ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS. Electrical Circuits

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 Electrical Circuits A complete path, or circuit, is needed before voltage can cause a current flow through resistances to perform work. There are several types of circuits, but all require the same basic components. A power source (battery or alternator) produces voltage, or electrical potential. Conductors (wires, printed circuit boards) provide a path for current flow. Working devices, or loads (lamps, motors), change the electrical energy into another form of energy to perform work. Control devices (switches, relays) turn the current flow on and off. And, protection devices (fuses, circuit breakers) interrupt the current path if too much current flows. Too much current is called an overload, which could damage conductors and working devices. A list of five things to look for in any circuit: 1. Source of Voltage 2. Protection Device 3. Load 4. Control 5. Ground We will be identifying these items when we look at Automotive Circuits a little later in this book. Page 1

2 Types Of Circuits There are three basic types of circuits: series, parallel, and series-parallel. The type of circuit is determined by how the power source, conductors, loads, and control or protective devices are connected. SERIES CIRCUIT A series circuit is the simplest circuit. The conductors, control and protection devices, loads, and power source are connected with only one path for current. The resistance of each device can be different. The same amount of current will flow through each. The voltage across each will be different. If the path is broken, no current flows. PARALLEL CIRCUIT A parallel circuit has more than one path for current flow. The same voltage is applied across each branch. If the load resistance in each branch is the same, the current in each branch will be the same. If the load resistance in each branch is different, the current in each branch will be different. If one branch is broken, current will continue flowing to the other branches. SERIES-PARALLEL CIRCUIT A series-parallel circuit has some components in series and others in parallel. The power source and control or protection devices are usually in series; the loads are usually in parallel. The same current flows in the series portion, different currents in the parallel portion. The same voltage is applied to parallel devices, different voltages to series devices. If the series portion is broken, current stops flowing in the entire circuit. If a parallel branch is broken, current continues flowing in the series portion and the remaining branches. Page 2

3 SERIES CIRCUITS In a series circuit, current has only one path. All the circuit components are connected so that the same amount of current flows through each. The circuit must have continuity. If a wire is disconnected or broken, current stops flowing. If one load is open, none of the loads will work. Use of Ohm's Law Applying Ohm's Law to series circuits is easy. Simply add up the load resistances and divide the total resistance into the available voltage to find the current. The voltage drops across the load resistances are then found by multiplying the current by each load resistance. For calculation examples, see page 6 in the Ohms law section. Voltage drop is the difference in voltage (pressure) on one side of a load compared to the voltage on the other side of the load. The drop or loss in voltage is proportional to the amount of resistance. The higher the resistance, the higher the voltage drop. When troubleshooting, then, you can see that more resistance will reduce current and less resistance will increase current. Low voltage would also reduce current and high voltage would increase current. Reduced current will affect component operation (dim lamps, slow motors). But, increased current will also affect component operation (early failure, blown fuses). And, of course, no current at all would mean that the entire circuit would not operate. There are electrical faults that can cause such problems and knowing the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance will help to identify the cause of the problem. Page 3

4 PARALLEL CIRCUITS In a parallel circuit, current can flow through more than one path from and to the power source. The circuit loads are connected in parallel legs, or branches, across a power source. The points where the current paths split and rejoin are called junctions. The separate current paths are called branch circuits or shunt circuits. Each branch operates independent of the others. If one load opens, the others continue operating. Use of Ohm's Law Applying Ohm's Law to parallel circuits is a bit more difficult than with series circuits. The reason is that the branch resistances must be combined to find an equivalent resistance. Just remember that the total resistance in a parallel circuit is less than the smallest load resistance. This makes sense because current can flow through more than one path. Also, remember that the voltage drop across each branch will be the same because the source voltage is applied to each branch. For examples of how to calculate parallel resistance, see page 6. When troubleshooting a parallel circuit, the loss of one or more legs will reduce current because the number of paths is reduced. The addition of one or more legs will increase current because the number of paths is increased. Current can also be reduced by low source voltage or by resistance in the path before the branches. And, current can be increased by high source voltage or by one or more legs being bypassed. High resistance in one leg would affect component operation only in that leg. Page 4

