# Determining the Acceleration Due to Gravity

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Chabot College Physics Lab Scott Hildreth Determining the Acceleration Due to Gravity Introduction In this experiment, you ll determine the acceleration due to earth s gravitational force with three different free-fall methods. We say an object is in free fall when the only force acting on it is the earth s gravitational force. No other forces can be acting; in particular, air resistance must be either absent or so small as to be ignored. When the object in free fall is near the surface of the earth, the gravitational force on it is nearly constant. As a result, an object in free fall accelerates downward at a constant rate. This acceleration is usually represented with the symbol g. Your goals for the exercise are: - Explore the use of graphs and equations for distance vs. time, and velocity vs. time, to determine g, the earth s gravitational acceleration. - Master the difference between precision - measuring carefully and accounting for uncertainty in your measurement - and accuracy - measuring correctly and coming close to the right answer. - Work together in a group setting, dividing up the work fairly and double-checking one another. You will need at least two people to take data, two people to draw graphs using Excel, someone to keep the team on task, and someone to ensure that the write up is completed and turned in on-time. Write up Expectations Turn in one full write up for the team, with all of the expected elements of a physics lab report, on or before two weeks after the lab. Refer to our online lab report guidelines for the elements of a lab report at and in particular, please include: a) the abstract that summarizes your results and error, and the names and lab duties of each of the participants in the introduction. You don t need to include much about the background material or procedure, but do if you end up doing anything different than this handout directs. b) organized and labeled data tables for all experiments (don t recopy if they are clearly done in the experiment itself) c) graphs and calculations of the slope of the velocity vs. time curve that determine the value of g d) analysis of sources of errors and uncertainties in your work. THIS IS THE MOST IMPORTANT SECTION FOR THIS LAB. You are encouraged to work together using our on-line forum, You may do these experiments in any order, and the value of g (actual) to use for comparison and determination of error is 9.81 meters/sec 2

4 Experiment 1 Sample Data Table Drop Distance: (Height ball falls from edge of table to sensor pad, +/- uncertainty. What units? +/-? Relative % uncertainty in drop distance: % Estimated Uncertainty in Individual Drop Time: t seconds T1: +/- % T6: +/-% Actual Drop Times for each trial, +/- relative % uncertainty in each trial T2: +/- T7: +/- T3: +/- T8: +/- T4: +/- T9: +/- T5: +/- T10: +/- Average Drop Time: % Uncertainty in Average Drop Time: [Average relative uncertainty/ (n-1)] Average g % Uncertainty in Average g : Final result: g (experimental) (include units!) +/- % Experimental % Error

5 Chabot College Physics Hildreth Determining the Acceleration of Gravity Experiment 2: Vernier Data Collection Experiment 2 uses the automated data collection system created by Vernier Corporation, using LoggerPro software to analyze the data. I ll walk you through how the system works, and how you can quickly generate velocity vs. time graphs for a falling object, analyze those graphs for the slope, and establish an experimental value for the acceleration of gravity. In this experiment, you will have the advantage of using a very precise timer connected to the computer and a Photogate. The Photogate has a beam of infrared light that travels from one side to the other. It can detect whenever this beam is blocked. You will drop a piece of clear plastic with evenly spaced black bars on it, called a Picket Fence. As the Picket Fence passes through the Photogate, the computer will measure the time from the leading edge of one bar blocking the beam until the leading edge of the next bar blocks the beam. This timing continues as all eight bars pass through the Photogate. From these measured times, the program will calculate the velocities and accelerations for this motion and graphs will be plotted. Picket fence 1. Observe the reading in the status bar of Logger Pro at the bottom of the screen. Block the Photogate with your hand; note that the Photogate is shown as blocked. Remove your hand and the display should change to unblocked. 2. Click to prepare the Photogate. Hold the top of the Picket Fence and drop it through the Photogate, releasing it from your grasp completely before it enters the Photogate. Be sure you are dropping the fence directly into the bucket below, cushioned with a towel to ensure the fence is not damaged. Be careful when releasing the Picket Fence. It must not touch the sides of the Photogate as it falls and it needs to remain vertical. Click to end data collection.

