1 STAR-CCM+ User Guide 6663 Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend This tutorial demonstrates the flow of an incompressible gas through an s-bend of constant diameter (2 cm), for both laminar and turbulent flow. The first part of the tutorial will cover the laminar flow, with a Reynolds number (Re) of 500, and the second part will cover the turbulent flow, Re = 50,000. The same pipe geometry will be used in both cases. The geometry will be created using 3D-CAD, which is the parametric solid modeler available within STAR-CCM+. Following this, the necessary region will be created and a polyhedral mesh will be obtained using the generalized cylinder meshing model. This model extrudes polyhedral cells in the direction of the flow, which results in a mesh suited for pipe flows. Prerequisites To complete this tutorial, you will need to be familiar with the following techniques: Technique(s) Associated Tutorial The STAR-CCM+ workflow Introduction to STAR-CCM+
2 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6664 Creating geometry in 3D-CAD Using visualization tools, scenes and plots Cyclone Separator Introduction to STAR-CCM+ Creating the S-Bend Geometry Creating the Geometry Start up STAR-CCM+ in a manner that is appropriate to your working environment and create a New Simulation. Save the new simulation to disk with the file name sbend.sim The geometry will be created using 3D-CAD, which is the parametric solid modeler available within STAR-CCM+. To activate 3D-CAD, right-click on the Geometry > 3D-CAD Models node and select New. This creates a new model and activates 3D-CAD. Start by renaming the 3D-CAD model. Select the 3D-CAD Model 1 node at the top of the object tree. Rename the model to S-Bend. The geometry of an s-bend pipe will be created. A circle representing the inlet face will be created first. Create a new sketch on the YZ plane by right-clicking on the Features > YZ node and selecting Create Sketch. Click on the (Set sketch grid spacing) button and change the Grid Spacing to m Click on the (View normal to sketch plane) button to bring the sketch plane into view. Use the (Create circle) tool to draw a circle with a radius of 0.01 m
3 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6665 and whose center is on the origin, position [0, 0]. Click OK to exit the sketch. The profile of the pipe along its length will now be created. Create a new sketch on the XY plane. Click on the (View normal to sketch plane) button. Use the (Create line) tool to draw a line of length m starting at
4 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6666 the origin and extending in the positive x direction. Press <Esc> when done to exit the line tool. Use the (Center point circular arc) tool to draw an arc with a radius of 0.02 m. Three mouse clicks are required: a. The first click should be at position [0.035 m, 0.02 m]; this defines the center point. b. The second click should be at position [0.035 m, 0.0 m]; this defines the start point. c. The third click should be at position [0.055 m, 0.02 m]; this
5 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6667 defines the end point. A second arc needs to be created to complete the S shape. Use the (Center point circular arc) tool to create the second arc. The coordinates for the three clicks are listed below: a. Center: [0.075 m, 0.02 m]. b. Start point: [0.075 m, 0.04 m].
6 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6668 c. End point: [0.055 m, 0.02 m]. Now draw the final section of the pipe. Draw a line with start point [0.075 m, 0.04 m] that extends m
7 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6669 in the positive x direction.
8 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6670 The completed sketch is shown below. Click OK to exit the sketch. The solid body of the pipe will be created using the sweep feature. This requires two sketches: one to act as the profile being swept; the other to act as the path for the sweep. Select both sketches from the 3D-CAD object tree, holding down the <Shift> key to select multiple items.
9 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6671 Right-click on one of the highlighted nodes and select Create Sweep. The Sweep dialog will appear. Accept the default settings and click OK. A new body node, Body 1, is added below the Bodies node in the object tree. Select the Bodies > Body 1 node and rename it to Fluid.