5 SERIES-PARALLEL CIRCUITS In a series-parallel circuit, current flows through the series portion of the circuit and then splits to flow through the parallel branches of the circuit. Some components are wired in series, others in parallel. Most automotive circuits are seriesparallel, and the same relationship between voltage, current, and resistance exists. Use of Ohm's Law Applying Ohm's Law to series-parallel circuits is a matter of simply combining the rules seen for series circuits and parallel circuits. First, calculate the equivalent resistance of the parallel loads and add it to the resistances of the loads in series. The total resistance is then divided into the source voltage to find current. Voltage drop across series loads is current times resistance. Current in branches is voltage divided by resistance. For calculation examples, see page 6. When troubleshooting a series-parallel circuit, problems in the series portion can shut down the entire circuit while a problem in one leg of the parallel portion may or may not affect the entire circuit, depending on the problem. Very high resistance in one leg would reduce total circuit current, but increase current in other legs. Very low resistance in one leg would increase total circuit current and possibly have the effect of bypassing other legs. Page 5

6 Ohm's Law Fast, accurate electrical troubleshooting is easy when you know how voltage, current, and resistance are related. Ohm's Law explains the relationship: Current (amps) equals voltage (volts) divided by resistance (ohms)... I = E R. Voltage (volts) equals current (amps) times resistance (ohms)... E = I X R. Resistance (ohms) equals voltage (volts) divided by current (amps)... R E = 1. USING OHM'S LAW The effects of different voltages and different resistances on current flow can be seen in the sample circuits. Current found by dividing voltage by resistance. This can be very helpful when diagnosing electrical problems: When the resistance stays the same... current goes up as voltage goes up, and current goes down as voltage goes down. A discharged battery has low voltage which reduces current. Some devices may fail to operate (slow motor speed). An unregulated alternator may produce too much voltage which increases current. Some devices may fail early (burned-out lamps). When the voltage stays the same... current goes up as resistance goes down, and current goes down as resistance goes up. Bypassed devices reduce resistance, causing high current. Loose connections increase resistance, causing low current. Page 6

7 SAMPLE CALCULATIONS Here are some basic formulas you will find helpful in solving more complex electrical problems. They provide the knowledge required for confidence and thorough understanding of basic electricity. The following abbreviations are used in the formulas: E = VOLTS I = AMPS R = OHMS P = WATTS Ohm's Law Scientifically stated, it says: "The intensity Of the current in amperes in any electrical circuit is equal to the difference in potential in volts across the circuit divided by the resistance in ohms of the circuit." Simply put it means that current is equal to volts divided by ohms, or expressed as a formula, the law becomes: I = E / R or it can be written: E = I X R This is important because if you know any two of the quantities, the third may be found by applying the equation. Ohm's law includes these two ideas: 1. In a circuit, if resistance is constant, current varies directly with voltage. Now what this means is that if you take a component with a fixed resistance, say a light bulb, and double the voltage you double the current flowing through it. Anyone who has hooked a sixvolt bulb to a twelve-volt circuit has experienced this. But it wasn't "too many volts" that burned out the bulb, it was too much current. More about that later. 2. In a circuit, if voltage is constant, current varies inversely with resistance. This second idea states that when resistance goes up, current goes down. That's why corroded connectors cause very dim lights - not enough current. Watts A watt is an electrical measurement of power or work. It directly relates to horsepower. In fact, in the Sl metric standards that most of the world uses, engine power is given in watts or kilowatts. Electrical power is easily calculated by the formula: P = E X I For instance, a halogen high-beam headlight is rated or 5 amps of current. Figuring 12 volts in the system, we could write: P = E X I P = 12 X 5 P = 60 watts Page 7

8 RESISTANCE The effect of individual resistors on the total resistance of a circuit depends on whether the circuit is series or parallel. That becomes: Which becomes: Series Circuits In a series circuit, the total resistance is equal to the sum of the individual resistors: SERIES: total R = R1 + R2 + R3 + That is the basis of the concept of voltage drop. For example, if you had a circuit with three loads in series (a bulb, resistor, and corroded ground) you would add the three together to get total resistance. And, of course, the voltage would drop across each load according to its value. Parallel Circuits Parallel circuits are a different story. In a parallel circuit, there are three ways to find total resistance. Method A works in all cases. Method B works only if there are two branches, equal or not. Method C works only if the branches are of equal resistance. A. The total resistance is equal to one over the sum of the reciprocals of the individual resistors. That sounds confusing, but looking at the formula will make it clearer: PARALLEL: n example will make it even clearer. Suppose there is a circuit with three resistors in parallel: 4 ohms, 2 ohms, and 1 ohm. The formula would look like this: So there is a little more than one-half ohm resistance in the circuit. You can see that the more resistors in parallel, the less the resistance. In fact, the total resistance is always less than the smallest resistor. This is why a fuse will blow if you add too many circuits to the fuse. There are so many paths for the current to follow that the total resistance of the circuit is very low. That means the current is very high - so high that the fuse can no longer handle the load. B. For two resistors: For a 3 ohm and a 5 ohm resistor that would be: C. For several identical resistors, divide the value of one resistor by the number of resistors, or: Where R1 is the value of one resistor and n is the number of resistors. So if you had three 4 ohm resistors in parallel it would be: Page 8