7 Chabot College Physics Hildreth Determining the Acceleration of Gravity Experiment 3: Timed Free-Fall You ll use a spark timer to make marks on a tape as an object falls. The timer will produce a spark every 1/60 th of a second (+/ seconds). Method 3A uses the displacements between each mark as the object falls, and the known time interval to estimate an instantaneous velocity for that interval, that will continue to increase as the object is accelerated downwards by the force of gravity. If you graph this instantaneous velocity at each point vs. time, you can estimate the slope of the line and therefore, the acceleration of gravity. A suggested data table for this experiment is attached, but you are free and encouraged to create your own. Method 3A Procedure: Finding acceleration using INSTANTANEOUS velocities 1. Each team will create their own free-fall data strip using the spark timer. The sparks will mark the tape at constant intervals of 1/60 th of a second. Pick one spot at the top of the tape, label that spot top, and then mark the tape, numbering the spots from the first spot beneath the top to the bottom (from t 1 t i ). 2. Starting near the top-most mark on your tape, measure and record the total displacement from the top mark to each successive mark, and also the interval displacements between each spot ( y i = y i y i-1 ) in a table in Excel (or on paper). For example, measure the displacement between the top and point 1 (y 1 - y 0 ), then from top to point 2 (y 2 - y 0 ), AND measure the displacement from point 1 to point 2, y 2 = (y 2 - y 1 ) etc. Estimate the uncertainty in your displacement interval measurements, and calculate the % uncertainty of each relative to the interval measurement. 3. Graph the instantaneous interval displacement versus elapsed time. Does the slope of this graph (which will be velocity!) change? If it does, the object is accelerating! 4. Calculate the instantaneous average velocity of the falling object at each point, and record in your table: v i = y i / t where t is 1/60 th of a second Graph these instantaneous velocities of the falling object vs. time, and determine the slope of the curve. The value of the slope will approximate the value of g. You can use Excel s statistics functions to determine the value of the slope.

8 5. The uncertainty in your value of g will be influenced both by the uncertainty in time, the average uncertainty in measurements of distances travelled, and the number n of data points you recorded. The uncertainty in time is used twice (once to get velocities, and again to get acceleration); the uncertainty in distance is used once. Since you took a number of distances (n) to get the instantaneous velocities, your average uncertainty in distance is improved by the number of trials, meaning you can be more precise, and will be divided by the square root of (n-1). Here, the percentage uncertainty in your estimate of the value of g from the slope, g 3A will depend heavily upon the uncertainty in your time measurements (because of t 2 ) AND the uncertainty in your distance measurements for each interval. % g A = [2 x % Uncertainty in time measurement] + [(Average % uncertainty in distance)/ (n-1)] Example: IF your relative uncertainty in time was 1%, and the average relative uncertainty in distance was 5%, and you had 26 data points, then the uncertainty in your slope (and derived value of g would be % g A = [2 x 1%] + [5%/(/ (26-1)] = 2% + 5%/5 = 2% + 1% = 3% overall Record both your value of the slope and its uncertainty as g 3A +/- g 3A %. Experiment 3 Question (the MOST important one for the entire lab!) g. Compare your results from this spark time experiment with the photogate, and the freely-falling ball. Which produced more precise estimates of g? Why? Which was most accurate? Why? What effect do you think human uncertainty has in this experiment?

9 EXTRA CREDIT! IF you have time, and desire, you can also analyze your data for part 3 using a different method to determine acceleration. Method 3B uses the total distance fallen and the total elapsed time to estimate an average velocity in each time interval, which can be used to create a graph of velocity vs. time, and from that, acceleration. Method 3B Procedure: Finding acceleration using AVERAGE velocities 6. Measure the total displacement from the first spot to each spot, y i. In other words, go from the top spot to the first spot, and measure the distance (y 1 ). Then go from the top spot to the second spot, and measure the distance (y 2 ). Then from the top to the third spot down, and measure the distance, etc. Record these displacements in a second table within Excel or on paper. 7. Calculate and record the overall average velocity of the falling block at each point, which depends upon the total distance traveled and the total time elapsed to fall that distance: Since v (avg) = ½ (v i + v 0 ) and v avg = (total displacement)/time = (y i )/ t i then v i y i / t i ) - v 0 If you assume you start at rest, v 0 is zero; here, the initial point is made when the bob is already falling, so v 0 won t be zero, but you can still get the slope from a graph! 8. Determine the value of g by graphing these average velocities of the falling block vs. elapsed time, and measuring the slope. The value of the slope will approximate the value of g. You can use Excel s statistics functions to determine the value of the slope. Again, as n increases, your overall uncertainty decreases by the square root of (n-1). But here you have less uncertainty in time because the intervals are getting longer and longer (as the distances get bigger and bigger!) % ga = [(2 x % Average Uncertainty in Time) + (Average % uncertainty in distance)]/ (n-1) Record both the value for gravity and your uncertainty. g A +/- g A %. 8. Calculate the actual percentage error in your results to determine the accuracy of your experiments: [ g (actual) g (experimental)] x 100% / [ g actual] Experiment 3 Extra Credit Question: g. What is the difference in results for g from Method A and Method B? Which is more precise? Which is more accurate? Why?

