# Chapter 5 Bridge Deck Slabs. Bridge Engineering 1

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Chapter 5 Bridge Deck Slabs Bridge Engineering 1

2 Basic types of bridge decks In-situ reinforced concrete deck- (most common type) Pre-cast concrete deck (minimize the use of local labor) Open steel grid deck Orthotropic steel deck Timber deck Bridge Engineering 2

3 In-situ reinforced concrete deck Bridge Engineering 3

4 Pre-cast concrete deck Bridge Engineering 4

5 Open steel grid deck Bridge Engineering 5

6 Orthotropic-steel deck Bridge Engineering 6

7 Timber deck Bridge Engineering 7

8 Bridge Deck Slab Background A) AASHTO , Distribution of Loads and Design of Concrete Slabs Main reinforcement perpendicular to traffic S + 2 M = P20;2 S 24, ft 32 S M = P18;0.61 S 7.315, m 9.74 ft-lb/ft or kn-m/m P 20 Where is 16,000 lb for H20 or HS20 loading, is 72 kn for M18 or MS18 loading and S is the effective span length P 18 Bridge Engineering 8

9 Distribution reinforcement Bridge Engineering 9

10 Bridge Deck Slab Main reinforcement parallel to traffic Distribution of wheel loads E=4+0.06S or ( S) maximum 7.0 ft (2.134m) HS20 (MS18) loading Span up to and including 50 ft (15.24 m) LLM = 900 S ft-lb (13.14 S kn-m) Span 50 ft to 100 ft (15.24 to m) LLM= 1000(1.30S-20.0) ft-lb 14.6(1.3 S-6.1) kn-m Bridge Engineering 10

11 Bridge Deck Slab. The above design method developed based on Westergaard theory, (Ref. below) Computation of Stresses in Bridge Slabs Due to Wheel Loads, Public Roads, March, 1930 Bridge Engineering 11

12 Bridge Deck Slab B) CSA-CAN3-S6-M78 CAN/CSA-S6-88 Similar to AASHTO Above methods very conservative Substantial strength enhancement Arching action developed in system C) CHBDC Limit States Design 1) Serviceability limit states i) deformations (8.13.1) ii) vibration (3.4.4) iii) control of cracking (8.12.3) Bridge Engineering 12

13 Bridge Deck Slab 1) Serviceability limit states i) deformations (8.13.1) Deflections and rotations occurring immediately upon the application of loads shall be determined by elastic methods using the value of E c at the time of loading and considering the effects of cracking and reinforcement. Bridge Engineering 13

14 Bridge Deck Slab 1) Serviceability limit states ii) vibration (3.4.4) Superstructures, other than for long span bridges, shall be proportioned so that the maximum deflection due to the factored traffic load, including the dynamic load allowance, does not exceed the limit given in Figure (A) for the anticipated degree of pedestrian use. The deflection limit state shall apply at the centre of the sidewalk or, if there is no sidewalk, at the inside face of the barrier. Bridge Engineering 14

15 Bridge Deck Slab An approved method shall be used to ensure that vibration likely to occur in normal use will not cause discomfort or concern to users of a pedestrian bridge. Bridge Engineering 15

16 Figure (A) Bridge Engineering 16

17 Bridge Deck Slab 1) Serviceability limit states iii) control of cracking (8.12.3). Bridge Engineering 17

18 Bridge Deck Slab 2) Fatigue limit state, reinforcing bars ( ) Stress range in straight bars shall not exceed 125MPa Stress range at anchorages, connections and bends shall not exceed 65 MPa Tack welding of primary reinforcement shall not permitted Stress range in the vicinity of welds shall not exceed 100 MPa For other types of welded splices, the stress range shall not exceed 65 MPa Bridge Engineering 18

19 The ultimate limit state strength (or stability) All sections of the slab shall be proportioned to have factored resistance that are at least equal to the sum of the force effects of the factored loads. Besides satisfying equilibrium and compatibility, the following assumptions are considered i) strains in bars and concrete proportional to the distance from neutral axis ii) maximum usable strain at the extreme compression fiber is iii) Stress in steel, 1) E s times steel strain if stress is less than f y 2) f y if strain is more than yield strain Bridge Engineering 19

20 The ultimate limit state strength (or stability) iv) Concrete has negligible tensile strength in calculation of flexural and axial tensile resistance v) stress-strain distribution pattern is as follows Bridge Engineering 20

21 Bridge Engineering 21 The ultimate limit state strength (or stability) For reinforced concrete slabs, the factored resistance may be calculated by: Where, = Φ 2 a d f A M y s u b f f A a c y s ' α 1 = b f f A a f A ba f T C c y s y s c ' 1 ' 1 α α = = = s c Φ Φ =0.75 =0.90 Material resistance factors }

22 Methods of analysis Yield line method Westergaard theory Influence line Grillage analogy Orthotropic plate theory Folded plate method Finite element and finite strip method Bridge Engineering 22