9 Page 9

10 ASSIGNMENT NAME: 1. Draw and label the parts of a Series Circuit and a Parallel Circuit. 2. Explain the characteristics of Voltage and how it differs between a Series Circuit and a Parallel Circuit. 3. Explain the characteristics of Current and how it differs between a Series Circuit and a Parallel Circuit. 4. Explain the characteristics of Resistance and how it differs between a Series Circuit and a Parallel Circuit.

Series,"Parallel," and"series." Parallel"Circuits"

chapter 25 Series,"Parallel," and"series." Parallel"Circuits" FIGURE 25.1 A series circuit with three bulbs. All current flows through all resistances (bulbs). The total resistance of the circuit is the

REVIEW QUESTIONS. A6 Test Preparation

A6 Test Preparation Note: The lessons, exercises and tests in this manual are great preparation for taking the ASE A6 (electrical) certification test. However, that s only for the topics we ve covered.

Note-A-Rific: Characteristics

Note-A-Rific: Characteristics Any path along which electrons can flow is a circuit. For a continuous flow of electrons, there must be a complete circuit with no gaps. A gap is usually an electric switch

Student Exploration: Circuits

Name: Date: Student Exploration: Circuits Vocabulary: ammeter, circuit, current, ohmmeter, Ohm s law, parallel circuit, resistance, resistor, series circuit, voltage Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these

1) 10. V 2) 20. V 3) 110 V 4) 220 V

1. The diagram below represents an electric circuit consisting of a 12-volt battery, a 3.0-ohm resistor, R 1, and a variable resistor, R 2. 3. What is the total resistance of the circuit 1) 6.6 Ω 2) 10

Circuits. Page The diagram below represents a series circuit containing three resistors.

Name: Circuits Date: 1. Which circuit segment has an equivalent resistance of 6 ohms? 4. The diagram below represents a series circuit containing three resistors. 2. Base your answer to the following question

Electrical Fundamentals Module 3: Parallel Circuits

Electrical Fundamentals Module 3: Parallel Circuits PREPARED BY IAT Curriculum Unit August 2008 Institute of Applied Technology, 2008 ATE310- Electrical Fundamentals 2 Module 3 Parallel Circuits Module

Series and Parallel. How we wire the world

Series and Parallel How we wire the world Series vs Parallel Circuits Series Circuit Electrons only have one path to flow through. Parallel Circuit There are MULTIPLE paths for the current to flow through.

Electrical Circuit Theory

Electrical Circuit Theory Learning Objectives: 1. Review the basic electrical concepts of voltage, amperage, and resistance. 2. Review the components of a basic automotive electrical circuit. 3. Introduce

Section 6. Current, Voltage, and Resistance in Parallel and Series Circuits: Who s in Control? What Do You See? What Do You Think?

Section 6 Current, Voltage, and Resistance in Parallel and Series Circuits: Who s in Control? What Do You See? Learning Outcomes In this section, you will ssemble a switch in a circuit with parallel components

Units for Very Small Amounts

Electrical/Electronic Systems unit 1: FuNDAMENTAL PriNCiPLES OF ELECTriCiTY LESSON 2: ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENT AND OHM S LAW I. The basics of electrical measurement A. Voltage is electrical pressure, which

Schematic diagrams depict the construction of a circuit Uses symbols to represent specific circuit elements Documents how elements are connected so

Circuits Schematic diagrams depict the construction of a circuit Uses symbols to represent specific circuit elements Documents how elements are connected so that anyone reading diagram can understand the

Science AS90191 Describe Aspects of Physics.

