# Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar

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1 Problem 1 Design a hand operated overhead crane, which is provided in a shed, whose details are: Capacity of crane = 50 kn Longitudinal spacing of column = 6m Center to center distance of gantry girder = 12m Wheel spacing = 3m Edge distance = 1m Weight of crane girder = 40 kn Weight of trolley car = 10 kn Design by allowable stress method as per IS: To find wheel load (refer fig.1):

2 R A = (11 / 12) = 75 kn Wheel load = R A / 2 = 37.5 kn To find maximum BM in gantry girder (refer fig.2): R A = kn R B = kn Max. BM = x 2.25 = kn-m Adding 10% for impact, M 1 = 1.1 x = kn-m Max. BM due to self - weight of girder and rail taking total weight as 1.2 kn/m Therefore Total BM, M = 75 kn-m To find maximum shear force (refer fig.3): SF = R A = kn. To find lateral loads: This is given by 2.5% of (lateral load / number of wheel = x 60 / 2 kn = 0.75 kn Therefore Max BM due to lateral load by proportion is given by, ML = (63.27 / 37.5) x 0.75 = 1.27 kn-m Design of section Approximate section modulus Z c required, (M / σ bc ) = 75 x 10 6 / 119 = 636 x 10 3 mm 3 [for λ = 120, D / T = 25]. Since, the beam is subjected to lateral loads also, higher section is selected. For, ISMB N/m, Z x = cm 3, T = 17.3 mm,

3 t = 9.4mm, I yy = 111.2cm 3 r y = 30.1mm, b f = 150mm To find allowable stresses, T/t = 17.4 / 9.4 = 1.85 < 2 D/T = 450 / 17.4 = ~ 26 L/r y = 6000 / 30.1 = ~ 200 Therefore allowable bending compression about major axis is, s bc' x = 77.6 N/mm 2 Actual stress in compression side, s b' x = M / Z = 55.5 N / mm 2. The bending moment about Y-axis is transmitted only to the top of flange and the flange is treated as rectangular section. The allowable stress is s bc. y = 165 MPa (i.e fy). Z y of the flange = / 2 = 55.6 cm 3 Therefore s by = M y / Z y = 1.27 x 10 6 / 55.6 x 10 3 = MPa The admissible design criteria is = (s bx / s bcx ) + ( s by / s bcy ) = (55.5 / 77.6) + (22.84 / 165) = = < 1. Hence, the design is safe. So, ISMB 450 is suitable Check for shear: Design shear stress, τ x V / (Dt) = x 10 3 / 450 x 9.4 = MPa. This is less than τ a (0.4f y ). Hence, the design is o.k. Check for deflection and longitudinal bending can be done as usual.

4 Design by limit state method as per IS: 800 draft code For ISMB 450, properties are given below: T = 17.4mm, t = 9.4mm, b = 150mm, r y = 30.1mm, Z p = cm 3, Z c = cm 3, Shape factor = 1.15, I zz = cm 4, H 1 = d = 379.2mm Section classification: Flange criteria: b / T = 75 / 17.4 = 4.31 < 9.4 No local buckling. Therefore OK Web criteria: d / t w = / 9.4 = < 83.9 No local buckling. Therefore OK Section plastic. Shear capacity: F v / F vd = (59.85 x 1.5) / 555 = < 0.6 Check for torsional buckling (CI.8.2.2): t f / t w <= 17.4 / 9.4 = 1.85 < 2. Therefore β LT = 1.2 for plastic section M cr = Elastic critical moment

5 (β b = 1 for plastic section) Therefore φ LT = 0.5 [1 + α LT (λ LT - 0.2) + λ 2 LT = 0.5 [ ( ) ] = Therefore M d = β b. z p. f bd = 1 x x 10 3 x = x 10 8 = kn-m Factored longitudinal moment, M f = 75 x 1.5 = kn-m Factored lateral moment, M fl = 1.27 x 1.5 = 1.91 kn-m