23 Yield Line Method The principal is similar to that of the plastic design theory of steel frames Reflects the true behavior at ultimate limit state Especially for existing bridges It is a crack in a reinforced bridge, along which the reinforcement has yielded The section must be under-reinforced (as required by bridge design codes) Helps find Moments at the plane of failure Load at which the slab fails Gives an upper bound solution Bridge Engineering 23

24 Yield Line Method Characteristics: Yield lines are straight. Axes of rotation pass along lines of support Axes of rotation pass over columns. A yield line dividing two slab parts must pass through the point of intersection of the axes of rotation of the two parts. Yield lines must end at slab boundary Simple supports attract positive or sagging yield lines while continuous supports do the opposite. Equilibrium or virtual work method Bridge Engineering 24

25 Yield Line Method Virtual work method Upper bound Study many failure patterns Choose the pattern with highest moment or least load Energy dissipation at yield line External work by loads D( l, θ, M ) E( p, V ) θ Where, l is the length of yield line, is the rotation of the yield line and M is the moment of resistance per unit length. P represents the external load and V is the volume between the deflected surfaces and the original plane of the slab. Bridge Engineering 25

26 Yield Line Method Bridge Engineering 26

27 Yield Line Method W e ( P ) = pδdxdy = e i = ( mblθ ) ( P ) ( m lθ ) W = c b The virtual work gives an upper bound to the failure load P or lower bound to resistance moment M. So, try many patterns and select the lowest P or highest M. Reference: Wood, R.H. Plastic and Elastic Analysis of Slabs and Plates, Thames and Hudson, London, Bridge Engineering 27

28 Behavior of a restrained slab When subjected to a concentrated load, a restrained slab goes through these stages: 1) Development of fixed boundary action 2) Cracking 3) Development of compressive membrane action, if the slab is unreinforced, or superposition of the latter action and fixed action if the slab is reinforced 4) Failure Bridge Engineering 28

29 Behavior of a restrained slab Bridge Engineering 29

30 Behavior of a restrained slab Bridge Engineering 30

31 Empirical method - background Conventional design of deck slabs based on flexure and shear can be quite conservative And significant increase in strength is possible from internal arching action developed within the slab and the supporting beam system Consequently, it is possible to reduce the amount of reinforcement in such slabs quite considerably, without undermining the level of safety. Restraints at the edges of simply supported slabs increase their load bearing capacity Bridge Engineering 31

32 Empirical method - background Development of fixed boundary action and compressive membrane action are grouped and named as arching action. Arching action leads to increase in slab strength. This fact is reflected in CHBDC by suggesting minimal reinforcement in the deck slab, provided certain conditions are met. Bridge Engineering 32

33 Empirical method Conditions (CHBDC) Slab of uniform thickness, bounded by exterior supporting beams and: (a) Slab is composite with parallel supporting beams, for which the lines of support are also parallel (b) The ratio of the supporting beams spacing and thickness is less than The spacing of the supporting beams in calculating this ratio is taken parallel to the direction of the transverse reinforcement. Bridge Engineering 33

34 Empirical method - Criteria (c) Spacing of the supporting beams not to exceed 4.0 m. The slab extends beyond external beams wide enough for the development length of bottom transverse bars (d) Provide longitudinal rebars in the deck slab in the negative moment regions of continuous composite beams. Bridge Engineering 34

35 General and specific Criteria for empirical method General criteria Bridge Engineering 35

36 Minimum concrete cover and tolerances Bridge Engineering 36

37 Minimum concrete cover and tolerances Bridge Engineering 37

38 Minimum concrete cover and tolerances Bridge Engineering 38

39 Minimum concrete cover and tolerances Bridge Engineering 39

40 Minimum concrete cover and tolerances Bridge Engineering 40

41 Minimum concrete cover and tolerances Bridge Engineering 41

42 General and specific Criteria for empirical method General criteria, continued Bridge Engineering 42

43 Empirical method - Criteria Negative reinforcement on supports is provided accordingly If the general criteria plus the specific ones are fulfilled, then empirical method is applicable Decks normally need 4 layers of re-bars Main top and bottom re-bars to transfer live load to supporting girders Distribution bars on the top of lower main bars and bottom of upper main bars to aid distribution of wheel loads and act as temp. shrinkage re-bars Bridge Engineering 43

44 Empirical method - Criteria Bridge Engineering 44

45 Empirical method For skew angle of more than 20 Bridge Engineering 45

46 Empirical method Transverse reinforcing bars are placed on a skew, the reinforcement ratio for these bars is not less than θ ρ 2 cos θ where is the skew angle The spacing of reinforcement in each direction does not exceed 300 mm Bridge Engineering 46

47 Deck reinforcement 4 layers Bridge Engineering 47

48 Example Bridge Engineering 48

49 Example Bridge Engineering 49

50 Example Bridge Engineering 50

51 Example Bridge Engineering 51

52 Example Bridge Engineering 52

53 Example Bridge Engineering 53

54 Example Bridge Engineering 54

55 Example Bridge Engineering 55

56 Bridge deck deterioration Chloride-containing deicing salt causes corrosion of rebars and later damage to concrete In US, over 200 million/year on highway bridge deck repair In Canada, Ontario, over 20 million/year on bridge repairs Bridge Engineering 56

