The BulletBlock Mystery


 Maximillian Harrington
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 LivePhoto IVV Physics Activity 1 Name: Date: 1. Introduction The BulletBlock Mystery Suppose a vertically mounted 22 Gauge rifle fires a bullet upwards into a block of wood (shown in Fig. 1a). If the bullet enters the block in line with the its centerofmass (shown in Fig. 2a), it penetrates into the block which then rises up to a height of about 0.5 meters without spinning noticeably. 1 If the vertical shot is repeated with the bullet hitting a block off center (shown in Figs. 1b and 2b), would the block also travel straight up or off to one side? Would it be spinning? Would it rise to the same height? It turns out that the offcenter bullet (Fig. 1b), causes an identical block to rise straight up to essentially the same height, as it spins counterclockwise while rising and falling. This is puzzling. How can the bullet impart more kinetic energy to the block that s shot offcenter and yet it rises to the about the same height in both situations? This doesn t seem to make sense! Maybe the offcenter bullet doesn t penetrate as far into the block, so that more of its initial energy is available to start the block spinning. However, xrays of the two blocks shown in Fig. 3 show no difference in the penetration depth of the bullet in each block! This is a mystery! Can this be explained? What if the energy lost as the bullet penetrates into the block is much greater than the kinetic energy the bullet imparts to the block? Then a tiny change in penetration distance could result in significant changes in a block s linear and rotational kinetic energy. In this assignment, you can use manufacturer s data on a bullet s mass and muzzle velocity to calculate the kinetic energy a typical bullet has before entering the block and how much of it s energy is lost plowing into the wood. If you find that the energy the bullet loses changing shape and breaking chemical bonds in the wood is very large compared to the linear and rotational kinetic energy acquired by the block, the height difference between a spinning block and a nonspinning block might not be measureable! To complete this assignment, you ll need to consider conservation of linear momentum as the bullet penetrates the block. You ll also need to calculate linear and the rotational kinetic energy of the block just as it starts rising during on center and off center collisions between the bullet and block. Fig.1: A rifle aimed at a 2 x4 block edges: [a] on center and [b] off center. Fig. 2: Edges of 5 lengths of 2x4 hit (top) oncenter and (bottom) off center. 1 A video of this phenomenon can be seen on YouTube: or by completing the Bullet Block Interactive Video Vignette available at <WEB address here>. IVV Assignment: BulletBlock
2 I. Preliminary Questions Note: You will receive full credit for any thoughtful answers you provide for the preliminary questions whether or not they match the analyses you actually perform in the two sections on Activities and Reflection that follow. As part of the learning process it is important for you to think about how you can perform an analysis before starting. Do not change your answers to the questions that follow based on later analyses you perform. 1. Suppose a bullet is shot upward toward the center of mass of a block as shown in Figure 1(a) and penetrates into it. According to the laws of physics, what quantities of this bulletblock system should be the same immediately before the bullet hits the block and immediately after the bullet has penetrated into the block and the block starts rising? Circle your answer and explain why you picked it in each case. Linear Momentum of the Block s CoM T F Angular Momentum of the Block about it s CoM T F Kinetic Energy of the Block s CoM T F 2. Suppose a bullet is shot upward to the right of the center of mass of a block i.e. off center as shown in Figure 1(b) and penetrates into it. According to the laws of physics, what quantities of this bulletblock system should be conserved immediately before the bullet hits the block and immediately after the bullet has penetrated into the block so that it has just started to rise? Circle your answer and explain why you picked it in each case. NOTE: Linear Momentum T F Angular Momentum T F Kinetic Energy of the Block s CoM T F 112 Physics with Video Analysis
3 The xray images in Figure 3 show what happens to a bullet when it penetrates a wooden block on center and offcenter. Each piece of wood and the speed each bullet as it enters a block is probably slightly different. However observations show that blocks rise to more or less that same height in different trials whether they are hit oncenter or offcenter. Fig. 3: Xray images of the right half of two 5 lengths of 2 by 4 pine boards shows the penetration when a bullet enters a block: (a) oncenter (left image) or (b) off center (right image). The small hole halfway up each block is where support nails were mounted at the center of each block s face. What is conserved in the collision? (a) When the bullet travels upward and hits the block in line with its center of mass and becomes embedded, the bullet transfers both momentum and kinetic energy to the block and bullet. What do the laws of conservation of momentum and energy predict will happen (b) (c) QuickTime movie entitled <Galileo'sProjectile.mov>, describe how you might use Logger Pro software to verify Galileo s hypothesis that the ball s horizontal and vertical motions are independent. ANSWER: Use the Logger Pro software and analyze the movie by clicking on the ball throughout its motion. Focus the analysis of the motion on the ball when the ball is in the air, after it has left the table. Plot position vs. time graphs separately for the horizontal (xdata) and vertical (ydata) motions of the projectile. The x vs. t graph should be linear and look as if the ball were still rolling along the table, showing that the motion is uniform. The y vs. t data should be parabolic indicating that the vertical motion is showing accelerated motion and has the same shape as if the ball were just dropped off the edge of the table without a horizontal velocity. Each motion ought to show characteristic behavior that is independent of the other. To show that the curve of the motion of the projectile is a parabola, plot a y vs. x graph. Do a curve fit and determine if the result is described by a quadratic equation. Such a result would indicate that the actual path of the ball is parabolic because the y vs. x data points are what we see when the ball is in the air. Physics with Video Analysis 113