6 Lateral BM capacity = M dl = (112.5 / 135.9) + (1.91 / 14.53) = 0.96 < 1 Hence, it is safe Problem 2: Design a member (beam - column) of length 5.0 M subjected to direct load 6.0 T (DL) and 5.0 T (LL) and bending moments of M zz {3.6 TM (DL) TM (LL)} and M yy {0.55 TM (DL) TM (LL)} at top and M zz {5.0 TM (DL) TM (LL)} and M yy {0.6 TM (DL) TM (LL)} at bottom. LSM {Section 9.0 of draft IS: 800 (LSM version)} Factored Load, N = 6.0 x x 1.5 = 16.5 T (Refer Table 5.1 for load factors) Factored Moments: At top, M z = 9.15 TM, M y = TM At bottom, M z = TM, M y = TM Section used = MB500. For MB500:

7 A = cm 2 ; r yy = 3.52 cm, I zz = cm 4 ; Z zz = 1809 cm 3 Z yy = cm 3 ; Z pz = m 3 ; Z py = cm 3 d = mm, t w = mm r zz = cm, b = 180 mm; I yy = cm 3 (i) Sectional Classifications (Refer Fig: 3.1 and Table of draft code): b / t f = 90 / 17.2 = 5.23 < 8.92, therefore the section is plastic. d / t w = / 10.2 = < 47, therefore the section is semi-compact for direct load and plastic for bending moment. (ii) Check for resistance of the section against material failure due to the combined effects of the loading (Clause-9.3.1): N d = Axial strength = A. f y /γ mo = x 2500 / 1.10 x 10-3 = T N = 16.5 T n = N / N d = 16.5 / = < 0.2 Therefore M ndz = 1.1M dz (1-n) < M dz Therefore M ndz = 1.1{1.0 * * 2500 / 1.10} ( ) * 10-5 < M dz Therefore M ndz = T-m > M dz (=47.15 T-m ) Therefore M ndz = M dz = T-m For, n<= 0.2 M ndy = M dy M ndy = (1.0 x x 2500) / (1.10 x ) = 6.88 T-m (β b = 1.0 for calculation of M dz and M dy as per clause )

8 Therefore (M y / M ndy ) α1 + (M z / M ndz ) α2 = (1.44 / 6.88) 1 + (12.60 / 47.15) 2 = <= 1.0 {α 1 = 5n but >= 1, therefore α 1 = 5 x = 0.33 = 1 α 2 = 2 (As per Table 9.1)} Alternatively, (N / N d ) + (M z / M dz ) + (M y / M dy ) = { (16.5 x 10 3 x 1.10) / (110.7 x 2500) + (12.60 x 10 5 x 1.10) / (302.9 x 2500) = 0.54 <= 1.0 (iii) Check for resistance of the member for combined effects of buckling (Clause ): (a) Determination P dz, P dy and P d (Clause 7.12) KL y = KL z = 0.85 x 500 = 425mm ( KL z / r z ) = 425 / = ( KL y / r y ) = 425 / 3.52 = Therefore, non- dimensional slenderness ratios, λ z = and λ y = For major axis buckling curve 'a' is applicable (Refer Table 7.2). From Table 7.4a, f cdz = MPa P dz = x 10 x x 10-3 = T For minor axis buckling curve 'b' is applied (Refer Table 7.2) From Table 7.4b, f cdy = MPa P dy = x 10 x x 10-3 = T Therefore, P d = P dy = T (b) Determination of M dz (Clause and Clause 8.2.2).

9 Elastic critical moment is given by (clause ). M cr = [(β LT π 2 EI y h) / {2(KL) 2 }] [1 + 1/20 {(KL / r y ) / (h / t f )} 2 ] 0.5 =[(1.20 x π 2 x 2 x 10 5 x x 10 4 x 500) / (2 x )] [1 + 1/20 {(120.70) / (500 / 17.2)} 2 ] 0.5 = x 10 8 N-mm (c) Determination of M dy (Clause ) M dy = β b Z py. f y / γ m = 1.0 x x 2500 / 1.1 x 10-5 = 6.88 T-m (d) Determination of C z (Clause ) From Table - 9.2,

10 = (2 x ) = For torsional buckling, (e) Determination of C y (Clause ) Therefore, section is safe. Interaction value is less in LSM than WSM.