57 Spalling Basic spalling mechansim Bridge Engineering 57

58 Deck protection methods Protection systems Bituminous waterproofing Pre-fabricated sheeting Thin adhesive films Galvanized Rebars Epoxy coating of rebars Stainless steel Cathodic protection Bridge Engineering 58

59 Cathodic protection Developed by California Department of Transportation Bridge Engineering 59

60 Thicker Cover Use thicker cover and denser concrete IOWA method Slump 12.5 ~ 25 mm Air content 6% Bridge Engineering 60

61 Composites CFRP, GFRP (bars, sheets) Fiber Matrix FRP vs. steel Lighter, more durable, stronger, lower E, brittle, more initial cost, less life-cycle cost? Bridge Engineering 61

62 Composites, Matrix Thermoset Polyester Vinyl Resin Epoxy Phenoic Polyurethane Thermoplastic Bridge Engineering 62

63 Composites, Fibers Aramid Boron Carbon/graphite Glass Nylon Polyester Polyethylene Polypropylene Bridge Engineering 63

64 Composite Carbon fiber bars Bridge Engineering 64

65 Composites Glass fiber bars Bridge Engineering 65

66 Composites, Surface roughness Bridge Engineering 66

67 Composites Domain of application Construction of new structures Renovation, repair of existing bridges Retrofit of existing bridges Embedded or externally applied rods Bridge Engineering 67

68 Composites Important issues: Design to be consistent with limit states design principles Rigorous material testing procedures Design provisions for reinforced and prestressed components Site preparation and construction procedure Fire resistance Long term durability Ultraviolet rays, temp., humidity Bridge Engineering 68

69 Composites Testing FRP internal reinforcement Cross sectional area Anchor for testing FRP specimens Tensile properties Development length Bond strength Surface bonded FRP reinforcement Direct tension pull-out Tension of flat specimens Overlap splice tension test Bridge Engineering 69

70 Composites Design Flexure Deformability condition to ensure concrete crushes first Crack limitations less severe than for steel bars Deflection limitation similar to conventional members Shear Stirrups fail in corners due to premature fracture at the bends Few tests show shear resistance is less than predicted Bridge Engineering 70

71 Composites Design Thermal stress Expansion of FRP very different than concrete Large thermal stresses in harsh climates Must consider thermal stress in the design Fire resistance depends on Critical temperature of FRP varies for various types Thickness of concrete cover, aggregates Ultraviolet rays Not concern in embedded bars Use protective coatings, additives to the resin Bridge Engineering 71

### Detailing of Reinforcment in Concrete Structures

Chapter 8 Detailing of Reinforcment in Concrete Structures 8.1 Scope Provisions of Sec. 8.1 and 8.2 of Chapter 8 shall apply for detailing of reinforcement in reinforced concrete members, in general. For

### Innovative Use Of FRP For Sustainable Precast Concrete Structures. Sami Rizkalla Distinguished Professor North Carolina State University, USA

Innovative Use Of FRP For Sustainable Precast Concrete Structures Sami Rizkalla Distinguished Professor North Carolina State University, USA FRP MATERIALS Fibers: GFRP CFRP AFRP + Resins: Epoxy Polyester

Draft Table of Contents Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary ACI 318-14 BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL CONCRETE (ACI 318 14) Chapter 1 General 1.1 Scope of ACI 318

### SEISMIC RETROFITTING TECHNIQUE USING CARBON FIBERS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS

Fracture Mechanics of Concrete Structures Proceedings FRAMCOS-3 AEDIFICA TIO Publishers, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany SEISMIC RETROFITTING TECHNIQUE USING CARBON FIBERS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS H.

### A transverse strip of the deck is assumed to support the truck axle loads. Shear and fatigue of the reinforcement need not be investigated.

Design Step 4 Design Step 4.1 DECK SLAB DESIGN In addition to designing the deck for dead and live loads at the strength limit state, the AASHTO-LRFD specifications require checking the deck for vehicular

### Fiberglass Rebar (GFRP Rebar)

Concrete Protection Products, Inc. Fiberglass Rebar (GFRP Rebar) Product Guide Specification October, 2013 Specifier Notes: This product specification is written according to the Construction Specifications

### FLEXURAL PERFORMANCE OF RC BEAMS STRENGTHENED WITH PRESTRESSED CFRP SHEETS

FLEXURAL PERFORMANCE OF RC BEAMS STRENGTHENED WITH PRESTRESSED CFRP SHEETS Piyong Yu, Pedro F. Silva, Antonio Nanni Center for Infrastructure and Engineering Studies Department of Civil, Architectural,

### APE T CFRP Aslan 500

Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Tape is used for structural strengthening of concrete, masonry or timber elements using the technique known as Near Surface Mount or NSM strengthening. Use of CFRP

### SEISMIC UPGRADE OF OAK STREET BRIDGE WITH GFRP

13 th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Vancouver, B.C., Canada August 1-6, 2004 Paper No. 3279 SEISMIC UPGRADE OF OAK STREET BRIDGE WITH GFRP Yuming DING 1, Bruce HAMERSLEY 2 SUMMARY Vancouver