4 1. Preliminary Questions Note: You will receive full credit for any thoughtful answer to provide for this question whether or not it matches the analyses you actually perform in the two sections on Activities and Reflection that follow. As part of the learning process it is important for you to think about how you can perform an analysis before starting. Please do not change your answer to the question that follows. Suppose a bullet is shot upwards toward the center of mass of a block as shown in Figure 1(a) and penetrates into a wood block. Before YouTube Video at you know that when the bullet is shot vertically in to the block in line with boc penetrates into the block in line with the blocks center of mass and the blockbullet system moves straight upward. What is conserved in the collision? (1) linear mo (d) (e) its the block in line with its center of mass and becomes embedded, the bullet transfers both momentum and kinetic energy to the block and bullet.. What do the laws of conservation of momentum and energy predict will happen We know that when a bullet penetrates into the block some of its energy is transformed into the kinetic energy of the bullet and block that causes it to rise about half a meter. Do you think it is reasonable to assume that most of the original bullet s energy goes into giving the bloc penetrating into the block that the amount that is (f) (g) QuickTime movie entitled <Galileo'sProjectile.mov>, describe how you might use Logger Pro software to verify Galileo s hypothesis that the ball s horizontal and vertical motions are independent. ANSWER: Use the Logger Pro software and analyze the movie by clicking on the ball throughout its motion. Focus the analysis of the motion on the ball when the ball is in the air, after it has left the table. Plot position vs. time graphs separately for the horizontal (xdata) and vertical (ydata) motions of the projectile. The x vs. t graph should be linear and look as if the ball were still rolling along the table, showing that the motion is uniform. The y vs. t data should be parabolic indicating that the vertical motion is showing accelerated motion and has the same shape as if the ball were just dropped off the edge of the table without a horizontal velocity. Each motion ought to show characteristic behavior that is independent of the other. To show that the curve of the motion of the projectile is a parabola, plot a y vs. x graph. Do a curve fit and determine if the result is described by a quadratic equation. Such a result would indicate that the actual path of the ball is parabolic because the y vs. x data points are what we see when the ball is in the air Physics with Video Analysis
5 2. ActivityBased Questions (a) Collect vertical and horizontal position data: Open the Logger Pro experiment file <GalileoNow.cmbl> to open a video analysis file with the Galileo s Projectile movie inserted. The movie is already scaled in meters using the information in the title frame. Obtain x, y and t data by using the Add Point tool ( ) near the top right of the movie window. Click on the middle of the ball in each frame to record its horizontal and vertical positions in meters. Note: If you mess up, you can close and reopen the file or start over by choosing Clear All Data from the Data menu. Alternatively, return to the frame with the badly located point on it, click the Select Point tool ( ), and drag the bad point to its proper location with the mouse. Is the xcomponent of velocity constant during the entire movie? Is the ycomponent of velocity constant during the entire movie? Explain your answer by drawing conclusions from both: (1) the shape of the x vs. t graph and (2) from the apparent changes in the ball s vertical and horizontal motion from frame to frame in the movie. Hint: Play the movie in the Logger Pro experiment file. ANSWER: (1) The xcomponent of the ball s velocity appears to be constant throughout its motion because the x vs. t graph is a straight line indicating that the ball moves with uniform motion in the horizontal direction. Also, by examining the movie, I see that the horizontal distance the ball moves from frame to frame seems constant even after the ball is falling. (2) The ycomponent of the ball s velocity appears to be constant until the ball rolls of the table because the y vs. t graph is a straight line indicating that the ball moves with uniform motion in the horizontal direction. (2) Also, by examining the movie, I see that the horizontal distance the ball moves from frame to frame also seems constant even after the ball is falling. (b) A Logger Pro Analysis of Horizontal Motion During the Fall: Consider the movie frames after the ball has left the edge of the table between t 0 = s and t 1 = s (the final time). Highlight these frames by selecting lines 20 through 33 in the data table. Select the x vs. t graph by clicking on it and then call up the Curve Fit feature in the Analyze menu. Click the Time Offset box. Note that the Logger Pro Time Offset is the initial time of interest, t 0, used track the falling motion. Your time offset should be s. Choose the simplest equation (Proportional, Linear, Quadratic, Cubic, etc.) that you think might match your x vs. t data. Write the x(t) equation that led to the best Curve Fit. Then list the values of the coefficients and time offset with appropriate units to three significant figures. Also report your uncertainty of fit (RMSE). Note: Use Logger Pro symbols for the variables x, t and coefficients including time offset (A, B, C, D, m, b, or t 0 etc.). Equation with Logger Pro symbols: x(t) = Coefficients & time offset with symbols, values & units: m =1.49 m/s b = 1.06m t 0 = s Uncertainty of Fit (RMSE) Physics with Video Analysis 115
