a chemical and physical process. The idea worked. Through the flotation system, Professor Abib and his staff were able to enhance the step of purifying the ore to such an extent that the phosphorus concentration increased from 5% to 36%, sufficient for the economic operation of the mine. Unprecedented within the market, flotation made the operation of other lowyield mines possible using this innovation, which were exempted from paying royalties to Serrana. The process was exported to South Africa and later studied by experts from the United States In Brazil, Bunge drove the creation of the Private Soybean Institute, Intisoja, prepared to defend before the Government the adoption of official measures to boost the agricultural sector in the country. 1964/1965 Experiments and research on the new process for the recovery of carbonatite apatitic from Jacupiranga in the production of natural phosphates, flotation, were concluded. A 15

16 semi-industrial scale plant was built, confirming the success of the technology developed by the Serrana team In the Paulista Industrial District, in Pernambuco, the first Santista plant outside São Paulo was set up: Santista Indústria Têxtil do Nordeste S.A., or Sitene. Its inauguration took place in 1970 when it started to produce blended polyester-cotton fabrics for work and sports clothing under the brand Terbrim. Santista Têxtil increased production and, in the late 1960s, expanded the supply of fine wool fabrics, producing at Fábrica Belenzinho the Pervinc 70, who was noted for being use in making suits, which were largely made by tailors. Then, fabrics such as Perlene, Brisamar and Veranello emerged. Moreover, the cambric, gabardine, serge, flannel and tropical fabrics manufactured at Belenzinho were considered excellent by renowned tailors and their clients, who demanded quality clothing. This year, Sanbra began producing Primor oil, which until then had been sold by representatives. A process of industrial, technological and marketing integration began with Samrig, and together, they relaunched Primor oil. That same year, Primor oil arrived in São Paulo through a campaign by LPM Lintas, which became a point of reference in Brazilian advertising. Three characters were created for Primor - Don Juan, Pilantra and Paquerador of the foods. The aim of the campaign was to highlight the advantages of a refined soybean oil, which arrived with a certain boldness in São Paulo Sanbra began producing Primor margarine using only soybean oil thanks to the increasingly significant presence of this grain in the production of oilseeds in the southcentral region. 16

17 1968/1969 Sanbra was considered the largest Brazilian exporter of cotton, called "white gold" Samrig inaugurated in Esteio (RS) the first factory of isolated soy protein in Latin America, confirming the high technological level achieved in the sector of oil proteins Launch by Sanbra of Flor margarine, specially made for oven and stove use. In 1976, the company developed an advertising campaign for Flor Margarine entirely based on the film Dona Flor and Her Two Husbands, directed by filmmaker Bruno Barreto. S.A. Moinho Santista Indústrias Gerais leased the Joinville Mill, opened on April 19, 1919 in Joinville, SC, under the name Oscar Scheider & Cia Determined to provide quality towels for Brazilian consumption, Santista, through Fábrica de Tecidos Tatuapé S.A., acquired Toália S.A. Indústria Têxtil, founded in 1968 by entrepreneurs from João Pessoa (PB). The know how developed at the Osasco factory was transferred entirely to the new Unit, and, on October 12, 1973, the Santista Têxtil inaugurated Toalia to produce face, bath and beach towels. Thirty per cent of Toalia's total output was allocated to the international market, being exported to 30 countries, including France, Germany, Italy, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the United States. In April 1971, Araxá Fertilizers and Chemicals S/A was officially established, with the participation of Serrana, Cimento Portland Itaú and Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico, to mine the largest phosphate deposits in the country, whose reserves were assessed as reaching 90 million tons. 17