11 Design of typical beam Example-1 The beam (ISMB 400) in Fig.1 is designed considering it is fully restrained laterally. 1. WSM (clause 6.2 of IS: ): Bending moment, M=18.75 Tm s bc(cal) = *10 5 / = kg /cm 2 < 1650 Kg/cm 2 For ISMB 450, Z= cm 3 Therefore Therefore percentage strength attained is or 84.13%s 2. LSM (clause 8.2 of draft IS:800): Factored load = 1.5 * * 4.0 = 9.0 T Factored bending moment = 9.0 * / 8 = Tm Factored shear force = T = Fv Fig.1

12 For, ISMB450, D = 450 mm t w = 9.4 mm I xx = cm 4 r yy = 3.01 cm B = 150 mm T=17.4 mm Iyy = cm h 1 = cm = d i ) Refering Table 3.1 of the code for section classification, we get : Flange criterion = ( B / 2 ) / T = ( 150 / 2 ) /17.4 = 4.31 < 9.4. Web criteria = d / t w = / 9.4 = < Therefore, section is plastic. ii ) Shear capacity ( refer clause 8.4 of draft code ) : F vd = ( f yw.a v )/ ( g mo ) = ( f yw.ht w )/( g mo ) = ( 2500 * 45.0 * 0.94 )/ ( * 1.10 * 1000 ) = 55.50T F v / F vd = /55.5 = < 0.6. Therefore, shear force does not govern permissible moment capacity ( refer clause of the draft code ). iii ) Since the section is ' plastic', M d = ( Z p.f y ) / g mo where, Z p = Plastic Modulus = cm 3 (refer Appendix-I of draft code). Therefore, M d = ( *2500 ) /1.10 * 10 5 = Tm Percentage strength attained for LSM is ( / ) = or 80.7 % which is less than 84.3 % in the case of WSM.

13 iv ) Now, let us check for web buckling : K v = 5.35 (for transverse stiffeners only at supports as per clause of draft code ). The elastic critical shear stress of the web is given by : τ cr.e = ( k v.π 2.E ) / { 12 ( 1 - µ 2 )( d / t w ) 2 } = ( 5.35 π 2 E ) / { 12 ( )( / 9.4 ) 2 } = N / mm 2. Now as per clause of draft code, λ w = { f yw / ( τ cr.e )} 0.5 = {250 / ( * )} 0.5 = < 0.8. where, λ w is a non-dimensional web slenderness ratio for shear buckling for stress varying from greater than 0.8 to less than Therefore, τ b ( shear stress corresponding to buckling ) is given as : τ b = f yw / = 250 / = N / mm 2. V d = d.t w. τ b / γ mo = * 0.94 * * 10-3 / 1.10 = Ts As V D > F v ( = 22.5 T ), the section is safe in shear. For checking of deflection : s = (5 * 60 * ) / ( 384 * 2.1 * 10 6 * ) = 0.76 cm = 7.6 mm = L / 658 Hence O.K.

14 Example - 2 The beam ( ISMB 500 ) shown in Fig2 is carrying point load as shown, is to be designed. The beam is considered to be restrained laterally. 1. In WSM ( clause 6.2 of IS : ) : Bending Moment, M = ( ) * 3 / 4 = Tm For, ISMB 500 : Z = cm 3 Fig.2 So, σ bc(cal) = * 10 5 / Kg / cm 2 = Kg / m 2. Therefore, percentage strength attained is 0.88 or 88 %. 2. In LSM (clause 8.2 of draft IS : 800): Factored load = 1.5 * * 20 = T Therefore, Factored bending moment = 52.5 * 3.0 / 4 = Tm Factored shear force, F v = / 2 = T i ) For,section classification of this ISMB500, ( refer table 3.1 of the code ), we get :