6 (c) Comment on how well the equation you chose matches the data. ANSWER: If the student answer to part (b) is the choice of a linear equation the student should report a close match., The higher order polynomials will give a good fits too, but these are not the simplest equation. Other choices will lead to bad matches of equation to data. (d) Is there a horizontal acceleration? Is the ball s velocity in the xdirection changing while it is falling? Why or why not? What is the value of a x while the ball is falling? ANSWER: a x = 0.00 m/s 2. Because the curvefit equation is linear, this indicates that the horizontal motion of the ball is uniform and therefore the ball is not experiencing a horizontal acceleration. Also the horizontal distance the ball moves from frame to frame is not changing. (e) Which of the coefficients in equation in 2(b) represents the horizontal velocity component, v 0x, at the moment the ball leaves the table. What is the value of v 0x? ANSWER: At time t 0 = s, v 0x = m = 1.49 m/s. This is how fast the ball is rolling in the positive xdirection when it leaves the table (as well as before and after). (f) Which of the coefficients in equation in 2(b) represents the ball s horizontal position, x 0, at the time t 0 = s when it leaves the table? ANSWER: At time t 0 = s, b = x 0 = 1.06 m (g) Vertical Motion: Is there any difference in the shape of the graph of y vs. t before and after the ball leaves the table? What does your observation tell you about the nature of vertical motion for a projectile before and after it is falling? ANSWER: The slope of the graph, representing the vertical velocity of the before it falls off the table zero, After the ball leave s the table its vertical slope starts becoming more and more negative. This indicates that the ball has no vertical acceleration at first and then undergoes is a downward or negative vertical acceleration after leaving the table. (h) A Logger Pro Analysis of Vertical Motion During the Fall: Once again you need to use only the lines of data after the ball has left the edge of the track (t 0 = s to t 1 = 1.067s). Select the y vs. t graph by clicking on it and then choose Curve Fit from the Analyze menu. Click the Time Offset box and make sure t 0 is s. Choose the simplest equation (Proportional, Linear, Quadratic, Cubic, etc.) that can fit the data. Hint: It should be related to a kinematic equation! Write the y(t) equation that led to the best Curve Fit. Then list the values of the coefficients (including uncertainties reported as RSME values and units) and the time offset (with units) using three significant figures. Note: Use Logger Pro symbols for variables (y, t) and coefficients (A, B, C, D, m, b, or t 0 ). Equation with Logger Pro symbols: y(t) = Coefficients w/ uncertainties. All with symbols, values & A(tt units: 0 ) 2 + B(tt 0 ) + C A =( 4.93 ± 0.01)m/s 2 B = ( ± 0.005)m/s C=(1.11± 0.00)m Time Offset: t 0 = s Note: The values for A, B, and C should be within + 5 % of those listed. And students should comment on the goodness of fit they obtained Physics with Video Analysis
7 (i) According to your best fit equation and its related kinematic equation, what is the vertical component of the acceleration of the ball, a y, when it is falling? Use three significant figures and explain how you determined a y from your equation. How close is this value to the expected value for a y? Hint: The ball is in freefall after it rolls off the table. ANSWER: A = 4.93 m/s 2 which is half the acceleration of the ball. Therefore a y = m/s 2. This is within + 0.6% of the expected result of 9.8 m/s 2 for a y. The minus sign indicates that the ball is accelerating in the downward direction. (j) Again, refer to your equation to find the initial vertical velocity component, v 0y, at time t 0 = s and describe what this variable tells you about the ball s motion it the first frame of the movie showing the ball when it is no longer in contact with the table. ANSWER: B = v 0y = m/s. This value represents the initial velocity of the ball in the vertical direction. It is not zero in this case as would be expected because the ball has left the table and has already moved in the downward direction when the analysis begins. The minus sign indicates that the ball s initial vertical velocity points toward the floor. (k) Finally, use your equation to find the initial vertical position, y 0, at time t 0 = s and describe what this variable tells you about its motion. Report your result to three significant figures. ANSWER: C= y 0 = 1.1 m. This value represents the initial vertical position of the ball above the y=0m reference line defining the coordinate axes. Since that line is along the floor close to where the ball hits, this distance is greater than the distance the ball actually fell, 1.08 m, by about 4 cm, which is close to the 3 cm radius of the pool ball. (l) What can you conclude about the nature of vertical acceleration for a freely falling projectile? ANSWER: This analysis shows that the vertical motion of the projectile is a constant acceleration very close to the expected value of 9.8 m/s 2 due to the gravitational force acting in the vertical direction. Also, the vertical motion is also independent of the horizontal motion. 3. Reflections on Your Findings (a) Summarize what you learned about the nature of projectile motion from this assignment. ANSWER: Hopefully students will comment on the three aspects of the analysis: (1) the horizontal motion of the projectile shows that the object moves with a constant velocity as supported by the x vs. t graph or the function; (2) the vertical motion shows that the projectile moves with a constant acceleration based on the graph and/or the function; and (3) the motions are independent of each other. Physics with Video Analysis 117
8 Final Note: Physics teachers have done video explanations of the bullet block phenomen and posted them, include Rhett Alain Chad Orzel Physics with Video Analysis
Chapter 4. Kinematics  Velocity and Acceleration. 4.1 Purpose. 4.2 Introduction
Chapter 4 Kinematics  Velocity and Acceleration 4.1 Purpose In this lab, the relationship between position, velocity and acceleration will be explored. In this experiment, friction will be neglected.