### BEHAVIOR OF SHORT CONCRETE COLUMNS REINFORCED BY CFRP BARS AND SUBJECTED TO ECCENTRIC LOAD

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 6, Issue 10, Oct 2015, pp. 15-24 Article ID: IJCIET_06_10_002 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=6&itype=10

### Optimum proportions for the design of suspension bridge

Journal of Civil Engineering (IEB), 34 (1) (26) 1-14 Optimum proportions for the design of suspension bridge Tanvir Manzur and Alamgir Habib Department of Civil Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering

### SECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST- TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE

SECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST- TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC-130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: TREY HAMILTON, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA NOTE: MOMENT DIAGRAM CONVENTION In PT design,

### DESIGN OF SLABS. Department of Structures and Materials Engineering Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

DESIGN OF SLABS Department of Structures and Materials Engineering Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Introduction Types of Slab Slabs are plate elements

### STRENGTHENING OF JIAMUSI PRE-STRESSED CONCRETE HIGHWAY BRIDGE BY USING EXTERNAL POST-TENSIONING TECHNOLOGY IN CHINA

STRENGTHENING OF JIAMUSI PRE-STRESSED CONCRETE HIGHWAY BRIDGE BY USING EXTERNAL POST-TENSIONING TECHNOLOGY IN CHINA Ali Fadhil Naser and Wang Zonglin School of Transportation Science and Engineering, Bridge

### SECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE

SECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC-130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: TREY HAMILTON, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA NOTE: MOMENT DIAGRAM CONVENTION In PT design,

### DESIGN OF SLABS. 3) Based on support or boundary condition: Simply supported, Cantilever slab,

DESIGN OF SLABS Dr. G. P. Chandradhara Professor of Civil Engineering S. J. College of Engineering Mysore 1. GENERAL A slab is a flat two dimensional planar structural element having thickness small compared

### CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the research Beam is a main element in structural system. It is horizontal member that carries load through bending (flexure) action. Therefore, beam will deflect

### Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Laminates - Aslan

Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Laminates - Aslan 400 series November 10, 2011 Aslan 400 Carbon FRP Laminates are used to structurally strengthen existing concrete, wood, or masonry members in flexure

### géopolymère GEOPOLYMER for Repair and Rehabilitation of Reinforced concrete beams

géopolymère GEOPOLYMER for Repair and Rehabilitation of Reinforced concrete beams Project GEO-STRUCTURE Fire-Proof External repair and structural retrofit for aging infrastructure, aging buildings, earthquake

### Structural Integrity Analysis

Structural Integrity Analysis 1. STRESS CONCENTRATION Igor Kokcharov 1.1 STRESSES AND CONCENTRATORS 1.1.1 Stress An applied external force F causes inner forces in the carrying structure. Inner forces

### ASSESSMENT AND PROPOSED STRUCTURAL REPAIR STRATEGIES FOR BRIDGE PIERS IN TAIWAN DAMAGED BY THE JI-JI EARTHQUAKE ABSTRACT

ASSESSMENT AND PROPOSED STRUCTURAL REPAIR STRATEGIES FOR BRIDGE PIERS IN TAIWAN DAMAGED BY THE JI-JI EARTHQUAKE Pei-Chang Huang 1, Graduate Research Assistant / MS Candidate Yao T. Hsu 2, Ph.D., PE, Associate

### Designer s NOTEBOOK BLAST CONSIDERATIONS

Designer s NOTEBOOK BLAST CONSIDERATIONS For a surface blast, the most directly affected building elements are the façade and structural members on the lower four stories. Although the walls can be designed

### Design Summit Innovations in Design, New Technologies & Process Delivery Changes!

Strengthening a Concrete Slab Bridge Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Composites Presentation to: NJDOT Design Summit 2009 By: Thomas G. Zink, P.E. Structurally Deficient What Does it Mean?

### Simple design method

method Aim of the design method 2 3 Content of presentation in a fire situation method of reinforced concrete slabs at 20 C Floor slab model Failure modes method of at Extension to fire behaviour Membrane

### Field Damage Inspection and Static Load Test Analysis of Jiamusi Highway Prestressed Concrete Bridge in China

Advanced Materials Research Vols. 163-167 (2011) pp 1147-1156 Online available since 2010/Dec/06 at www.scientific.net (2011) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.163-167.1147

### The Original Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer System

Infrastructure The Original Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer System Phone: 52.292.39 Toll Free: 866.38.269 Fax: 52.48.5274 282 E. Fort Lowell Rd. Tucson, AZ 8576 www.dowaksausa.com Test results are supported

### Fire-Damage or Freeze-Thaw of Strengthening Concrete Using Ultra High Performance Concrete

Fire-Damage or Freeze-Thaw of Strengthening Concrete Using Ultra High Performance Concrete Ming-Gin Lee 1,a, Yi-Shuo Huang 1,b 1 Department of Construction Engineering, Chaoyang University of Technology,Taichung