Circuits and components Science AS90191 Describe Aspects of Physics. An electric current is the movement of electrons (negatively charged particles). A circuit is made up of components connected together

Electrical Principles Section 5

5 Electrical Principles Section 5 www.hubbellpowersystems.com E-mail: hpsliterature@hps.hubbell.com Phone: 573-682-5521 Fax: 573-682-8714 210 North Allen Centralia, MO 65240, USA Copyright 2015 Hubbell

Henry Lin, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, California State University, Bakersfield Lecture 3 (Electric Circuits) July 16 th, 2013

Henry Lin, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, California State University, Bakersfield Lecture 3 (Electric Circuits) July 16 th, 2013 1 What is an electrical circuit? An electrical network

1. What is the potential difference across a 5 ohm resistor which carries a current of 5 A? a. 100 V b. 25 V c. 4 V d. 1 V

3s 1. What is the potential difference across a 5 ohm resistor which carries a current of 5 A? a. 100 V b. 25 V c. 4 V d. 1 V 2. A superconducting wire's chief characteristic is which of the following?

Experiment 4 ~ Resistors in Series & Parallel

Experiment 4 ~ Resistors in Series & Parallel Objective: In this experiment you will set up three circuits: one with resistors in series, one with resistors in parallel, and one with some of each. You

Chapter 18: Circuits and Circuit Elements 1. Schematic diagram: diagram that depicts the construction of an electrical apparatus

Chapter 18: Circuits and Circuit Elements 1 Section 1: Schematic Diagrams and Circuits Schematic Diagrams Schematic diagram: diagram that depicts the construction of an electrical apparatus Uses symbols

ch 18 practice Multiple Choice

ch 18 practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following is the best description of a schematic diagram? a. uses pictures

Circuits-Circuit Analysis

Base your answers to questions 1 through 3 on the information and diagram below. 4. A 9-volt battery is connected to a 4-ohm resistor and a 5-ohm resistor as shown in the diagram below. A 3.0-ohm resistor,

SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS

SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS Circuits Provides a path for electricity to travel Similar to water pipes in your house Because of the voltage of an outlet, electrons will travel through the circuit Electrons

Electrical Power. How do you calculate electrical power? 14.3

. Name: Date: Electrical Power 14.3 How do you calculate electrical power? In this skill sheet you will review the relationship between electrical power and Ohm s law. As you work through the problems,

Solutions to Bulb questions

Solutions to Bulb questions Note: We did some basic circuits with bulbs in fact three main ones I can think of I have summarized our results below. For the final exam, you must have an understanding of

Chapter 13 Electric Circuits

Chapter 13 Electric Circuits What is Electric Current? How does it resemble the flow of water in a pipe? Can you get a flashlight bulb to light, with a battery and a single wire? Electric Circuits and

OHM S LAW AND RESISTANCE

OHM S LAW AND RESISTANCE Resistance is one of the basic principles of Ohm s law, and can be found in virtually any device used to conduct electricity. Georg Simon Ohm was a German physicist who conducted

f. The current at location A is equal to the current at location B. e. The current at location B is greater than the current at location E.

1. Answer: The current outside the branches of a combination circuit is everywhere the same. The current inside of the branches is always less than that outside of the branches. When comparing the current

13.10: How Series and Parallel Circuits Differ pg. 571

13.10: How Series and Parallel Circuits Differ pg. 571 Key Concepts: 5. Connecting loads in series and parallel affects the current, potential difference, and total resistance. - Using your knowledge of

Chapter 23 Series and Parallel Circuits

Chapter 23 Series and Parallel Circuits Chapter 23 Series and Parallel Circuits In this chapter you will: Distinguish among series circuits, parallel, and seriesparallel combinations, and solve problems

Physics Worksheet Electric Circuits Section: Name: Series Circuits

Do Now: (1) What is electric circuit? (2) Convert the following picture into schematic diagram. Series Circuits 4. Label every component of the circuit; identify each of the voltage and current. 5. Relation

Section 9: Resistors in Series and Parallel

Section 9: esistors in Series and Parallel In other words, if resistors are connected in series the total resistance is equal to the sum of the individual resistors. If all resistors have the same value