15 D = 500 mm d = mm r 1 = 17mm Z p = cm 3 r y = 3.52 cm T = 17.2 mm b = 180 mm t w = 10.2 mm. Flange criterion, (b / 2) / T = ( 180 / 2 ) / 17.2 = 5.23 < 9.4 Web criterion, d / t w = /10.2 = < 83.9 ( O.K ) Therefore the section is plastic. ii ) Shear capacity ( clause 8.4 ): F vd = ( f yw.a v )/ ( γ mo ) = ( 2500 * 50 * 1.02 )/ ( * 1.10 * 1000 ) = T F v = T Since F v / F vd < 0.6. shear force does not govern Bending Strength iii ) For moment check : Since the section is plastic, M d = ( Z p.f y ) / γ mo = ( * 2500 ) /1.10 * 10 5 = Tm Therefore, Percentage strength attained is ( / ) = or 85.5 % which is less than 88 % in case of WSM iv ) Check for web buckling :

16 K v = 5.35 (for transverse stiffeners only at supports as per clause of draft code ). τ cr.e = ( k v.π 2.E ) / { 12 ( 1 - µ 2 )( d / t w ) 2 } = ( 5.35 π 2 E ) / { 12 ( )( / 10.2 ) 2 } = N / mm 2. Now as per clause , λ w = { f yw / ( τ cr.e )} 0.5 = {250 / ( * )} 0.5 = < 0.8. Therefore, τ b = f yw / = 250 / = N / mm 2. V D = d.t w. τ b / γ mo = * 1.02 * * 10-3 / 1.10 = T Since V D > F v ( = T ), the section is safe against shear. For checking of deflection : σ = ( * ) / ( 48 * 2.1 * 10 6 * ) = cm = 2.07 mm = L / 1446 Hence O.K.

17 Example - 3 The beam, ISMB500 as shown in Fig.3 is to be designed considering no restraint along the span against lateral buckling. ) : i ) In WSM (clause 6.2, 6.2.2, and and of IS : Bending moment, M = 2.1 * 6 2 / 8 = 9.45 Tm For, ISMB500 : L = 600 cm r y = 3.52 cm T = 17.2 mm Z = cm 3 Fig.3 Therefore, Y = 26.5 * 10 5 / ( 600 / 3.52 ) 2 = 91.2 X = [ 1 + ( 1 / 20 ){( 600 * 1.72 ) / (3.52 * 50 )} 2 ] = and f cb = k 1 ( X + k 2 y ) C 2 / C 1 = X (since C 2 = C 1, k 1 = 1 and k 2 = 0 ) Now, σ bc(perm) = (0.66 f cb.f y ) / {f n cb + f n y } 1/n = 746 Kg / cm 2.

18 and σ bc(cal) = 9.45 * 10 5 / = Kg / cm 2. Therefore, percentage strength attained is ( / 746 ) = 0.7 or 70 %. ii ) In LSM (clause 8.2 of draft IS : 800 ) : For MB 500 : D = 500 mm B = 180 mm Z p = cm 3 T = 17.2 mm t = 10.2 mm r yy = 3.52 cm H 1 = d = mm I zz = cm 4, I yy = cm 4 iii) Classification of section ( ref. Table 3.1 of the code ): b / T = 90 / 17.2 = 5.2 < 9.4, hence O.K. d / t = / 10.2 = 41.6 < ( O.K) Therefore, the section is Plastic. iv ) Check for torsional buckling ( clause ) : t f / t w for ISMB 500 = 17.2 / 10.2 = Therefore, β LT = 1.20,for plastic and compact aestions. M cr = Elastic critical moment given as : M cr = { ( β LT π 2.EI y ) / (KL) 2 }[ 1 + ( 1 / 20 ) {KL / r y ) / ( h / t f ) } 2 ] 0.5 ( h/ 2 ) ( ref. clause ) = (1.20 π 2 * 2 * 10 6 * / )[ 1 + ( / 20 ){ (600 / 3.52) / (50 / 1.72)} 2 ] 0.5 (50 / 2) = Kg-cm. Now, λ LT = ( β b.z p.f y / M cr ) = ( since β b = 1.0 for plastic and compact sections ) Therefore,