### STRUCTURAL VACUUM INSULATION PANELS

STRUCTURAL VACUUM INSULATION PANELS Musgrave D., President Thermal Visions, Inc., 83 Stonehenge Dr., Granville, Ohio 43023, U.S.A. Phone: 1-740-973-3671, Fax 1-740-587-4025 dwight.musgrave@thermalvisions.com

### In-situ Load Testing to Evaluate New Repair Techniques

In-situ Load Testing to Evaluate New Repair Techniques W.J. Gold 1 and A. Nanni 2 1 Assistant Research Engineer, Univ. of Missouri Rolla, Dept. of Civil Engineering 2 V&M Jones Professor, Univ. of Missouri

### REPAIR AND STRENGTHENING OF HISTORICAL CONCRETE BRIDGE OVER VENTA RIVER IN LATVIA

1 REPAIR AND STRENGTHENING OF HISTORICAL CONCRETE BRIDGE OVER VENTA RIVER IN LATVIA Verners Straupe, M.sc.eng., Rudolfs Gruberts, dipl. eng. JS Celuprojekts, Murjanu St. 7a, Riga, LV 1024, Latvia e-mail:

### USE OF CFRP LAMINATES FOR STRENGTHENING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE CORBELS

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 6, Issue 11, Nov 2015, pp. 11-20, Article ID: IJCIET_06_11_002 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=6&itype=11

### The Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs

EGN-5439 The Design of Tall Buildings Lecture #14 The Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs Via the Direct Method as per ACI 318-05 L. A. Prieto-Portar - 2008 Reinforced concrete floor systems provide an

### SLAB DESIGN. Introduction ACI318 Code provides two design procedures for slab systems:

Reading Assignment SLAB DESIGN Chapter 9 of Text and, Chapter 13 of ACI318-02 Introduction ACI318 Code provides two design procedures for slab systems: 13.6.1 Direct Design Method (DDM) For slab systems

### Reinforced Concrete Design

FALL 2013 C C Reinforced Concrete Design CIVL 4135 ii 1 Chapter 1. Introduction 1.1. Reading Assignment Chapter 1 Sections 1.1 through 1.8 of text. 1.2. Introduction In the design and analysis of reinforced

### FEBRUARY 2014 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 4-1

FEBRUARY 2014 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 4-1 4. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION The analysis of bridges and structures is a mixture of science and engineering judgment. In most cases, use simple models with

### Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with Composites. Subjected to Fatigue Loading

Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with Composites Subjected to Fatigue Loading By Christos G. Papakonstantinou, Perumalsamy. Balaguru and Michael F. Petrou Synopsis: Use of high strength

### MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING

HAPTER Reinforced oncrete Design Fifth Edition MATERIALS AND MEHANIS OF BENDING A. J. lark School of Engineering Department of ivil and Environmental Engineering Part I oncrete Design and Analysis b FALL

### EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM RETROFITTED WITH FERROCEMENT

Int. J. Struct. & Civil Engg. Res. 2013 Y V Ladi and P M Mohite, 2013 Research Paper EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM RETROFITTED WITH FERROCEMENT Y V Ladi 1 * and P M Mohite 2 *Corresponding

### BRIDGE REHABILITATION TECHNIQUES

BRIDGE REHABILITATION TECHNIQUES Yogesh Chhabra, General Manager, The D S Brown Company, 57 Pioneer Road, Singapore 628508 Web www.dsbrown.com E-Mail ychhabra@dsbrown.com.sg Ph. +6598444104, +6565588111

### ANALYSIS FOR BEHAVIOR AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE CORBELS WITH HYBRID REINFORCEMENT

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 6, Issue 10, Oct 2015, pp. 25-35 Article ID: IJCIET_06_10_003 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=6&itype=10

### Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar. Fig. 7.21 some of the trusses that are used in steel bridges

7.7 Truss bridges Fig. 7.21 some of the trusses that are used in steel bridges Truss Girders, lattice girders or open web girders are efficient and economical structural systems, since the members experience

### 8 EXTRA LIGHT GRC SANDWICH ELEMENTS FOR ROOFING IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS

8 EXTRA LIGHT GRC SANDWICH ELEMENTS FOR ROOFING IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS MARICA DELLA BELLA and DIEGO CIAN Precompressi Centro Nord S.p.A., Italy SUMMARY: Secondary roofing elements, complementary to the

### SEISMIC DESIGN. Various building codes consider the following categories for the analysis and design for earthquake loading:

SEISMIC DESIGN Various building codes consider the following categories for the analysis and design for earthquake loading: 1. Seismic Performance Category (SPC), varies from A to E, depending on how the

### Detailing of Reinforcement in Concrete Structures

THE CIVIL & STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING PANEL ENGINEERS AUSTRALIA SYDNEY DIVISION 28 August 2012 Detailing of Reinforcement in Concrete Structures R.I. Gilbert Introduction: Detailing is often considered to

### Bending, Forming and Flexing Printed Circuits

Bending, Forming and Flexing Printed Circuits John Coonrod Rogers Corporation Introduction: In the printed circuit board industry there are generally two main types of circuit boards; there are rigid printed