Chapter 5. Parallel Circuits ISU EE. C.Y. Lee

Chapter 5 Parallel Circuits Objectives Identify a parallel circuit Determine the voltage across each parallel branch Apply Kirchhoff s current law Determine total parallel resistance Apply Ohm s law in

Fundamentals of Direct Current Circuits

Fundamentals of Direct Current Circuits Course No: E06-001 Credit: 6 PDH A. Bhatia Continuing Education and Development, Inc. 9 Greyridge Farm Court Stony Point, NY 10980 P: (877) 322-5800 F: (877) 322-4774

Electrostatics. Electrostatics Version 2

1. A 150-watt lightbulb is brighter than a 60.-watt lightbulb when both are operating at a potential difference of 110 volts. Compared to the resistance of and the current drawn by the 150-watt lightbulb,

UNIVERSITY OF TURKISH AERONAUTICAL ASSOCIATION DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING EEE203 ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS LABORATORY I

UNIVERSITY OF TURKISH AERONAUTICAL ASSOCIATION DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING EEE203 ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS LABORATORY I FALL 2014/2015 LAB 2: RESISTORS ASSOCIATION AND THE WHEATSTONE

Current Electricity Lab Series/Parallel Circuits. Safety and Equipment Precautions!

Current Electricity Lab Series/Parallel Circuits Name Safety and Equipment Precautions! Plug in your power supply and use ONLY the D.C. terminals of the power source, NOT the A. C. terminals. DO NOT touch

Circuits Review KEY Interpreting Diagrams Use the diagram below to answer the following questions.

Circuits Review KEY Interpreting Diagrams Use the diagram below to answer the following questions. 1. Look at the arrows which indicate the direction of the flow of electrons. Label the negative and the

A) The potential difference across the 6-ohm B) 2.0 A resistor is the same as the potential difference across the 3-ohm resistor. D) 4.

1. A 2.0-ohm resistor and a 4.0-ohm resistor are connected in series with a 12-volt battery. If the current through the 2.0-ohm resistor is 2.0 amperes, the current through the 4.0-ohm resistor is A) 1.0

Electrical Circuit Calculations

Electrical Circuit Calculations Series Circuits Many circuits have more than one conversion device in them (i.e. toaster. heater. lamps etc.) and some have more than one source of electrical energy. If

Ohm s Law Lesson 5. Remember: Pretty Please My Dear Aunt Sally (From left to right; Parentheses; Power; Multiply; Divide; Add, Subtract)

Ohm s Law Lesson 5 Remember: Pretty Please My Dear Aunt Sally (From left to right; Parentheses; Power; Multiply; Divide; Add, Subtract) We have a problem: Matt installed super driving lights his on Chevy

Chapter 6. Experiment 4: Electric Currents and Circuits. 6.1 Introduction The Electric Current

Chapter 6 Experiment 4: Electric Currents and Circuits 6.1 Introduction The resistance to the flow of an electric current is essential in the design of electronic devices and electric circuits generally.

Electric Circuits Review

Electric Circuits Review 1. Which of the following statements are true about electric current? Circle all that apply. a. Electric current is measured in units of Amperes. b. Electric current is defined

8. Resistors in Parallel

8. Resistors in Parallel Resistors are said to be connected together in "Parallel" when both of their terminals are respectively connected to each terminal of the other resistor or resistors. Unlike the

Ohm s Law. George Simon Ohm

Ohm s Law George Simon Ohm The law which governs most simple and many complex electrical phenomena is known as Ohm s Law. It is the most important law in electricity. In 1827, a German locksmith and mathematician

Series & Parallel Circuits Challenge

Name: Part One: Series & Parallel Circuits Challenge 1. Build a circuit using two batteries and two light bulbs in a way to illuminate the two light bulbs so that if either light bulb is disconnected,

CHAPTER12. Electricity. Multiple Choice Questions. Fig. 12.1

CHAPTER12 Electricity Multiple Choice Questions 1. A cell, a resistor, a key and ammeter are arranged as shown in the circuit diagrams of Figure12.1. The current recorded in the ammeter will be Fig. 12.1

PARALLEL CIRCUITS. The voltage is the same across all components in a parallel circuit. Figure 1.