10 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6672 Position the geometry as shown below. Specifying Inlet and Outlet Faces The final step in preparing the model geometry is to specify the inlet and outlet faces of the model by setting face names. Zoom in to the pipe end, right-click on the circular face and select
11 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6673 Rename, as shown below. Enter Inlet in the Rename dialog and click OK. The benefit of renaming the face in the 3D-CAD model is that it will retain its unique identity when the 3D-CAD model is converted to a geometry part in the next stage of the tutorial. The outlet will now be similarly renamed. Position the geometry so that the outlet face on the other end of the pipe is visible. Right-click on the circular face at the other end of the pipe, select Rename, and enter Outlet in the Rename dialog. Click OK to complete the action. The geometry is now complete and we can exit 3D-CAD. Note that the 3D-CAD View scene will be closed automatically upon exiting 3D-CAD. Click on the Close 3D-CAD button at the bottom of the object tree. Save the simulation. Creating a Geometry Part A new geometry part will be created using the 3D-CAD model.
12 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6674 Right-click on the Geometry > 3D-CAD Models > S-Bend node and select New Geometry Part. The Part Creation Options dialog appears. Click on OK to accept the default settings. Expand the Parts > Fluid > Surfaces node and note that the inlet and outlet faces specified in the previous section are defined as separate
13 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6675 surfaces. Assigning a Part to a New Region The geometry part will be assigned to a new region. As the inlet and outlet surfaces have been renamed in 3D-CAD, these will automatically be added to separate boundaries.
14 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6676 Right-click on the Parts > Fluid node and select Assign Parts to Region. In the Assign parts to region dialog set: Region Mode to One region per part Boundary Mode to One boundary per part surface
15 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6677 Click Create Regions and then Close. A new region has been created with boundaries defining the inlet, outlet and main fluid volume. Create a new geometry scene. Use the mouse to rotate the model in the
16 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6678 Graphics window. Expand the Regions > Fluid > Boundaries node and select each of the boundary nodes to check that they have been specified correctly. Setting Up the Case In this first part of the tutorial, the case will be run using a steady state laminar flow (Re = 500). By default all boundaries are set to be walls. We will modify the boundary type for the Inlet and Outlet.
17 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6679 Select the Regions > Fluid > Boundaries > Inlet node. In the Properties window set the Type to Velocity Inlet. The icon next to the Inlet boundary will change indicating that it is now a velocity inlet boundary. Select the Outlet boundary node and in the Properties window, set the Type property to Pressure Outlet.
18 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6680 The modified Boundaries node is shown below. Generating a Surface Mesh A polyhedral mesh will be generated using the generalized cylindrical mesher. This meshing model is particularly suited to pipe flow. A prism layer mesh will be defined along the wall boundary, to assure that near wall effects are adequately resolved. Right-click on the Continua node and select New > Mesh Continuum. Right-click on the Mesh1> Models node and choose Select Meshing Models... In the Meshing Model Selection dialog select: Surface Remesher from the Surface Mesh box Polyhedral Mesher from the Volume Mesh box Generalized Cylinder from the Optional Models box Prism Layer Mesher from the Optional Models box Click Close. The mesh settings will now be defined.
19 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6681 Select the Mesh 1 > Reference Values > Base Size node. Set the Value property to m. Continuing with the reference values section, select the Number of Prism Layers node and set its Number of Prism Layers property to 5. Select the Prism Layer Stretching node and set its Prism Layer Stretching property to 1.8. Select the Prism Layer Thickness > Relative Size node and set its Percentage of Base property to 45. The surface mesh will be generated and checked before using the generalized cylinder mesher. A good quality surface mesh is needed before the volume mesh can be generated. Click on the (Generate Surface Mesh) button.
20 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6682 Create a mesh scene and examine the surface mesh. Generating a Volume Mesh Before generating the volume mesh, we must define the boundaries that form the cylindrical geometry. This can be done automatically as follows: Right-click on the Mesh 1 > Models > Generalized Cylinder and select
21 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6683 Manage Cylinders. The Select Cylinders dialog appears. The default surface of the s-bend was found by the generalized cylinder mesher and is listed in the Available Cylinders list. Click on the > button to move the Fluid: Default cylinder into the Selected list and click Apply followed by Close. Navigate to the Regions > Fluid > Boundaries > Default > Mesh Conditions >
22 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6684 Generalized Cylinder Extrusion Type node. Notice that the Extrusion law property was set to Constant in the Properties window. Within the same Default boundary, select the Default > Mesh Values > Generalized Cylinder Parameters node. Notice that the Number of Layers property was set to 82 in the Properties window. This value was calculated by STAR-CCM+ based on the geometry model and sets the number of layers that will be generated along the pipe. The volume mesh can now be generated. Click on the (Generate Volume Mesh) button. Right-click on a blank space in Mesh Scene 1 and select Apply Representation > Volume Mesh.