19 φ LT = 0.5 [ 1 + α LT ( λ LT ) + λ 2 LT ] = 0.5 [ ( ) ] = ( α LT = 0.21 for rolled section ). Therefore X LT = 1 / [ φ LT + { φ 2 LT - λ 2 LT } 0.5 ] = 1 / [ { } 0.5 ] = 0.55 M d = 1.0 * 0.55 * * 2500 / 1.10 * 10-5 = Tm Now actual moment is obtained as follows: Factored load = 1.0 * * 1.5 = 3.15 Tm Factored moment = Tm < M d Percentage strength attained is (14.75 / ) = 0.56 or 56 % which is less than 70 % in case of WSM. Hence, the beam is safe both in LSM and WSM design but percentage strength attained is comparatively less in LSM for the same section Problem: The girder showed in Fig. E1 is fuly restrained against lateral buckling throughtout its sapan. The span is 36 m and carries two concentrated loads as show in Fig. E1. Design a plate girder. Yield stress of steel, f y = 250 N/mm 2 Material factor for steel,γ m = 1.15 Dead Load factor,γfd = 1.50 Imposed load factor,γfl = 1.50

21 2.0 Bending moment and shear force Bending moment (kn-m) Shear force (kn) UDL effect Concentrated load effect w=870 Total The desigh shear forces and bending moments are shown inf Fig. E Initial sizing of plate girder Depth of the plate girder: The recommended span/depth ratio for simply supported girder varies between 12 for short span and wo for long span girder. Let us consider depth of the girder as 2600 mm. Depth of 2600 mm is acceptable. (For drawing the bending moment and shear force diagrams, factored loads are considered)

22 Fig.E2 Bending moment and shear force diagrams Flange: P y = 250/1.15 = N/mm 2 Single flange area, By thumb rule, the flange width is assumed as 0.3 times the depth of the section. Try 780 X 50 mm, giving an area = mm 2.

23 Web: Minimum web thickness for plate girder in builidings usually varies between 10 mm to 20 mm. Here, thickness is assumed as 16mm. Hence, web size is 2600 X 16 mm 4.0 Section classification Flange: Hence, Flange is COMPACT SECTION. Web: Hence, the web is checked for shear buckling. 5.0 Checks Check for serviceability: Web is adequate for serviceability.

24 Check for flange buckling in to web: Assuming stiffener spacing, a > 1.5 d into the web. Since, t (=16 mm) > 8.2 mm, the web is adequate to avoid flange buckling Check for moment carrying capacity of the flanges: The moment is assumed to be resisted by flanges alone and the web resists shear only. Distance between centroid fo flanges, h s = d + T = = 2650 mm A f = B * T = 780 * 50 = mm 2 M c = P yf * A f * h s = * * 2650 * 10-6 = kn-m > kn-m Hence, the section in adequate for carrying moment and web is designed for shear. 6.0 Web design The stiffeners are spaced as shown in Fig.E5. Three different spacing values 2500, 3250 and 3600 mm are adopted for trail as shown in fig. E5. End panel (AB) design: d=2600 mm t = 16 mm Maximum shear stress in the panel is

25 Calcualtion of critical stress, Slenderness parameter, Hence, Critical shear strength (q cr = q e ) = 69.5 N/mm 2 Since, f v < q cr (55.3 < 69.5) Tension field action need not be utilised for design. Checks for the end panel AB: End panel AB should also be checked as a beam (Spanning between the flanges of the girder) capable of resisting a shear force R tf and a moment M tf due to anochor forces. (In the following calculations boundary stiffeners are omitted for simplicity)