Reading 6 Ron Bertrand VK2DQ http://www.radioelectronicschool.com PARALLEL CIRCUITS When two or more components are connected across one voltage source they form a parallel circuit. The two lamps in figure

Student Content Brief Advanced Level Electric Circuits Background Information There are a variety of forces acting on the body of the Sea Perch. One important force is pushing electrons through the wires

Electric current II. Except in a superconductor

Electric current Charges in motion: Count positive charges going from left to right Add negative charges going from right to left Subtract all charges moving in the opposite direction Divide by time =>

CHAPTER 2. Basic Electronics & Theory. (The rules behind all those little things)

CHAPTER 2 Basic Electronics & Theory (The rules behind all those little things) 1 Current, Voltage, Resistance Water flowing through a hose is a good way to imagine electricity. Water is like Electrons

1 of 11. Current Concept Tests.

1 of 11 Current Concept Tests. CRKT-1. ote TRUE(A) if both statements below are always true. Otherwise, vote FALSE(B). For resistors in series, the current through each resistor is the same. For resistors

Chapter 23 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment

Section 1 Simple Circuits: Practice Problems 1. Three 22-Ω resistors are connected in series across a 125-V generator. What is the equivalent resistance of the circuit? What is the current in the circuit?

Series and Parallel Circuits

Series and Parallel Circuits Components in a circuit can be connected in series or parallel. A series arrangement of components is where they are inline with each other, i.e. connected end-to-end. A parallel

Parallel DC circuits

Parallel DC circuits This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/,

Section 4. Ohm s Law: Putting up a Resistance. What Do You See? What Do You Think? Investigate. Learning Outcomes

Section 4: Ohm s Law: Putting up a Resistance Section 4 Ohm s Law: Putting up a Resistance What Do You See? Learning Outcomes In this section, you will Calculate the resistance of an unknown resistor given

Lab 4 Series and Parallel Resistors

Lab 4 Series and Parallel Resistors What You Need To Know: (a) (b) R 3 FIGURE - Circuit diagrams. (a) and are in series. (b) and are not in series. The Physics Last week you examined how the current and

Resistors in Series and Parallel

Resistors in Series and Parallel Bởi: OpenStaxCollege Most circuits have more than one component, called a resistor that limits the flow of charge in the circuit. A measure of this limit on charge flow

Q1. (a) The diagram shows the voltage-current graphs for three different electrical components.

Q. (a) The diagram shows the voltage-current graphs for three different electrical components. Which one of the components A, B or C could be a 3 volt filament lamp? Explain the reason for your choice...................

Resistors in Series and Parallel

Resistors in Series and Parallel INTRODUCTION Direct current (DC) circuits are characterized by the quantities current, voltage and resistance. Current is the rate of flow of charge. The SI unit is the

Ohm's Law and Circuits

2. Conductance, Insulators and Resistance A. A conductor in electricity is a material that allows electrons to flow through it easily. Metals, in general, are good conductors. Why? The property of conductance

Electrical Circuits. Ammeter Light Bulb Ohmmeter. Power Supply Resistor Voltmeter. Symbols for Electrical Components.

PHSC 101 Electrical Circuits Name Purpose To learn how to measure resistance, voltage, and current using a multimeter. To become familiar with the basic components of simple electrical circuits and Ohm's

1 of 8 3/30/2010 2:18 PM

1 of 8 3/30/2010 2:18 PM Chapter 32 Homework Due: 8:00am on Tuesday, March 30, 2010 Note: To understand how points are awarded, read your instructor's Grading Policy. [Return to Standard Assignment View]

Experiment NO.3 Series and parallel connection

Experiment NO.3 Series and parallel connection Object To study the properties of series and parallel connection. Apparatus 1. DC circuit training system 2. Set of wires. 3. DC Power supply 4. Digital A.V.O.

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering EXPERIMENT 5 PARALLEL AND SERIES-PARALLEL CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS OBJECTIVES This experiment will have the student

CHAPTER 19: DC Circuits. Answers to Questions

HAPT 9: D ircuits Answers to Questions. The birds are safe because they are not grounded. Both of their legs are essentially at the same voltage (the only difference being due to the small resistance of

Direction of current flow. Heat produced in a resistor. Heat produced in a resistor. L 27 Electricity and Magnetism [4]

L 27 Electricity and Magnetism [4] simple electrical circuits direct current DC Alternating current (AC) vs direct current (DC) electric power distribution household electricity household wiring GFIC s