### Precast Concrete Parking Structures

Precast Concrete Parking Structures Durability starts at the joints BY DAVID C. MONROE AND JOSEPH L. WHITE Parking structures comprise the largest market segment for the structural precast, prestressed

### Chapter 9 CONCRETE STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

Chapter 9 CONCRETE STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 9.1 GENERAL 9.1.1 Scope. The quality and testing of concrete and steel (reinforcing and anchoring) materials and the design and construction of concrete

### Four-Span PS Concrete Beam AASHTO Type III Continuous Spans Input

Four-Span PS Concrete Beam AASHTO Type III Continuous Spans Input As-Built Model Only November, 2011 VDOT VERSION 6.2 1 DETAILED EXAMPLE FOUR-SPAN PS CONCRETE BEAM AASHTO TYPE III CONTINUOUS SPANS INPUT

### The following sketches show the plans of the two cases of one-way slabs. The spanning direction in each case is shown by the double headed arrow.

9.2 One-way Slabs This section covers the following topics. Introduction Analysis and Design 9.2.1 Introduction Slabs are an important structural component where prestressing is applied. With increase

### 16. Beam-and-Slab Design

ENDP311 Structural Concrete Design 16. Beam-and-Slab Design Beam-and-Slab System How does the slab work? L- beams and T- beams Holding beam and slab together University of Western Australia School of Civil

### Design of cross-girders and slabs in ladder deck bridges

130 Chris R Hendy Head of Bridge Design and Technology Highways & Transportation Atkins Jessica Sandberg Senior Engineer Highways & Transportation Atkins David Iles Steel Construction Institute Design

### Basics of Reinforced Concrete Design

Basics of Reinforced Concrete Design Presented by: Ronald Thornton, P.E. Define several terms related to reinforced concrete design Learn the basic theory behind structural analysis and reinforced concrete

### RC Detailing to Eurocode 2

RC Detailing to Eurocode 2 Jenny Burridge MA CEng MICE MIStructE Head of Structural Engineering Structural Eurocodes BS EN 1990 (EC0): BS EN 1991 (EC1): Basis of structural design Actions on Structures

### MILMAN & ASSOCIATES STRUCTURAL CONSULTING ENGINEERS/ PROJECT MANAGERS

MILMAN & ASSOCIATES STRUCTURAL CONSULTING ENGINEERS/ PROJECT MANAGERS May 29, 2013 Revision B Structural Guideline for Design and Installation Holes in Composite Floor Slab Terminal 3, Departure Level

### SPECIAL COMPOUND FOR RHEOPLASTIC AND ANTI-CORROSION SUPERCONCRETE WITH VERY HIGH DURABILITY

BS 40 M6 MuCis mono SPECIAL COMPOUND FOR RHEOPLASTIC AND ANTI-CORROSION SUPERCONCRETE WITH VERY HIGH DURABILITY LE CE LE type: "expansive binder which allows the production of extremely fluid concrete

### Numerical modelling of shear connection between concrete slab and sheeting deck

7th fib International PhD Symposium in Civil Engineering 2008 September 10-13, Universität Stuttgart, Germany Numerical modelling of shear connection between concrete slab and sheeting deck Noémi Seres

### Agenda. Strengthening with External Post-tensioning. Structural Strengthening Existing Structures STRUCTURAL. Strengthening Solutions

Agenda Strengthening with External ost-tensioning Clyde Ellis Vice resident Strengthening Division Introduction rimary vs. Supplemental strengthening Basic Concept using Ext. T Advantages Systems/Components

### A-insinöörit Suunnittelu Oy

A-insinöörit Suunnittelu Oy www.a-insinoorit.fi Background - Location at Ylöjärvi near Tampere at Highway VT3 - The design of the Malminmaki bridge, part of the Tampere West Bypass, Stage II, Contract

### Punching shear behavior of steel-concrete composite decks with different shear connectors

Punching shear behavior of steel-concrete composite decks with different shear connectors *Xiao-Qing Xu 1) and Yu-Qing Liu 2) 1), 2) Department of Bridge Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092,

### REINFORCED CONCRETE. Reinforced Concrete Design. A Fundamental Approach - Fifth Edition

CHAPTER REINFORCED CONCRETE Reinforced Concrete Design A Fundamental Approach - Fifth Edition CONCRETE Fifth Edition A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

### Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) as Reinforcement for Concrete Beam

Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) as Reinforcement for Concrete Beam Norazman Mohamad Nor 1, Mohd Hanif Ahmad Boestamam, Mohammed Alias Yusof 3 1,3 Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, 57000 Kuala

### THE EAGLE RIVER BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURE REPLACEMENT

Proceedings of 8 th International Conference on Short and Medium Span Bridges Niagara Falls, Canada 2010 THE EAGLE RIVER BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURE REPLACEMENT Biljana Rajlic Hatch Mott MacDonald, Canada Philip

### STRENGTHENING AND LOAD TESTING OF THREE BRIDGES IN BOONE COUNTY, MO

STRENGTHENING AND LOAD TESTING OF THREE BRIDGES IN BOONE COUNTY, MO S. Schiebel 1, R. Parretti 1, A. Nanni 2, and M. Huck 3 ABSTRACT Three bridges in Boone County, Missouri (Brown School Road Bridge, Coats

