Stage 4. Geography. Blackline Masters. By Karen Devine

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1 1 Devine Educational Consultancy Services Stage 4 Geography Blackline Masters By Karen Devine Updated January 2010

2 2 This book is intended for the exclusive use in NSW Secondary Schools. It is meant to follow the NSW Geography Stage 4 and 5 Syllabus. Copying of the articles within this book is permitted for educational purposes only by the purchasing institution.

3 3 CONTENTS. Pages 1) Investigating the World ) Global Environments - Polar Lands ) Global Environments Desert Environments ) Global Environments Rainforests ) Global Change ) Global Issues and the Role of Citizenship

4 4 Stage 4 Focus Area 1 Investigating the World

5 5 Geography is the study of environments and communities. Geography involves looking at environments and communities from a variety of perspectives or viewpoints. People have different perspectives due to their: a) Race b) Religion c) Culture d) Socioeconomic group e) Experiences. The key geographic questions to be answered are: a) What? b) Where? c) Why? d) When? e) How? f) Could it be different? g) How is it changing with time?

6 6 FIELDWORK. Observation Maps Sketches Diagrams Interviews OTHER. Books Newspapers Magazines Reports Computers Databases CD ROM s Software Statistics Tables Graphs Line drawings Surveys Questionnaires Devices PHOTOGRAPHS. Landscape photos Aerial photos Oblique aerial photos Satellite photos MAPS. Atlases Street directories Road maps Topographic maps Political maps Choropleth maps Satellite images Synoptic charts Weather maps

7 7 Air Water Flora Physical Elements Solar Energy Fauna Soil

8 8 SOLAR ENERGY. The sun is the earth s source of heat, light and energy. Insolation is greater in the northern hemisphere in June and in the southern hemisphere in December. The sun s rays reach the earth at different angles and this contributes to the differences in temperatures and seasons. WATER. Water is part of the earth s hydrosphere. The water cycle is influenced by the energy of the sun. The water cycle experiences precipitation, infiltration, percolation, run-off, evaporation, transpiration and condensation.

9 9 Water is stored on the earth as: a) oceans b) lakes c) rivers d) glaciers e) gas (in the atmosphere) SOIL. The earth s soils are part of the lithosphere. The lithosphere consists of: a) the earth s crust b) landforms c) rocks d) soils. The earth s natural processes such as wind, ice, solar radiation and water constantly are weathering rocks and soils which leads to the erosion of materials to create the earth s landforms.

10 10 AIR. The earth s air is a part of the gas which surrounds the planet. This is known as the atmosphere. Weather (short term variations in temperature), rain, humidity, air pressure and wind are all processes which are also part of the atmosphere. FLORA AND FAUNA. The earth s flora (plants) and fauna (animals) are part of the biosphere. The biosphere includes all living matter, such as humans on the planet.

11 11 Biosphere: All living things on earth Atmosphere A thin layer of gases surrounding planet earth. The Four Spheres Lithosphere: The earth s crust including rocks and soils. Hydrosphere: All water on the planet including rivers, oceans, seas and lakes.

12 12 The human elements of environments are: a) built b) changed by human creations. AGRICULTURAL. Agriculture includes: a) grazing livestock b) growing crops. Agriculture is influenced by: a) climate b) landforms c) soil quality d) technological change e) irrigation f) fertilizer g) pesticide h) hydroponics. Agriculture may be: a) Subsistence -where produce is grown not for commercial purposes. b) Commercial - where produce is grown and sold in markets.

13 13 SETTLEMENTS. Settlements include groups of people living within a certain area. Settlements can vary in size from small villages to large cities. The 2 main categories of settlement are: a) rural b) urban. Settlements form the built environment. INDUSTRIAL. The human environment consists of 5 major industrial divisions: a) Primary: the agricultural sector. Eg: Farms b) Secondary: the manufacturing sector. Eg: Furniture making. c) Tertiary: the service sector. Eg: Doctors d) Quaternary: the information sector. Eg: The Bureau of Meteorology. e) Quinary: the hospitality sector. Eg: Hotels. In rural environments, the focus of economic activity is primary industry. In urban environments, the focus of economic activity is secondary and tertiary industry.

14 14 ECONOMIC. The human environment has many economic aspects to it such as: a) markets b) business firms c) consumers d) banks and other financial institutions e) superannuation f) government policy. The economy consists of all the financial aspects of a nation combined together to strive towards improving national income and achieving economic growth. POLITICAL. The political aspects of the human environment include: a) Federal Parliament b) State Parliaments c) Electorates d) Local Councils e) Government. Politicians work towards making laws for their State or their nation in order to improve the lives of their constituents.

15 15 SOCIOCULTURAL. The sociocultural aspects of the human environment include: a) Churches b) Mosques c) Shopping centres d) Community centres e) Office buildings f) National Parks. The degree of human interaction in the environment depends upon a person s age, sex, religion and social interests.

16 16 The environment is constantly evolving due to natural or human impacts. Human existence impacts upon all 4 spheres of the environment because there are over 6 billion people on the planet. Humans have impacted upon environments through their: a) land clearing for housing settlements b) resource exploitation for creation of wealth c) overgrazing of animals used for food d) crop growing as a source of food e) willful destruction such as arson f) creation of dams as a source of water g) introduction of plant and animal species which have destroyed ecosystems.

17 17 Uses of Maps: Direction Comparisons Location Navigation Geographic Information Systems Reading the Globe Map Projections: Azimuthal Conic Cylindrical Interrupted Map Perspectives: Mercator Peters Mollweide Grid Lines: Latitude Longitude

18 18 Lines of latitude are imaginary lines on a map which are drawn from east to west. These lines (when combined with lines of longitude) are used to assist in finding exact locations. Lines of latitude are known as parallels of latitude. Parallels of latitude divide the earth into the: a) Northern hemisphere b) Southern Hemisphere. The key parallels of latitude are: a) The Arctic Circle (60 32 N) b) Tropic of Cancer (23 27 N) c) Equator (0 ) d) Tropic of Capricorn (23 27 S) e) Antarctic Circle (66 33 S)

19 19 Lines of longitude are imaginary lines drawn on a globe from north to south. Lines of longitude are known as meridians of longitude. The key meridians of longitude are the Prime Meridian which runs through Greenwich in England (51 N 0 E) and the International Date Line. Lines of longitude divide the globe into the: a) eastern hemisphere b) western hemisphere. When lines of latitude and longitude are combined they form grid lines which intersect and can therefore be used to locate any point on the earth s surface. The divisions of the earth into latitude and longitude are known as degrees ( ) which can further be divided into seconds ( ).

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