More informationExperiment 2: Conservation of Momentum
Experiment 2: Conservation of Momentum Learning Goals After you finish this lab, you will be able to: 1. Use Logger Pro to analyze video and calculate position, velocity, and acceleration. 2. Use the equations
More informationLab 8: Ballistic Pendulum
Lab 8: Ballistic Pendulum Equipment: Ballistic pendulum apparatus, 2 meter ruler, 30 cm ruler, blank paper, carbon paper, masking tape, scale. Caution In this experiment a steel ball is projected horizontally
More informationChapter 3 Falling Objects and Projectile Motion
Chapter 3 Falling Objects and Projectile Motion Gravity influences motion in a particular way. How does a dropped object behave?!does the object accelerate, or is the speed constant?!do two objects behave
More informationReview Assessment: Lec 02 Quiz
COURSES > PHYSICS GUEST SITE > CONTROL PANEL > 1ST SEM. QUIZZES > REVIEW ASSESSMENT: LEC 02 QUIZ Review Assessment: Lec 02 Quiz Name: Status : Score: Instructions: Lec 02 Quiz Completed 20 out of 100 points
More informationFree Fall: Observing and Analyzing the Free Fall Motion of a Bouncing PingPong Ball and Calculating the Free Fall Acceleration (Teacher s Guide)
Free Fall: Observing and Analyzing the Free Fall Motion of a Bouncing PingPong Ball and Calculating the Free Fall Acceleration (Teacher s Guide) 2012 WARD S Science v.11/12 OVERVIEW Students will measure
More informationPhysics 201. Fall 2009. Two Dimensional Motion Due Friday November 6, 2009
Physics 201 Fall 2009 Two Dimensional Motion Due Friday November 6, 2009 Points: 30 Name Partners This is a more detailed lab experiment than the exercises you have done in the class in the past. You will
More informationKinetic Energy (A) stays the same stays the same (B) increases increases (C) stays the same increases (D) increases stays the same.
1. A cart full of water travels horizontally on a frictionless track with initial velocity v. As shown in the diagram, in the back wall of the cart there is a small opening near the bottom of the wall
More informationB) 40.8 m C) 19.6 m D) None of the other choices is correct. Answer: B
Practice Test 1 1) Abby throws a ball straight up and times it. She sees that the ball goes by the top of a flagpole after 0.60 s and reaches the level of the top of the pole after a total elapsed time
More informationSpeed A B C. Time. Chapter 3: Falling Objects and Projectile Motion
Chapter 3: Falling Objects and Projectile Motion 1. Neglecting friction, if a Cadillac and Volkswagen start rolling down a hill together, the heavier Cadillac will get to the bottom A. before the Volkswagen.
More informationCOEFFICIENT OF KINETIC FRICTION
COEFFICIENT OF KINETIC FRICTION LAB MECH 5.COMP From Physics with Computers, Vernier Software & Technology, 2000. INTRODUCTION If you try to slide a heavy box resting on the floor, you may find it difficult
More informationPHY121 #8 Midterm I 3.06.2013
PHY11 #8 Midterm I 3.06.013 AP Physics Newton s Laws AP Exam Multiple Choice Questions #1 #4 1. When the frictionless system shown above is accelerated by an applied force of magnitude F, the tension
More informationcharge is detonated, causing the smaller glider with mass M, to move off to the right at 5 m/s. What is the
This test covers momentum, impulse, conservation of momentum, elastic collisions, inelastic collisions, perfectly inelastic collisions, 2D collisions, and centerofmass, with some problems requiring
More informationChapter 9. particle is increased.
Chapter 9 9. Figure 936 shows a three particle system. What are (a) the x coordinate and (b) the y coordinate of the center of mass of the three particle system. (c) What happens to the center of mass
More information5.1 Vector and Scalar Quantities. A vector quantity includes both magnitude and direction, but a scalar quantity includes only magnitude.
