# Linear Static Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Using Beam Library (SI Units)

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1 APPENDIX A Linear Static Analysis of a Cantilever Beam Using Beam Library (SI Units) Objectives: Create a geometric representation of a cantilever beam. Use the geometry model to define an MSC.Nastran analysis model comprised of CBAR elements. Prepare an MSC.Nastran input file for a linear static analysis. Visualize analysis results. MSC.Nastran 120 Exercise Workbook A-1

2 A-2 MSC.Nastran 120 Exercise Workbook

3 APPENDIX A Cantilever Beam (Sol 101) Model Description: Below is a finite element representation of the beam structure shown on page A-1. The beam has a hollow, rectangular cross-section as shown below in View A-A. The wall thickness is constant. The span of the beam is 5 m and has a fixed boundary condition at X = 0 and a tip force of 1000 N is applied at X = 5 m in the negative Y-direction. The beam undergoes pure bending as a result of this applied load. Figure A.1 - Model Schematics Y Z X A Y e A D b C 0.01 a a Z e View A-A 0.2 E b 0.1 F Table A.1 - Model Properties Elastic Modulus: 7.1E+10 N/m 2 Poisson Ratio: 0.3 Density: 2.704E+03 kg/m 3 Area: 5.600E-03 m 2 I aa : 2.780E-05 m 4 I bb : 8.990E-06 m 4 J: 2.090E-05 m 4 MSC.Nastran 120 Exercise Workbook A-3

4 Suggested Exercise Steps: Open a new database. Create a curve and mesh it with bar elements (CBAR). Use the meshing feature so that elements and nodes (GRID) will be generated automatically by MSC.Patran. Define material (MAT1) and element (PBAR) properties. Verify XY-orientation vectors for bar elements. a fixed boundary constraint (SPC1) at one end of the beam and a transverse force to the free end of the beam (FORCE). Use the load and boundary condition sets to define a load case (SUBCASE). Prepare the model for a Linear Static analysis (SOL 101 and PARAMs). Generate and submit input file to the MSC.Nastran solver. Post-process results. Quit MSC.Patran. A-4 MSC.Nastran 120 Exercise Workbook

5 APPENDIX A Cantilever Beam (Sol 101) Exercise Procedure: 1. Create a new database called cantilever_beam.db. File/New... New Database Name: cantilever_beam In the New Model Preference form set the following: Tolerance: Analysis Code: Analysis Type: Default MSC/NASTRAN Structural NOTE: Whenever possible, toggle off the Auto Execute option by left clicking the check box. 2. Create a curve to define a geometrical representation of the beam. Geometry Action: Create Object: Curve Method: XYZ Vector Coordinates List: <5, 0, 0> Origin Coordinates List: [0, 0, 0] 3. Discretize the geometry model with BAR2 elements. The element length is determined by the Global Edge Length parameter. Finite Elements Action: Create Object: Mesh Type: Curve MSC.Nastran 120 Exercise Workbook A-5

6 Global Edge Length: 0.5 Element Topology: Bar2 Curve List: Curve 1 Show all entity labels by selecting the Show Labels icon on the Top Menu Bar The display should resemble Figure A.2. Figure A.2 Show Labels Y Z X 4. Define a material using the specified modulus of elasticity, Poisson ratio and density. Materials Action: Create Object: Isotropic Method: Manual Input Material Name: Input Properties... Constitutive Model: mat_1 Linear Elastic A-6 MSC.Nastran 120 Exercise Workbook

7 APPENDIX A Cantilever Beam (Sol 101) Elastic Modulus = 7.10E10 Poisson Ratio = 0.3 Density = 2.65E4 The Current Constitutive Models form should appear as below: Linear Elastic - [,,,,] - [Active] Cancel 5. Define the properties of your beam model using the specified section properties data. Here is where the material defined in the previous operation is referenced. Be sure to specify the XY-orientation vector correctly. Also, remember to specify the stress recovery coefficients correctly. Otherwise, it will be impossible to recover bending stresses. Properties Action: Create Object: 1D Method: Beam Property Set Name: Input Properties... Material Name: bar m:mat_1 Bar Orientation: < 0, 1, 0 > Now, activate the Beam Library by clicking the icon shown below. Create MSC.Nastran 120 Exercise Workbook A-7

8 Standard Shapes New Section Name: sect_1 Click on the icon shown below to access the Box Section menu. The menu should appear in the right half of the window. Enter the following dimensions into it. W = 0.1 H = 0.2 t1 = 0.01 t2 = 0.01 Calculate/Display Box Section Figure A.3 Select Members: Curve 1 Add A-8 MSC.Nastran 120 Exercise Workbook

9 APPENDIX A Cantilever Beam (Sol 101) 6. Graphically assess the orientation vectors that are required on the CBAR entries in the MSC.Nastran input file. These vectors define the local XY-plane for each bar element. Since the element property created was applied to the geometry model instead of the analysis model, graphical display of respective attributes will appear on the geometry model by default. To display attributes such as the orientation vectors on our analysis model, we must change an option in Display/Load/BC/Elem. Props... The node labels may be deactivated for clarity. Display/Load/BC/Elem. Props... Show on FEM Only Beam Display: Cancel 3D: Full-Span+Offsets Change the action in the Element Properties form to Show. Action: Show Existing Properties: Display Method: Select Group: Definition of XY Plane Vector Plot default_group Figure A Y Z X MSC.Nastran 120 Exercise Workbook A-9