23 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6685 Examine the final volume mesh. Save the simulation Selecting Physics Models A physics continuum was automatically created during the mesh generation process. We will now select the physics models for the first part of the tutorial. Right-click on the Continua > Physics 1 > Models node and choose Select models... The Physics Model Selection dialog will guide you through the model selection process. In the Physics Model Selection dialog, select the following models: Steady from the Time box. Gas from the Material box. Segregated Flow from the Flow box. Constant Density from the Equation of State box.
24 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6686 Laminar from the Viscous Regime box. Click Close. The expanded Models node is shown below. Modifying Material Properties The Dynamic Viscosity and the Density of air will be modified. Within the Physics 1 continuum, select the Models > Gas > Air > Material Properties > Density > Constant node. In the Properties window, set the Value property to 1 Kg/m^3 Select the Dynamic Viscosity > Constant node. In the Properties window, set the Value property to 1.716E-5 Pa-s Setting Initial Conditions and Boundary Settings To achieve a Reynolds number of 500 for this gas and pipe diameter, we require a mean velocity of m/s. To assist solution convergence, the initial condition for velocity will be defined. Select the Physics 1 > Initial Conditions > Velocity > Constant node. In the Properties window, set the Value property to [0.429, 0.0, 0.0] m/s Set the same velocity on the Inlet boundary.
25 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6687 Select the Regions > Fluid > Boundaries > Inlet > Physics Values > Velocity Magnitude > Constant node. In the Properties window, set the Value property to m/s Preparing a Scalar Scene A scalar scene will be created to show the velocity magnitude on a section plane through the center of the s-bend. This will be used to visualize the solution while the simulation is running. Create a new scalar scene. Right-click on the Derived Parts node and select New Part > Section > Plane... In the Create Section panel, do the following: Ensure that Fluid is selected in the Input Parts box Set the normal vector to [0, 0, 1] m Under Display, select the Existing Displayer radio button and choose Scalar 1 from the drop-down menu.
26 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6688 The completed dialog is shown below. Click Create followed by Close.
27 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6689 Scalar Scene 1 is shown below. Click on the scene/plot button above the object tree and select the Displayers > Scalar 1 > Scalar Field node. In the Properties window set the Function to Velocity > Magnitude. Select the Displayers > Scalar 1 node and set the Contour Style to Smooth Blended. Click on the Simulaton button to return to the STAR-CCM+ simulation object tree. A vector plot displaying the velocity magnitude will be created. Create a new vector plot. Using the drag-and-drop method, add the section plane from the
28 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6690 Derived Parts node to the scene. Setting Up Stopping Criteria The number of iterations for the solver will be limited to 500. This should be sufficient for the solution to converge Select the Stopping Criteria > Maximum Steps node. In the Properties window, set the Maximum Steps property to 500 Save the simulation Running the Simulation The simulation is now ready to be run. Click on the (Run) button. While the simulation is running you can click on the tabs at the top of the Graphics window to view each of the scalar scenes. The Residuals display will be created automatically and shows the progress of the solvers.
29 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6691 During the run, it is also possible to stop the process by clicking the (Stop) button on the toolbar. If you do halt the simulation, it can be continued again later by clicking the (Run) button. If left alone, the simulation will continue until 500 iterations are complete. While the simulation is running, select the Scalar Scene 1 tab at the top of the Graphics window to visualize the solution. When the simulation has finished running, click on the (Save) button. Visualizing the Results The scalar scene is shown below.