Projectile motion can be described by the horizontal ontal and vertical components of motion. In the previous chapter we studied simple straightline motion linear motion. Now we extend these ideas to
More informationFREE FALL. Introduction. Reference Young and Freedman, University Physics, 12 th Edition: Chapter 2, section 2.5
Physics 161 FREE FALL Introduction This experiment is designed to study the motion of an object that is accelerated by the force of gravity. It also serves as an introduction to the data analysis capabilities
More informationExperiment: Static and Kinetic Friction
PHY 201: General Physics I Lab page 1 of 6 OBJECTIVES Experiment: Static and Kinetic Friction Use a Force Sensor to measure the force of static friction. Determine the relationship between force of static
More informationMidterm Solutions. mvr = ω f (I wheel + I bullet ) = ω f 2 MR2 + mr 2 ) ω f = v R. 1 + M 2m
Midterm Solutions I) A bullet of mass m moving at horizontal velocity v strikes and sticks to the rim of a wheel a solid disc) of mass M, radius R, anchored at its center but free to rotate i) Which of
More informationExperiment P007: Acceleration due to Gravity (Free Fall Adapter)
Experiment P007: Acceleration due to Gravity (Free Fall Adapter) EQUIPMENT NEEDED Science Workshop Interface Clamp, right angle Base and support rod Free fall adapter Balls, 13 mm and 19 mm Meter stick
More informationEXPERIMENT 2: FREE FALL and PROJECTILE MOTION
TA name Lab section Date TA Initials (on completion) Name UW Student ID # Lab Partner(s) EXPERIMENT 2: FREE FALL and PROJECTILE MOTION ONE AND TWODIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS WITH GRAVITY 117 Textbook Reference:
More informationB) 286 m C) 325 m D) 367 m Answer: B
Practice Midterm 1 1) When a parachutist jumps from an airplane, he eventually reaches a constant speed, called the terminal velocity. This means that A) the acceleration is equal to g. B) the force of
More informationGraphical Presentation of Data
Graphical Presentation of Data Guidelines for Making Graphs Titles should tell the reader exactly what is graphed Remove stray lines, legends, points, and any other unintended additions by the computer
More informationLab 5: Conservation of Energy
Lab 5: Conservation of Energy Equipment SWS, 1meter stick, 2meter stick, heavy duty bench clamp, 90cm rod, 40cm rod, 2 double clamps, brass spring, 100g mass, 500g mass with 5cm cardboard square
More informationPhysics 125 Practice Exam #3 Chapters 67 Professor Siegel
Physics 125 Practice Exam #3 Chapters 67 Professor Siegel Name: Lab Day: 1. A concrete block is pulled 7.0 m across a frictionless surface by means of a rope. The tension in the rope is 40 N; and the
More informationSTATIC AND KINETIC FRICTION
STATIC AND KINETIC FRICTION LAB MECH 3.COMP From Physics with Computers, Vernier Software & Technology, 2000. INTRODUCTION If you try to slide a heavy box resting on the floor, you may find it difficult
More informationA Determination of g, the Acceleration Due to Gravity, from Newton's Laws of Motion
A Determination of g, the Acceleration Due to Gravity, from Newton's Laws of Motion Objective In the experiment you will determine the cart acceleration, a, and the friction force, f, experimentally for
More information2) When you look at the speedometer in a moving car, you can see the car's.
Practice Kinematics Questions Answers are at the end Choose the best answer to each question and write the appropriate letter in the space provided. 1) One possible unit of speed is. A) light years per
More informationProblem Set #8 Solutions
MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Physics Department 8.01L: Physics I November 7, 2015 Prof. Alan Guth Problem Set #8 Solutions Due by 11:00 am on Friday, November 6 in the bins at the intersection
More informationProjectile motion simulator. http://www.walterfendt.de/ph11e/projectile.htm
More Chapter 3 Projectile motion simulator http://www.walterfendt.de/ph11e/projectile.htm The equations of motion for constant acceleration from chapter 2 are valid separately for both motion in the x
More informationOne and Twodimensional Motion
PHYS101 LAB02 One and Twodimensional Motion 1. Objective The objectives of this experiment are: to measure the acceleration of gravity using onedimensional motion to demonstrate the independence of
More informationCatapult Engineering Pilot Workshop. LA Tech STEP 20072008
Catapult Engineering Pilot Workshop LA Tech STEP 20072008 Some Background Info Galileo Galilei (15641642) did experiments regarding Acceleration. He realized that the change in velocity of balls rolling
More informationPhysics 1050 Experiment 2. Acceleration Due to Gravity
Acceleration Due to Gravity Prelab Questions These questions need to be completed before entering the lab. Please show all workings. Prelab 1: For a falling ball, which bounces, draw the expected shape
More informationAP Physics Energy and Springs
AP Physics Energy and Springs Another major potential energy area that AP Physics is enamored of is the spring (the wire coil deals, not the ones that produce water for thirsty humanoids). Now you ve seen
More informationDetermining the Acceleration Due to Gravity
Chabot College Physics Lab Scott Hildreth Determining the Acceleration Due to Gravity Introduction In this experiment, you ll determine the acceleration due to earth s gravitational force with three different
More informationChapter 3.8 & 6 Solutions
Chapter 3.8 & 6 Solutions P3.37. Prepare: We are asked to find period, speed and acceleration. Period and frequency are inverses according to Equation 3.26. To find speed we need to know the distance traveled
More informationHW Set VI page 1 of 9 PHYSICS 1401 (1) homework solutions
HW Set VI page 1 of 9 1030 A 10 g bullet moving directly upward at 1000 m/s strikes and passes through the center of mass of a 5.0 kg block initially at rest (Fig. 1033 ). The bullet emerges from the
More informationAP Physics 1 and 2 Lab Investigations
AP Physics 1 and 2 Lab Investigations Student Guide to Data Analysis New York, NY. College Board, Advanced Placement, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks
More information2After completing this chapter you should be able to
After completing this chapter you should be able to solve problems involving motion in a straight line with constant acceleration model an object moving vertically under gravity understand distance time
More informationLab 7: Rotational Motion
Lab 7: Rotational Motion Equipment: DataStudio, rotary motion sensor mounted on 80 cm rod and heavy duty bench clamp (PASCO ME9472), string with loop at one end and small white bead at the other end (125
More informationExperiment 2 Free Fall and Projectile Motion
Name Partner(s): Experiment 2 Free Fall and Projectile Motion Objectives Preparation PreLab Learn how to solve projectile motion problems. Understand that the acceleration due to gravity is constant (9.8
More information1 of 7 9/5/2009 6:12 PM
1 of 7 9/5/2009 6:12 PM Chapter 2 Homework Due: 9:00am on Tuesday, September 8, 2009 Note: To understand how points are awarded, read your instructor's Grading Policy. [Return to Standard Assignment View]
More informationAcceleration of Gravity Lab Basic Version
Acceleration of Gravity Lab Basic Version In this lab you will explore the motion of falling objects. As an object begins to fall, it moves faster and faster (its velocity increases) due to the acceleration
More informationENERGYand WORK (PART I and II) 9MAC
ENERGYand WORK (PART I and II) 9MAC Purpose: To understand work, potential energy, & kinetic energy. To understand conservation of energy and how energy is converted from one form to the other. Apparatus:
More informationAP1 Oscillations. 1. Which of the following statements about a springblock oscillator in simple harmonic motion about its equilibrium point is false?