TECH TIP # 37 SOLVING SERIES/PARALLEL CIRCUITS THREE LAWS --- SERIES CIRCUITS LAW # 1 --- THE SAME CURRENT FLOWS THROUGH ALL PARTS OF THE CIRCUIT

TECH TIP # 37 SOLVING SERIES/PARALLEL CIRCUITS Please study this Tech Tip along with assignment 4 in Basic Electricity. Parallel circuits differ from series circuits in that the current divides into a

EE301 - PARALLEL CIRCUITS AND KIRCHHOFF S CURRENT LAW

Objectives a. estate the definition of a node and demonstrate how to measure voltage and current in parallel circuits b. Solve for total circuit resistance of a parallel circuit c. State and apply KCL

EMF and Terminal Voltage Resistors in Series and Parallel Kirchhoff s Rules EMFs in Series and Parallel; Charging a Battery Circuits with Capacitors

Chapter 19 DC Electrical Circuits Topics in Chapter 19 EMF and Terminal Voltage Resistors in Series and Parallel Kirchhoff s Rules EMFs in Series and Parallel; Charging a Battery Circuits with Capacitors

Tristan s Guide to: Solving Parallel Circuits. Version: 1.0 Written in 2006. Written By: Tristan Miller Tristan@CatherineNorth.com

Tristan s Guide to: Solving Parallel Circuits. Version: 1.0 Written in 2006 Written By: Tristan Miller Tristan@CatherineNorth.com Parallel Circuits. Parallel Circuits are a little bit more complicated

Section 5. Electric Power: Load Limit. What Do You See? What Do You Think? Investigate. Learning Outcomes

Section 5 Electric Power: Load Limit What Do You See? Learning Outcomes In this section, you will Define power, insulator, and conductor. Use the equation for power, P = IV. Calculate the power limit of

physics 112N current, resistance and dc circuits

physics 112N current, resistance and dc circuits current! previously we considered electrostatic situations in which no E-field could exist inside a conductor! now we move to the case where an electric

Ohm s Law & Series Circuit

Open the TI-Nspire document Ohms_Law_&_Series_Circuit.tns. We all use and rely on electric circuits every day by flipping a switch, turning up the volume, or operating a computer or calculator. Even the

Light Bulbs in Parallel Circuits

Light Bulbs in Parallel Circuits In the last activity, we analyzed several different series circuits. In a series circuit, there is only one complete pathway for the charge to travel. Here are the basic

How does an electrical circuit work? Exploring Ohm s Law in parallel and series circuits

Objective The purpose of this activity is to explore Ohm s Law in parallel and series circuits, to create a hypothesis. The hypothesis will be tested during an experiential activity using the Labdisc current

AP1 Electricity. 1. A student wearing shoes stands on a tile floor. The students shoes do not fall into the tile floor due to

1. A student wearing shoes stands on a tile floor. The students shoes do not fall into the tile floor due to (A) a force of repulsion between the shoes and the floor due to macroscopic gravitational forces.

Chapter 18. Direct Current Circuits

Chapter 18 Direct Current Circuits Sources of emf The source that maintains the current in a closed circuit is called a source of emf Any devices that increase the potential energy of charges circulating

Kirchhoff s Laws. Kirchhoff's Law #1 - The sum of the currents entering a node must equal the sum of the currents exiting a node.

Kirchhoff s Laws There are two laws necessary for solving circuit problems. For simple circuits, you have been applying these equations almost instinctively. Kirchhoff's Law #1 - The sum of the currents

CIRCUITS WORKSHEET. 1. Determine the equivalent (total) resistance for each of the following circuits below.

CCUTS WOKSHEET. Determine the uivalent (total) resistance for each of the following circuits below. 7 5 70. 59 59 70 5 7. Determine the total voltage (electric potential) for each of the following circuits

3_given a graph of current_voltage for a resistor, determine the resistance. Three resistance R1 = 1.0 kω, R2 = 1.5 kω, R3 = 2.