10 Chabot College Physics Scott Hildreth Free-Fall Tables for Experiment 3 Lab Data Spot # Total Distance from top spot on Tape y i Measurement Data Instantaneous Displacement Between Adjacent Points y i = y i y i-1 Elapsed Time t i Instantaneous Velocity v i = y i / (1/60 th sec) Calculated Extra Credit ONLY Avg. Velocity v i (avg) = y i / t i cm cm sec cm/sec cm/sec +/- cm +/- cm +/- sec Displacement/ Time Interval Distance/ Elapsed Time

### PHYSICS 183 Acceleration of Gravity Lab (Picket Fence)

PHYSICS 183 Acceleration of Gravity Lab (Picket Fence) Object: To measure the acceleration of a freely falling body due to gravitational attraction. Apparatus: IBM compatible computer running Windows 98SE,

### Picket Fence Free Fall

Picket Fence Free Fall Experiment 5 We say an object is in free fall when the only force acting on it is the earth s gravitational force. No other forces can be acting; in particular, air resistance must

### Chapter 4. Kinematics - Velocity and Acceleration. 4.1 Purpose. 4.2 Introduction

Chapter 4 Kinematics - Velocity and Acceleration 4.1 Purpose In this lab, the relationship between position, velocity and acceleration will be explored. In this experiment, friction will be neglected.

### ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY

ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY Objective: To measure the acceleration of a freely falling body due to gravitational attraction. Apparatus: Computer with Logger Pro, green Vernier interface box, picket fence

### Educational Objectives Measure the acceleration due to gravity. Use different levels of technology for increasing accuracy.

Teacher s Notes Main Topic Subtopic Learning Level Technology Level Activity Type Motion Acceleration due to Gravity High Low-High Lab Description: Measure the acceleration due to gravity in up to three

### THE CONSERVATION OF ENERGY - PENDULUM -

THE CONSERVATION OF ENERGY - PENDULUM - Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to measure the potential energy and the kinetic energy of a mechanical system and to quantitatively compare the two

### Physics 1050 Experiment 2. Acceleration Due to Gravity

Acceleration Due to Gravity Prelab Questions These questions need to be completed before entering the lab. Please show all workings. Prelab 1: For a falling ball, which bounces, draw the expected shape

### Projectile Motion. Pre-lab Assignment. Pre-lab Questions and Exercises. Introduction. Projectile Motion

Projectile Motion Pre-lab Assignment Derive algebraic expressions for the range and total time-of-flight of a projectile launched with initial speed v o from a height h at an angle above horizontal. Hint:

### ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY

EXPERIMENT 1 PHYSICS 107 ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY Skills you will learn or practice: Calculate velocity and acceleration from experimental measurements of x vs t (spark positions) Find average velocities

### Experiment P007: Acceleration due to Gravity (Free Fall Adapter)

Experiment P007: Acceleration due to Gravity (Free Fall Adapter) EQUIPMENT NEEDED Science Workshop Interface Clamp, right angle Base and support rod Free fall adapter Balls, 13 mm and 19 mm Meter stick

### EXPERIMENT 3 Analysis of a freely falling body Dependence of speed and position on time Objectives

EXPERIMENT 3 Analysis of a freely falling body Dependence of speed and position on time Objectives to verify how the distance of a freely-falling body varies with time to investigate whether the velocity

### Introduction to the Vernier Photogate Using LabQuest App

Introduction to the Vernier Photogate Using LabQuest App The purpose of this document is to provide a tutorial on the use of Vernier Photogates with LabQuest App data-collection software. This combination