### HOW TO DESIGN CONCRETE STRUCTURES Beams

HOW TO DESIGN CONCRETE STRUCTURES Beams Instructions for the Members of BIBM, CEMBUREAU, EFCA and ERMCO: It is the responsibility of the Members (national associations) of BIBM, CEMBUREAU, EFCA and ERMCO

### WATERPROOFING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FLAT ROOF 12

WATERPROOFING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FLAT ROOF 12 87 88 GOOD INDUSTRY PRACTICES 12 WATERPROOFING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FLAT ROOF 12.1 BACKGROUND Most roofs in Singapore are constructed using reinforced

### Timber Frame Moment Joints with Glued-In Steel Rods - A Designer s Perspective. Mark L Batchelar 1

Timber Frame Moment Joints with Glued-In Steel Rods - A Designer s Perspective Abstract: Mark L Batchelar 1 Significant evidence based on experimental research exists to give designers confidence in the

### INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE STRUCTURAL

INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE STRUCTURAL S5-06/07 1604.11 (New), 1605 (New) Proposed Change as Submitted: Proponent: William M. Connolly, State of New Jersey, Department of Community Affairs, Division of

### Structural Failures Cost Lives and Time

Structural Failures Cost Lives and Time Recent failures of storage bins, silos and other structures highlight the need to increase awareness of hazards associated with these structures. Since 2010, one

### beams columns blast walls slabs pipes protective coatings polymer concrete Solutions Looking for Problems...

beams columns blast walls slabs pipes protective coatings polymer concrete Solutions Looking for Problems... CarbonWrap Solutions Services Turnkey Innovative Solutions and Products CarbonWrap Solutions,

### Structural materials Characteristics, testing, strength evaluation

Budapest University of Technology and Economics Department of Mechanics and Materials of Structures English courses General course /2013 Fundamentals of Structures BMEEPSTG201 Lecture no. 3: Structural

### SECTION 5 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SPANS DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC-130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: BRYAN ALLRED

SECTION 5 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SPANS DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC-130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: BRYAN ALLRED NOTE: MOMENT DIAGRAM CONVENTION In PT design, it is preferable to draw moment diagrams

### CHAPTER 9 LONG TERM MONITORING AT THE ROUTE 351 BRIDGE

CHAPTER 9 LONG TERM MONITORING AT THE ROUTE 351 BRIDGE 9.1 INTRODUCTION An important reason that composite piles have not gained wide acceptance in the civil engineering practice is the lack of a long

### Design rules for bridges in Eurocode 3

Design rules for bridges in Eurocode 3 Gerhard Sedlacek Christian üller Survey of the Eurocodes EN 1991 EN 1990 Eurocode: Basis of Design EN 1992 to EN 1996 Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures Eurocode 2:

### TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION SERIES 8000 PRECAST CONCRETE

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION SERIES 8000 PRECAST CONCRETE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION PART 8000 - PRECAST CONCRETE TABLE OF CONTENTS Item Number Page 8100 PRECAST CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION - GENERAL 8-3 8101 General

### IBC-02-56. KEYWORDS: Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP), Truss Bridge, Deck Replacement, In-situ testing

Deck Replacement for the Skewed Truss Bridge on MD 24 Over Deer Creek in Harford County, Maryland Utilizing a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Bridge Deck JEFFREY ROBERT, Maryland State Highway Administration,

### Retrofitting of RCC Structure WIH Strengthening of Shear Wall with External Post Tensioning Cables

Retrofitting of RCC Structure WIH Strengthening of Shear Wall with External Post Tensioning Cables Yogesh Ghodke, G. R. Gandhe Department of Civil Engineering, Deogiri Institute of Engineering and Management

### EUROPEAN ORGANISATION FOR TECHNICAL APPROVALS

E TA TECHNICAL REPORT Design of Bonded Anchors TR 29 Edition June 27 EUROPEAN ORGANISATION FOR TECHNICAL APPROVALS TABLE OF CONTENTS Design method for bonded anchors Introduction..4 1 Scope...2 1.1 Type

### Seismic Retrofit of Reinforced Concrete Beam- Column T-Joints in Bridge Piers with FRP Composite Jackets

SP-258 1 Seismic Retrofit of Reinforced Concrete Beam- Column T-Joints in Bridge Piers with FRP Composite Jackets by C.P. Pantelides and J. Gergely Synopsis: The research described encompasses laboratory

NEESR SG: Behavior, Analysis and Design of Complex Wall Systems The laboratory testing presented here was conducted as part of a larger effort that employed laboratory testing and numerical simulation

### Methods for Seismic Retrofitting of Structures

Methods for Seismic Retrofitting of Structures Retrofitting of existing structures with insufficient seismic resistance accounts for a major portion of the total cost of hazard mitigation. Thus, it is

### GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED POLYPROPYLENE BRIDGE DECK PANEL DESIGN, FABRICATION AND LOAD TESTING