Ohm s Law Objectives: 1_measure the current_voltage curve for a resistor 2_construct a graph of the data from objective 1 3_given a graph of current_voltage for a resistor, determine the resistance Equipment:

1 THE LIGHT BULB EXPERIMENT: Exploring Simple Electric Circuits

1 THE LIGHT BULB EXPERIMENT: Exploring Simple Electric Circuits Preparatory Questions for Review: (also read this guide sheet, which contains some of the answers!) 1. State Ohm s Law, defining every term

Chapter 7 Direct-Current Circuits

Chapter 7 Direct-Current Circuits 7. Introduction...7-7. Electromotive Force...7-3 7.3 Resistors in Series and in Parallel...7-5 7.4 Kirchhoff s Circuit Rules...7-7 7.5 Voltage-Current Measurements...7-9

Basic DC Circuits. Electrical Quantity Description Unit Water Analogy Voltage or Potential Difference

Basic DC Circuits Current and voltage can be difficult to understand, because the flow of electrons and potential differences cannot be observed by the unaided human eye. To clarify these terms, some people

Lecture PowerPoints. Chapter 19 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7th edition Giancoli

Lecture PowerPoints Chapter 19 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7th edition Giancoli This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching

Preview of Period 13: Electrical Resistance and Joule Heating

Preview of Period 13: Electrical Resistance and Joule Heating 13.1 Electrical Resistance of a Wire What does the resistance of a wire depend upon? 13.2 Resistance and Joule Heating What effect does resistance

People s Physics Book

The Big Ideas: The name electric current is given to the phenomenon that occurs when an electric field moves down a wire at close to the speed of light. Voltage is the electrical energy density (energy

Tristan s Guide to: Solving Series Circuits. Version: 1.0 Written in 2006. Written By: Tristan Miller Tristan@CatherineNorth.com

Tristan s Guide to: Solving Series Circuits. Version: 1.0 Written in 2006 Written By: Tristan Miller Tristan@CatherineNorth.com Series Circuits. A Series circuit, in my opinion, is the simplest circuit

Current and resistance

Current and resistance Electrical resistance Voltage can be thought of as the pressure pushing charges along a conductor, while the electrical resistance of a conductor is a measure of how difficult it

MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY

WEEK 19 MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY ELECTRIC CIRCUITS. 1 Resistance: After this lesson, you should be able to do the following: Know how to define resistance. Know what resistance is. Know the unit for resistance.

Chapter 25 : Electric circuits

Chapter 25 : Electric circuits Voltage and current Series and parallel circuits Resistors and capacitors Kirchoff s rules for analysing circuits Electric circuits Closed loop of electrical components around

Parallel Circuits. Objectives After studying this chapter, you will be able to answer these questions: 1. How are electrical components connected

This sample chapter is for review purposes only. Copyright The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. All rights reserved. Electricity Objectives After studying this chapter, you will be able to answer these questions:.

Odyssey of the Mind Technology Fair. Simple Electronics

Simple Electronics 1. Terms volts, amps, ohms, watts, positive, negative, AC, DC 2. Matching voltages a. Series vs. parallel 3. Battery capacity 4. Simple electronic circuit light bulb 5. Chose the right

Saturday X-tra X-Sheet: 19. Electric circuits

Saturday X-tra X-Sheet: 9 Key Concepts Electric circuits This lesson focuses on the following: Potential Difference Current The resistance of a conductor Ohm s Law and circuit calculations Terminology

Two kinds of electrical charges

ELECTRICITY NOTES Two kinds of electrical charges Positive charge Negative charge Electrons are negatively charged Protons are positively charged The forces from positive charges are canceled by forces

7. What is the current in a circuit if 15 coulombs of electric charge move past a given point in 3 seconds? (1) 5 A (3) 18 A (2) 12 A (4) 45 A

1. Compared to the number of free electrons in a conductor, the number of free electrons in an insulator of the same volume is less the same greater 2. Most metals are good electrical conductors because

PHYSICS 111 LABORATORY Experiment #3 Current, Voltage and Resistance in Series and Parallel Circuits

PHYSCS 111 LABORATORY Experiment #3 Current, Voltage and Resistance in Series and Parallel Circuits This experiment is designed to investigate the relationship between current and potential in simple series

Using a Multimeter to Analyze a Circuit: Measuring Current and Voltage Calculating Power and Resistance

Name: Date: Using a Multimeter to Analyze a Circuit: Measuring Current and Voltage Calculating Power and Resistance Background Information and Pre-Lab Activity Materials: One solar module One small DC

Section 20.7 Parallel Wiring

Here are a series of questions taken from the Cutnell & Johnson test bank. These are offered for practice purposes only. I will not grade your results and I do not want you to spend too much time on these.