18 1973 Sanbra launched Mila margarine, the first produced with pure corn oil marketed in Brazil with the soft (mild and creamy) concept. In May 1973 the assembly of the first cement unit of Serrana S.A. de Mineração was completed, with a production capacity of 412,000 tons/year Santista opened in the city of Americana, SP, Empresas Têxteis Santista's most modern manufacturing unit, the Fábrica de Americana, which, from 1981, has been devoted mainly to the production of legitimate indigo blue Denim, used to manufacture jeans On April 16, Alipro - Alimentos Protéicos Ltda. was founded for the purpose of producing and marketing textured soy vegetable protein foods. The company was created through the association of Samrig with Laboratório Miles do Brasil Ltda., combining efforts in research and technology to produce texturized protein foods based on soy, but only in the following year did it start production of this protein. Sanbra was responsible its marketing In 1977, in association with Dainippon Ink & Chemicals, Inc., Syntechrom - Indústria de Pigmentos e Derivados S.A. was founded, of which Quimbrasil was the majority shareholder. That same year, Sanbra started to export technology in the installation of oil industries. The largest factory of oil in Southeast Asia was deployed. The Santos Mill started making desserts such as jellies, flans and puddings. Later this year, the Sol cake was launched. 18

19 1979 Sanbra launched Maionegg's at the end of 1976 using Brasília as a test market, and in 1978 in the southern regional market (Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul), being well received by consumers. It was only in September 1979 that this new Sanbra* product went on sale in supermarkets and grocery stores in São Paulo. Maionegg's packaging received wide consumer approval, because the pot had a large mouth, which allowed easier removal of the product without the handle of cutlery becoming smeared. Practicality was one of the characteristics that most delighted consumers: Maionegg's was sold with a plastic lid, which eliminated the problem of rust, and a sealing disk, which prevented the entry of oxygen, allowing for greater product durability Santista acquired Brasital S.A. in Salto, SP, where carded yarn and heather wool and pure cotton fabrics were produced. Further expanding its range, S.A. Moinho Santista Indústrias Gerais became, in the same year, the majority shareholder of Vera Cruz Seguradora S.A., a company that had been operating in the sector since Besides quality in the marketing of its products, Santista Têxtil innovated by launching specific fashion publications. In the case of Classic cashmere, in the 1980s it edited the exquisite Dossiê Classic, aimed at tailors, showing trends in menswear and the Álbum Santista with fabric samples. In 1982, it launched the most famous of its publications, the bimonthly Nina, a 60-page, four-color-print magazine with a print run of 150,000 copies sold at newsstands and in shops. S.A. Moinho Santista, a company belonging to the Bunge Group, acquired a 21% stake in Cimento e Mineração Bagé - Cimbagé from the Matarazzo Group, located in Bagé (RS), which operated in the mineral-chemical sector. 19

20 Quimbrasil also worked as a shipping agency, through Fertimport Transportadora e Comissária de Despachos Ltda., and in international trade, through Serrana de Agenciamento e Representação Ltda. Bunge launched Foscálcio, dicalcium phosphate animal feed The launch of Cukin fat, especially for frying, which provided a longer shelf life for fried products with no loss of quality Pure wool fabrics gave way to the practicality of synthetic yarns, and by this year, Santista Têxtil had stopped producing pure wool textile fabrics. But when it was realized that consumers were again opting for natural fibers, Santista moved swiftly, and by 1987, it was already manufacturing one thousand kilometers per month of pure wool cashmere, which was sold in Brazil and exported to several countries. At the time, Santista also brought wool back for knitting and crochet. Guaranteeing the origin and quality of its wool and cashmere products, from 1986, Santista yarns bore the Woolmark seal, awarded by the International Wool Secretariat (IWS), a body dedicated to the promotion of wool in the global market. The seal was an exclusive commercial privilege for top-quality woolen articles. Worldwide, about 14,000 textile companies were authorized to use this mark of excellence. In Brazil, Santista Têxtil was the first Brazilian company to receive the seal. Sophisticated Santista wool products were made at the Fábrica do Belenzinho. In 1988, Santista Têxtil celebrated the export of 18 million meters of fabrics. Among the fabrics exported, the highlight was the Classic cashmere, one of the sophisticated products of the Long Fiber sector of the Belenzinho Factory, consumed in Japan, the United States and England, the motherland of cashmeres. Selling Brazilian cashmere wool to the British was a feat that illustrated an entrepreneurial attitude focused on the highest quality. 20

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