26 Check for shear capacity of the end panel: Check for moment capacity of end panel AB: The end panel can carry the bending moment. Design of panel BC: Panel BC will be designed using tension field action d = 2600 mm ; t = 16 mm

27 Calculation of basic shear strength, q b: Panel BC is safe against shear buckling.

28 7.0 Design of stiffeners Load bearing stiffener at A: Design should be made for compression force due to bearing and moment. Design force due to bearing, F b = 2301 kn Force (F m ) due to moment M tf, is Total compression = F c = F b + F m = = 2783 kn Area of Stiffener in contact with the flange, A: Area (A) should be greater than Try stiffener of 2 flats of size 270 x 25 mm thick Allow 15 mm to cope for web/flange weld A = 255 * 25 * 2 = mm 2 > mm 2 Bearing check is ok. Check for outstand: Outstand from face of web should not be greater than

29 Hence, outstand criteria is satisfied. Check stiffener for buckling: The effective stiffener section is shown in Fig. E3 The buckling resistance due to web is neglected here for the sake of simplicity. Flange is restrained against rotation in the plane of stiffener, then I e = 0.71 = 0.7 * 2600 = 1820

30 from table(30 of chapter on axially compressed columns Buckling resistance of stiffener is Therefore, stiffener provided is safe against buckling. Check stiffener A as a bearing stiffener: Local capacity of the web: Assume, stiff bearing length b 1 =0 n 2 = 2.5 * 50 * 2 = 250 BS 5950 : Part -1, Clause P crip = (b 1 + n 2 ) tp yw = ( ) * 16 * (250/1.15) * 10-3 = 870 kn Bearing stiffener is designed for F A F A = F x = P crip = = 1931 kn Bearning capacity of stiffener alone P A = P ys * A = (50/1.15) * 13500/1000 = 2935 kn Since, F A < P A (1931 < 2935) The designed stiffener is OK in bearing. Stiffener A - Adopt 2 flats 270 mm X 25 mm thick

31 Design of intermediate stiffener at B: Stiffener at B is the most critical one and will be chosen for the design. Minimum Stiffness Conservatively ' t ' is taken as actual web thickness and minimum ' a ' is used. Try intermediate stiffener of 2 flats 120 mm X 14 mm Check for outstand: Outstand = 120 mm (120 < 192) Hence, outstand criteria is satisfied. Buckling check: Stiffener force, F q = V - V s Where V = Total shear force V s = V cr of the web a / d = 3600 / 2600 = 1.38

32 d / t = 2600 / 16 = Hence, Critical shear strength = 52.8 N/mm 2 (q cr = q e ) V cr = q cr dt = 52.8 * 2600 * 16 * 10-3 = 2196 kn Buckling resistance of intermediate stiffener at B:

33 From table3 of chapter on axially compressed columns, Buckling resistance = (213.2/1.15) * * 10-3 = 2521 kn Shear force at B, V B = 2301-{( )*(2500/9000)] = 2102 kn Stiffener force, Fq = [ ] < 0 and Fq < Buckling resistance Hence, intermediate stiffener is adequate Intermediate stiffener at B - Adopt 2 flats 120 mm X 14 mm Intermediate stiffener at E (Stiffener subjected to external load): Minimum stiffness calculation: Try intermediate stiffener 2 flats 100 mm X 12 mm thick

34 Hence, OK Buckling Check: Buckling resistance of load carrying stiffener at D: (Calculation is similar to stiffener at B) From table3 of chapter on axially comperssed columns, Buckling resistance, P x (180/1.15) * 2640 * 10-3 = 1978 kn. F x /P x = 870/1978 = 0.44 <1.0

35 Hence, Stiffener at D is OK against buckling Stiffener at D - Adopt flats 100 mm X 12 mm thick Web check between stiffeners: f ed = w 1 / t = 79.5 / 16 = 4.97 N/mm 2 When compression flange is restrained against rotation relative to the web Since, [4.97 <28.7], the web is OK for all panels.

36 8.0 FINAL GIRDER (All dimensions are in mm)

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