33 rd Annual General Conference of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering 33 e Congrès général annuel de la Société canadienne de génie civil Toronto, Ontario, Canada June 2-4, 2005 / 2-4 juin 2005

### Shear Strengthening. Sika CarboDur Composite Systems

Solutions with Sika Systems Shear Strengthening Sika CarboDur Composite Systems Long term tested and approved systems High strength composite systems Corrosion resistant Easy application No maintenance

### Behaviour of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beams with Duct Openings Strengthened by Steel Plates

Behaviour of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beams with Duct Openings Strengthened by Steel Plates J.Suresh Research Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering Hindustan University, Padur, Chennai, India

### EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES OUTCOME 2 ENGINEERING COMPONENTS TUTORIAL 1 STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

ENGINEERING COMPONENTS EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES OUTCOME ENGINEERING COMPONENTS TUTORIAL 1 STRUCTURAL MEMBERS Structural members: struts and ties; direct stress and strain,

### A Decade of Performance of FRP-Repaired Concrete Structures

A Decade of Performance of FRP-Repaired Concrete Structures Shamim A. Sheikh and S. Mukhtar Homam Department of Civil Engineering University of Toronto Toronto, Canada ABSTRACT During the last ten years,

### 3. Observed Damage in Railway Viaducts

Structural Damage of Tohoku Shinkansen Viaducts by the Off the Pacific Tohoku Earthquake First Report on March 16, 2011 Dr. Yoshikazu Takahashi, Associate Professor Disaster Prevention Research Institute,

### 18 Application of GRC Curved Sandwich Panels with EPS Core and Exterior Finish

18 Application of GRC Curved Sandwich Panels with EPS Core and Exterior Finish Jiang Yonghai Nanjing Beilida, China Summary: GRC curved sandwich panels, which mainly consist of GRC facing layer, GRC rear

### Construction. SikaGrout -300 Technology. for high Precision, Non-Shrink, Expanding, Natural Aggregate Grout

Construction SikaGrout -3 Technology for high Precision, Non-Shrink, Expanding, Natural Aggregate Grout SikaGrout -3 System System Applications Heavy Equipment / Machinery Bases Anchor Bolts / Bars Bedding

### Design of reinforced concrete columns. Type of columns. Failure of reinforced concrete columns. Short column. Long column

Design of reinforced concrete columns Type of columns Failure of reinforced concrete columns Short column Column fails in concrete crushed and bursting. Outward pressure break horizontal ties and bend

### Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures

Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures Dr Stephen Hicks, Manager Structural Systems, Heavy Engineering Research Association, New Zealand Introduction BS EN 1994 (Eurocode 4) is the

### Stress and Deformation Analysis. Representing Stresses on a Stress Element. Representing Stresses on a Stress Element con t

Stress and Deformation Analysis Material in this lecture was taken from chapter 3 of Representing Stresses on a Stress Element One main goals of stress analysis is to determine the point within a load-carrying

### Testing Anchors in Cracked Concrete

Testing Anchors in Cracked Concrete Guidance for testing laboratories: how to generate cracks BY ROLF ELIGEHAUSEN, LEE MATTIS, RICHARD WOLLMERSHAUSER, AND MATTHEW S. HOEHLER ACI Committee 355, Anchorage

### APPENDIX H DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NCHRP 12-79 PROJECT NEW BRIDGE DESIGNS

APPENDIX H DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NCHRP 12-79 PROJECT NEW BRIDGE DESIGNS This appendix summarizes the criteria applied for the design of new hypothetical bridges considered in NCHRP 12-79 s Task 7 parametric

### Chapter 3 Pre-Installation, Foundations and Piers

Chapter 3 Pre-Installation, Foundations and Piers 3-1 Pre-Installation Establishes the minimum requirements for the siting, design, materials, access, and installation of manufactured dwellings, accessory

### Safe & Sound Bridge Terminology

Safe & Sound Bridge Terminology Abutment A retaining wall supporting the ends of a bridge, and, in general, retaining or supporting the approach embankment. Approach The part of the bridge that carries

### Seismic retrofit of non-ductile concrete and masonry walls by steelstrips

Seismic retrofit of non-ductile concrete and masonry walls by steelstrips bracing Mustafa Taghdi, Michel Bruneau, & Murat Saatcioglu Ottawa Carleton Earthquake Engineering Research Centre Department of

### HIGH PERFORMANCE PRE-APPLIED SYSTEM FOR BLIND SIDE & BELOW GRADE WATERPROOFING APPLICATIONS

BSW HIGH PERFORMANCE PRE-APPLIED SYSTEM FOR BLIND SIDE & BELOW GRADE WATERPROOFING APPLICATIONS BSW is a fully reinforced Pre-Applied system membrane designed for horizontal and vertical external blind-side

### GARDEN CITY SKYWAY SUBSTRUCTURE REHABILITATION

GARDEN CITY SKYWAY SUBSTRUCTURE REHABILITATION Issam ElKhatib, P.Eng., Dennis Baxter, P.Eng. Totten Sims Hubicki Associates, Canada Abstract The rehabilitation history of the Garden City Skyway Bridge