1. Which of the following statements about a springblock oscillator in simple harmonic motion about its equilibrium point is false? (A) The displacement is directly related to the acceleration. (B) The
More information3.1. Quadratic Equations and Models. Quadratic Equations Graphing Techniques Completing the Square The Vertex Formula Quadratic Models
3.1 Quadratic Equations and Models Quadratic Equations Graphing Techniques Completing the Square The Vertex Formula Quadratic Models 3.11 Polynomial Function A polynomial function of degree n, where n
More information2008 FXA DERIVING THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION 1. Candidates should be able to :
Candidates should be able to : Derive the equations of motion for constant acceleration in a straight line from a velocitytime graph. Select and use the equations of motion for constant acceleration in
More informationName Class Date. true
Exercises 131 The Falling Apple (page 233) 1 Describe the legend of Newton s discovery that gravity extends throughout the universe According to legend, Newton saw an apple fall from a tree and realized
More informationPhysics Section 3.2 Free Fall
Physics Section 3.2 Free Fall Aristotle Aristotle taught that the substances making up the Earth were different from the substance making up the heavens. He also taught that dynamics (the branch of physics
More informationFreely Falling Objects
Freely Falling Objects Physics 1425 Lecture 3 Michael Fowler, UVa. Today s Topics In the previous lecture, we analyzed onedimensional motion, defining displacement, velocity, and acceleration and finding
More informationPhysics: Principles and Applications, 6e Giancoli Chapter 2 Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension
Physics: Principles and Applications, 6e Giancoli Chapter 2 Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension Conceptual Questions 1) Suppose that an object travels from one point in space to another. Make
More informationPHY231 Section 2, Form A March 22, 2012. 1. Which one of the following statements concerning kinetic energy is true?
1. Which one of the following statements concerning kinetic energy is true? A) Kinetic energy can be measured in watts. B) Kinetic energy is always equal to the potential energy. C) Kinetic energy is always
More informationEDUH 1017  SPORTS MECHANICS
4277(a) Semester 2, 2011 Page 1 of 9 THE UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY EDUH 1017  SPORTS MECHANICS NOVEMBER 2011 Time allowed: TWO Hours Total marks: 90 MARKS INSTRUCTIONS All questions are to be answered. Use
More informationVectors; 2D Motion. Part I. Multiple Choice. 1. v
This test covers vectors using both polar coordinates and ij notation, radial and tangential acceleration, and twodimensional motion including projectiles. Part I. Multiple Choice 1. v h x In a lab experiment,
More informationProjectile Motion 1:Horizontally Launched Projectiles
A cannon shoots a clown directly upward with a speed of 20 m/s. What height will the clown reach? How much time will the clown spend in the air? Projectile Motion 1:Horizontally Launched Projectiles Two
More informationPhysics Kinematics Model
Physics Kinematics Model I. Overview Active Physics introduces the concept of average velocity and average acceleration. This unit supplements Active Physics by addressing the concept of instantaneous
More informationMidterm Exam 1 October 2, 2012
Midterm Exam 1 October 2, 2012 Name: Instructions 1. This examination is closed book and closed notes. All your belongings except a pen or pencil and a calculator should be put away and your bookbag should
More informationACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY
EXPERIMENT 1 PHYSICS 107 ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY Skills you will learn or practice: Calculate velocity and acceleration from experimental measurements of x vs t (spark positions) Find average velocities
More informationRotational Kinetic Energy
Objective: The kinetic energy of a rotating disk and falling mass are found; the change in their kinetic energy is compared with the change in potential energy of the falling mass. The conservation of
More information10.1. Solving Quadratic Equations. Investigation: Rocket Science CONDENSED
CONDENSED L E S S O N 10.1 Solving Quadratic Equations In this lesson you will look at quadratic functions that model projectile motion use tables and graphs to approimate solutions to quadratic equations
More informationPHY231 Section 1, Form B March 22, 2012
1. A car enters a horizontal, curved roadbed of radius 50 m. The coefficient of static friction between the tires and the roadbed is 0.20. What is the maximum speed with which the car can safely negotiate
More informationLAB 6: GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES
55 Name Date Partners LAB 6: GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES And thus Nature will be very conformable to herself and very simple, performing all the great Motions of the heavenly Bodies by the attraction
More informationACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY
ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY Objective: To measure the acceleration of a freely falling body due to gravitational attraction. Apparatus: Computer with Logger Pro, green Vernier interface box, picket fence
More informationPractice Exam Three Solutions
MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Physics Physics 8.01T Fall Term 2004 Practice Exam Three Solutions Problem 1a) (5 points) Collisions and Center of Mass Reference Frame In the lab frame,
More informationChapter 6 Work and Energy
Chapter 6 WORK AND ENERGY PREVIEW Work is the scalar product of the force acting on an object and the displacement through which it acts. When work is done on or by a system, the energy of that system
More informationEXPERIMENT 3 Analysis of a freely falling body Dependence of speed and position on time Objectives
EXPERIMENT 3 Analysis of a freely falling body Dependence of speed and position on time Objectives to verify how the distance of a freelyfalling body varies with time to investigate whether the velocity
More informationBE VERY CAREFUL WHENEVER THE LAUNCHER IS IN THE COMPRESSED POSITION. ALWAYS NOTIFY THE CLASS BEFORE FIRING THE LAUNCHER.
OBJECTIVES: LAB #5: THE BALLISTIC PENDULUM To study the dynamics of a ballistic pendulum using the laws of conservation of momentum and energy. EQUIPMENT: Equipment Needed Qty Equipment Needed Qty Ballistic
More informationPolynomial Degree and Finite Differences
CONDENSED LESSON 7.1 Polynomial Degree and Finite Differences In this lesson you will learn the terminology associated with polynomials use the finite differences method to determine the degree of a polynomial
More informationPhysics 2A, Sec B00: Mechanics  Winter 2011 Instructor: B. Grinstein Final Exam
Physics 2A, Sec B00: Mechanics  Winter 2011 Instructor: B. Grinstein Final Exam INSTRUCTIONS: Use a pencil #2 to fill your scantron. Write your code number and bubble it in under "EXAM NUMBER;" an entry
More informationUnit 4 Practice Test: Rotational Motion
Unit 4 Practice Test: Rotational Motion Multiple Guess Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. How would an angle in radians be converted to an angle
More informationOrbital Mechanics. Angular Momentum
Orbital Mechanics The objects that orbit earth have only a few forces acting on them, the largest being the gravitational pull from the earth. The trajectories that satellites or rockets follow are largely
More informationPhysics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 3 MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE
1 P a g e Motion Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 3 MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE If an object changes its position with respect to its surroundings with time, then it is called in motion. Rest If an object
More informationChapter 5 Using Newton s Laws: Friction, Circular Motion, Drag Forces. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 5 Using Newton s Laws: Friction, Circular Motion, Drag Forces Units of Chapter 5 Applications of Newton s Laws Involving Friction Uniform Circular Motion Kinematics Dynamics of Uniform Circular
More informationGRAPH MATCHING EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS
GRAPH MATCHING LAB MECH 6.COMP. From Physics with Computers, Vernier Software & Technology, 2000. Mathematics Teacher, September, 1994. INTRODUCTION One of the most effective methods of describing motion
More informationLAB 6  GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES
L061 Name Date Partners LAB 6  GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES OBJECTIVES And thus Nature will be very conformable to herself and very simple, performing all the great Motions of the heavenly Bodies
More informationHalliday, Resnick & Walker Chapter 13. Gravitation. Physics 1A PHYS1121 Professor Michael Burton
Halliday, Resnick & Walker Chapter 13 Gravitation Physics 1A PHYS1121 Professor Michael Burton II_A2: Planetary Orbits in the Solar System + Galaxy Interactions (You Tube) 21 seconds 131 Newton's Law
More informationWork, Energy & Momentum Homework Packet Worksheet 1: This is a lot of work!
Work, Energy & Momentum Homework Packet Worksheet 1: This is a lot of work! 1. A student holds her 1.5kg psychology textbook out of a second floor classroom window until her arm is tired; then she releases
More informationMotion Graphs. It is said that a picture is worth a thousand words. The same can be said for a graph.
Motion Graphs It is said that a picture is worth a thousand words. The same can be said for a graph. Once you learn to read the graphs of the motion of objects, you can tell at a glance if the object in
More informationVisual Physics 218 Projectile Motion [Lab 2]
In this experiment, you will be using your video equipment to evaluate twodimensional motion. It will be necessary to plot the data in an xycoordinate system and separate the data into x and y components.