30 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6692 The vector scene is shown below. Changing to a Turbulent Flow The case will now be edited to have a turbulent flow (Reynolds number = 50,000). Save the simulation as sbendturbulent.sim Modifying the Physics Continuum We will edit the physics continuum, disable the laminar model and enable the turbulent and K-epsilon models. Right-click on the Continua > Physics 1 > Models node and choose Select models... In the Physics Model Selection dialog, do the following: Clear the checkbox next to the Laminar model in the Enabled Models box. Select Turbulent from the Viscous Regime box.
31 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6693 The Reynold-Averaged Navier-Stokes model is automatically selected. Select K-Epsilon Turbulence from the Reynolds-Averaged Turbulence box; The Realizable K-Epsilon Two-Layer and Two-Layer All y+ Wall Treatment models will be automatically selected. Click Close. The updated Models node is shown below. Modifying Initial Conditions and Boundary Settings To achieve a turbulent flow (Re = 50,000) in the existing pipe, the velocity of the air needs to be increased to 42.9 m/s. This value needs to be changed at the Initial Conditions node and at the Inlet boundary condition. The Turbulence Specification will also be changed so that the turbulence intensity and length scale can be defined. Select the Continuum > Physics 1 > Initial Conditions > Velocity > Constant node. In the Properties window, set the Value property to [42.9, 0.0, 0.0] m/s Select the Turbulence Specification node and set its Method property to Intensity + Length Scale. The Turbulent Length Scale node is added to the object tree.
32 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6694 Select the Turbulent Length Scale > Constant node and set its Value property to m. The turbulent length scale used in this case is approximately 7% of the hydraulic diameter, which for circular pipes is the same as the pipe diameter. Select the Turbulent Velocity Scale > Constant node and set its Value property to 4.29 m/s. The turbulent velocity scale used in this case is 10% of the free-stream velocity. Select the Turbulence Intensity > Constant node and set its Value property to The turbulence intensity in for this case is approximately 12% and was calculated using the following equation: where I is the turbulence intensity, U is the free-stream velocity. is the turbulent velocity scale, and The same values will be used at the Inlet boundary. We will start by setting the Turbulence Specification to use Intensity + Length Scale. Select the Regions > Fluid > Boundaries > Inlet > Physics Conditions > Turbulence Specification node. In the Properties window, set the Method property to Intensity + Length Scale. Select the Physics Values > Turbulent Length Scale > Constant node and set its Value property to m Select the Regions > Fluid > Boundaries > Inlet > Physics Values > Velocity Magnitude > Constant node. In the Properties window, set the Value property to 42.9 m/s Continue by selecting the Turbulence Intensity > Constant node in the same Physics Values node, and set its Value property to 0.12 Extending the Stopping Criteria The turbulent flow requires a longer time to converge. Increasing the number of iteration to 1000 should give the solver sufficient time to converge. Select the Stopping Criteria > Maximum Steps node. In the Properties window, set the Maximum Steps property to 1000 Save the simulation Clearing the Solution and Running the Simulation I = v 2 t U 2 The solution from the laminar flow needs to be cleared before running the solver. v t
33 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6695 Select Solution > Clear Solution... from the menu. The Clear Solution dialog will appear. Accept the default settings and click OK. The simulation is now ready to be run. Click on the (Run) button. While the simulation is running, select the Scalar Scene 1 tab at the top of the Graphics window to visualize the solution. When the simulation has finished running, click on the (Save) button. Visualizing the Results for the Turbulent Flow The scalar scene is shown below.
34 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6696 The vector scene is shown below. Suggestions for Further Practice To see how the laminar and turbulent models differ, you could try running the Re = 50,000 case with the laminar physics model and see what will happen. Open the sbend.sim file in a STAR-CCM+ session. Increase the flow velocity to 42.9 m/s in the Initial Conditions and at the Inlet boundary. Clear the solution and run the case. Notice how the residuals do not converge, but instead start to oscillate. This indicates that the model setup is incorrect. Summary This tutorial covered the following:
35 STAR-CCM+ User Guide Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend 6697 Creating a geometry model in 3D-CAD Using the generalized cylinder mesher Solving a laminar flow through the pipe Solving a turbulent flow through the pipe Plotting results of each case
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