Unit One Study Guide

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1 Unit One Study Guide Terms BCE: Before the Common Era. Referring to the time before Christ s birth. CE: Common Era. Referring to the time after Christ s birth. BC: Before Christ. Referring to the time before Christ s birth. AD: Anno Domini, ( in the year of the lord ). Referring to the time after Christ s birth. Decade: A span of ten years. Century: A span of 100 years. Millennium: A span of 1,000 years. Age/era: An undefined period of time characterized by a shared pattern of life. Cyclical Time: Time moving in circles. Linear Time: Time moving forward in a straight line from a fixed beginning to some future final event. Lunar Calendar: Based on the phases of the moon. Solar Calendar: Based on the rotation of the Earth around the sun. Ethnocentrism: The belief that one s own ethnic group/culture is superior to others. Equator: the line of latitude midway between the North and South poles. Latitude: imaginary lines that circle the globe from east to west, measuring an area s distance north and south of the equator. Longitude: imaginary lines that circle the globe from north to south, measuring an area s distance east or west of the prime meridian. Prime Meridian: the line of longitude at 0 that runs through Greenwich, England. Hemisphere: half the globe. The globe can be divided into Northern and Southern hemispheres (separated by the equator) or into Eastern and Western hemispheres (separated by the prime meridian). Compass Rose: an object on the map pointing out the four primary directions: north, south, east, and west. Scale: a part of the map that tells the map s proportion relative to the area s actual size. Legend: a key that explains symbols, lines, and special colors on the map. Cartographer: a mapmaker Greenwich, England: A point where the prime meridian lies. Mercator Project: All of the lines of longitude are parallel, distorting the projections of the actual size. Peters Project: The lines of latitude near the poles are closer together, but it is more accurate than the mercator project in relative size of al areas. Alas, the shapes are still distorted. Primary Source: Documents written during the same time period as an event. Secondary Source: Material written about an event later.

2 Oral Tradition: Legends, myths, and beliefs passed on by spoken word from generation to generation. Historians: A writer, student, or scholar of history. Fossil: Evidence of early life preserved in rocks. Prehistoric: Referring to the time period before history was recorded. Artifact: Remains. Culture: People s unique way of life. Archeologists: Scientists who learn about early people by excavating and studying the traces of early settlements. Anthropologists: Scientists who study culture. Paleontologists: Scientists who study fossils. Mary Leakey: Archaeologist who led a scientific expedition into the region of Laetoli in Tanzania in the mid-1970s. Hominid: Humans and other creatures that walk upright. Lucy: The oldest hominid ever found at 3.5 million years old. Paleolithic Age: Earlier and longer part of the Stone age lasting from 2.5 million to 8,000 B.C.E. Neolithic Age: Beginning about 8,000 B.C.E. and ending as early as 3,000 B.C.E., was the new Stone Age. Homo erectus: Upright man, being more intelligent and adaptable than Homo habilis. Homo sapiens: Modern humans. Nomads: People who wander from place to place, rather than making permanent settlements. Hunter-Gatherers: People whose food supply depends on hunting animals and collecting plant foods. Iceman s Tool Kit: The tool kit of a 5,000 year old prehistoric traveler consisted of a six-foot longbow, 14 arrows in a deerskin case, a stick with an antler tip for sharpening flint blades, a small flint dagger in a woven sheath, and a copper ax. Cave Paintings: Pictures were used to communicate information, ideas, and history. Neolithic Revolution: The agricultural revolution causing the far-reaching changes in human life. Slash-and-Burn Farming: Farming method in which people clear fields by cutting and burning tress and grasses, the ashes of which serve to fertilize the soil. Domestication: The taming of animals. Africa: Where man began Race: classifying people by their adaptive, physical characteristics Racism: the belief that one race is superior to another Migration: movement of people

3 Limitations/Problems with Sources Primary Source- just one point of view, biased Secondary Source- too general, may miss details Oral tradition- story may change over time Fossil- decompose, weathered, difficult to find Artifact- decompose, weathered, have to make educated guess What makes man human? Development of skills o Tools o Writing o Agriculture o Fire o Art o Beliefs World Map Above is a map of the world. This map is good because it has all of the elements you need to know for the test, but the one thing different in this map is that it splits the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans into North and South. Just so you know, they are just the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

4 Map Projections Peters Projection Interrupted Projection

5 Robinson Projection Mercator Projection

6 Advantages and Disadvantages Title Advantages Disadvantages Africa and South American are distorted Peters Projection Correct areas of landmasses and oceans Directions are accurate Interrupted Projection Correct sizes and shapes of landmasses Robinson Projection Correct sizes and shapes of most landmasses Accurate size of oceans and distances across land Mercator Projection Directions accurate Accurate view of land masses near equator Cuts make impossible to measure length across oceans Distortion along edges of map Distorts land near poles (Greenland and Antarctica) Maps (In General) Move Convenient Distortion is inevitable Globes More accurate o Size o Shape o Distance in oceans Difficult to transport

7 Early Human Migration Agricultural Revolution

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