More informationActivity 5a Potential and Kinetic Energy PHYS 010. To investigate the relationship between potential energy and kinetic energy.
Name: Date: Partners: Purpose: To investigate the relationship between potential energy and kinetic energy. Materials: 1. Superballs, or hard bouncy rubber balls. Metre stick and tape 3. calculator 4.
More informationTHE CONSERVATION OF ENERGY  PENDULUM 
THE CONSERVATION OF ENERGY  PENDULUM  Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to measure the potential energy and the kinetic energy of a mechanical system and to quantitatively compare the two
More informationFormation of Craters in Sand
ISB Journal of Physics, Vol. 1, Iss. 1 http://www.isjos.org Formation of Craters in Sand June 2007 Vanissra Boonyaleepun and SeWon Jang IB Physics, International School Bangkok Abstract: The diameter
More information9. The kinetic energy of the moving object is (1) 5 J (3) 15 J (2) 10 J (4) 50 J
1. If the kinetic energy of an object is 16 joules when its speed is 4.0 meters per second, then the mass of the objects is (1) 0.5 kg (3) 8.0 kg (2) 2.0 kg (4) 19.6 kg Base your answers to questions 9
More informationHooke s Law and Simple Harmonic Motion
Hooke s Law and Simple Harmonic Motion OBJECTIVE to measure the spring constant of the springs using Hooke s Law to explore the static properties of springy objects and springs, connected in series and
More informationF N A) 330 N 0.31 B) 310 N 0.33 C) 250 N 0.27 D) 290 N 0.30 E) 370 N 0.26
Physics 23 Exam 2 Spring 2010 Dr. Alward Page 1 1. A 250N force is directed horizontally as shown to push a 29kg box up an inclined plane at a constant speed. Determine the magnitude of the normal force,
More informationGravitational Potential Energy
Gravitational Potential Energy Consider a ball falling from a height of y 0 =h to the floor at height y=0. A net force of gravity has been acting on the ball as it drops. So the total work done on the
More information1.3.1 Position, Distance and Displacement
In the previous section, you have come across many examples of motion. You have learnt that to describe the motion of an object we must know its position at different points of time. The position of an
More informationFRICTION, WORK, AND THE INCLINED PLANE
FRICTION, WORK, AND THE INCLINED PLANE Objective: To measure the coefficient of static and inetic friction between a bloc and an inclined plane and to examine the relationship between the plane s angle
More informationC B A T 3 T 2 T 1. 1. What is the magnitude of the force T 1? A) 37.5 N B) 75.0 N C) 113 N D) 157 N E) 192 N
Three boxes are connected by massless strings and are resting on a frictionless table. Each box has a mass of 15 kg, and the tension T 1 in the right string is accelerating the boxes to the right at a
More informationStatic and Kinetic Friction
Objectives Static and Kinetic Friction In this lab you will Equipment investigate how friction varies with the applied force. measure the coefficients of static and kinetic friction. learn how to use the
More information1 One Dimensional Horizontal Motion Position vs. time Velocity vs. time
PHY132 Experiment 1 One Dimensional Horizontal Motion Position vs. time Velocity vs. time One of the most effective methods of describing motion is to plot graphs of distance, velocity, and acceleration
More informationChapter 4. Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion. continued
Chapter 4 Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion continued Clicker Question 4.3 A mass at rest on a ramp. How does the friction between the mass and the table know how much force will EXACTLY balance the gravity
More informationGraph Matching. walk back and forth in front of Motion Detector
Experiment 1 One of the most effective methods of describing motion is to plot graphs of distance, velocity, and acceleration vs. time. From such a graphical representation, it is possible to determine
More informationTorque and Rotary Motion
Torque and Rotary Motion Name Partner Introduction Motion in a circle is a straightforward extension of linear motion. According to the textbook, all you have to do is replace displacement, velocity,
More informationAt the skate park on the ramp
At the skate park on the ramp 1 On the ramp When a cart rolls down a ramp, it begins at rest, but starts moving downward upon release covers more distance each second When a cart rolls up a ramp, it rises
More informationState Newton's second law of motion for a particle, defining carefully each term used.
5 Question 1. [Marks 28] An unmarked police car P is, travelling at the legal speed limit, v P, on a straight section of highway. At time t = 0, the police car is overtaken by a car C, which is speeding
More informationVideo in Logger Pro. There are many ways to create and use video clips and still images in Logger Pro.
Video in Logger Pro There are many ways to create and use video clips and still images in Logger Pro. Insert an existing video clip into a Logger Pro experiment. Supported file formats include.avi and.mov.
More informationChapter 7: Momentum and Impulse
Chapter 7: Momentum and Impulse 1. When a baseball bat hits the ball, the impulse delivered to the ball is increased by A. follow through on the swing. B. rapidly stopping the bat after impact. C. letting
More information21 Position, Displacement, and Distance
21 Position, Displacement, and Distance In describing an object s motion, we should first talk about position where is the object? A position is a vector because it has both a magnitude and a direction:
More informationNEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION
NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION Background: Aristotle believed that the natural state of motion for objects on the earth was one of rest. In other words, objects needed a force to be kept in motion. Galileo studied
More information