10 7. Reset the Functional Assignment Display back to geometry. Display/Load/BC/Elem. Props... Show on FEM Only Cancel 7a. Define the cantilever boundary condition by creating displacement constraints and applying them to the geometry model. Loads/BCs Action: Create Object: Displacement Type: Nodal New Set Name: Input Data... fixed Translation < T1 T2 T3 > < 0, 0, 0 > Rotation <R1 R2 R3> < 0, 0, 0 > Select Application Region... Geometry Filter: Geometry Select Geometric Entities: Point 1 Add 8. The tip force which causes the beam to bend is defined as follows: Loads/BCs Action: Create Object: Force Type: Nodal A-10 MSC.Nastran 120 Exercise Workbook

12 9. For clarity, create a new group called fem_only. This group will contain only analysis model entities. Group/Create... New Group Name: Make Current Unpost All Other Groups Group Contents: fem_only Add All FEM Cancel 10. Again, for clarity, shrink the elements by 10%; this allows us to easily assess the element connectivities. Use the Display/Finite Elements... option. Display/Finite Elements... FEM Shrink: 0.10 Cancel 11. To display the load and boundary conditions on the analysis model, change the action in the Loads/BCs form to Plot Markers. 11a. Recall that because the loads and boundary conditions you defined were applied to the geometry model, the Functional Assignment Display must be set to FEM. Display/Load/BC/Elem. Props... Show on FEM Only Cancel 11b. Plot the load and boundary condition markers. Loads/BCs Action: Plot Markers A-12 MSC.Nastran 120 Exercise Workbook

13 APPENDIX A Cantilever Beam (Sol 101) Select all sets in the Assigned Load/BC Sets box by highlighting them. to the current group fem_only. Assigned Load/BCs Sets: Select Groups: Displ_fixed Force_y_load fem_only The load and boundary conditions should resemble Figure A.5. Figure A Y Z X Reset the display by selecting the broom icon on the Top Menu Bar. Reset Graphics 12. Generate an input file for analysis. Click on the Analysis radio button on the Top Menu Bar and complete the entries as shown below. Analysis Action: Analyze Object: Entire Model Method: Analysis Deck MSC.Nastran 120 Exercise Workbook A-13

14 Job Name: Translation Parameters... OUTPUT2 Format: cantilever_beam Binary MSC.Nastran Version:??? (set to current version 70.) Solution Type... Solution Type: Solution Parameters... Database Run Automatic Constraints Data Deck Echo: Linear Static Sorted Wt.- Mass Conversion = Subcase Select... Subcases For Solution Sequence: Subcases Selected: (for SI units) sub_1 Default (click to deselect) An input file named cantilever_beam.bdf will be generated. This process of translating the model into an input file is called the Forward Translation. The Forward Translation is complete when the Heartbeat turns green. A-14 MSC.Nastran 120 Exercise Workbook

15 APPENDIX A Cantilever Beam (Sol 101) Submitting the Input File for Analysis: 13. Submit the input file to MSC.Nastran for analysis. 13a. To submit the MSC.Patran.bdf file for analysis, find an available UNIX shell window. At the command prompt enter: nastran cantilever_beam.bdf scr=yes. Monitor the run using the UNIX ps command. 14. When the run is completed, edit the cantilever_beam.f06 file and search for the word FATAL. If no matches exist, search for the word WARNING. Determine whether existing WARNING messages indicate modeling errors. 15. While still editing cantilever_beam.f06, search for the word: D I S P L A C E (spaces are necessary) What is the y-component of the tip deflection vector? disp Y = What is the %error of this deflection versus the theoretical tip deflection? %error = Search for the word: S T R E S S (spaces are necessary) What is the maximum positive stress due to bending? max. stress = What is the %error of this stress versus the theoretical maximum positive bending stress? %error = MSC.Nastran 120 Exercise Workbook A-15

16 16. MSC.Nastran Users have finished this exercise. MSC.Patran Users should proceed to the next step. 17. Proceed with the Reverse Translation process, that is, attaching the cantilever_beam.xdb results file into MSC.Patran. To do this, return to the Analysis form and proceed as follows: Analysis Action: Attach XDB Object: Result Entities Method: Local Select Results File... Filter Available Files: cantilever_beam.xdb 18. When translation is completed and the Heartbeat turns green, bring up the Results form. Results Action: Create Object: Quick Plot Choose the desired result case in the Select Result Cases list and select the result(s) in the Select Fringe Result list and/or in the Select Deformation Result list. And hit to view the result(s) in the viewport. Reset Graphics Quit MSC.Patran after finishing this exercise. A-16 MSC.Nastran 120 Exercise Workbook

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