### FREE FALL. Introduction. Reference Young and Freedman, University Physics, 12 th Edition: Chapter 2, section 2.5

Physics 161 FREE FALL Introduction This experiment is designed to study the motion of an object that is accelerated by the force of gravity. It also serves as an introduction to the data analysis capabilities

### Name Date: Course number: MAKE SURE TA & TI STAMPS EVERY PAGE BEFORE YOU START. Laboratory Section: Partners Names: EXPERIMENT 2

Laboratory Section: Partners Names: Last Revised on January 8, 05 Grade: EXPERIENT Acceleration of Gravity 0. Pre-Laboratory Work [pts]. You have just completed the first part of this lab and have five

### Physics Lab 2 PROJECTILE MOTION

PROJECTILE MOTION Introduction: By rolling a steel marble down a ramp and measuring its horizontal range, you can calculate the marble's launch velocity. To confirm this velocity with an independent measurement,

### Acceleration of Gravity Lab Basic Version

Acceleration of Gravity Lab Basic Version In this lab you will explore the motion of falling objects. As an object begins to fall, it moves faster and faster (its velocity increases) due to the acceleration

### Lab 2: Acceleration Due to Gravity

Staple your papers together in the upper left-hand corner. Include the lab number and title. Lab : Acceleration Due to Gravity Don t forget your name, lab partners, date, class, and section number. John

### A Determination of g, the Acceleration Due to Gravity, from Newton's Laws of Motion

A Determination of g, the Acceleration Due to Gravity, from Newton's Laws of Motion Objective In the experiment you will determine the cart acceleration, a, and the friction force, f, experimentally for

### Acceleration Due to Gravity

Acceleration Due to Gravity Introduction When forces on an object become unbalanced, an acceleration will ensue. This dictum has been in our vernacular for several centuries now. It accurately describes

### Motion in One-Dimension

This test covers one-dimensional kinematics, including speed, velocity, acceleration, motion graphs, with some problems requiring a knowledge of basic calculus. Part I. Multiple Choice 1. A rock is released

### Lab 3 - Projectile Motion Scientific Data Collection and Analysis (with some experimental design)

Partner 1: Lab 3 - Scientific Data Collection and Analysis (with some experimental design) Purpose: This Minilab is designed help you apply the skills you learned in the homework; that is, to collect data

### Acceleration of Gravity

Acceleration of Gravity Introduction: In this experiment, several objects' motion are studied by making several measurements of the objects position (or displacement) at different times. Since the objects

### Newton s Second Law. Evaluation copy

Newton s Second Law Experiment 4 INTRODUCTION In your discussion of Newton s first law, you learned that when the sum of the forces acting on an object is zero, its velocity does not change. However, when

### Introduction to the Vernier Photogate: Part 1 Gate Timing

PHY 7a Introduction to the Vernier Photogate: Part 1 Gate Timing The Vernier Photogate is a general sensor used for measuring speeds, accelerations, and periods of moving objects. It can also be used for

### From Motion diagrams to Position and Velocity Graphs

From Motion diagrams to Position and Velocity Graphs Name: Group Members: Date: TA s Name: Apparatus: Aluminum track and a support, cart, plastic ruler, tape timer, and pencil Objectives: 1) To be familiar

### Lab 5: Conservation of Energy

Lab 5: Conservation of Energy Equipment SWS, 1-meter stick, 2-meter stick, heavy duty bench clamp, 90-cm rod, 40-cm rod, 2 double clamps, brass spring, 100-g mass, 500-g mass with 5-cm cardboard square

### Physics Lab: Measuring the acceleration due to gravity.

Physics Lab: Measuring the acceleration due to gravity. Objective: to determine the acceleration due to gravity near the earth s surface by three different methods. Theory: We all know that gravity makes

### PHYSICS 220 LAB #2: PROJECTILE MOTION

Name: Partners: PHYSICS 220 LAB #2: PROJECTILE MOTION As a dolphin leaps out of the water, it experiences a change in velocity that is the same as that of any other mass moving freely close to the surface

### Lab 5: Projectile Motion

Description Lab 5: Projectile Motion In this lab, you will examine the motion of a projectile as it free falls through the air. This will involve looking at motion under constant velocity, as well as motion

### Graphical Presentation of Data

Graphical Presentation of Data Guidelines for Making Graphs Titles should tell the reader exactly what is graphed Remove stray lines, legends, points, and any other unintended additions by the computer

### LAB 6: GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES

55 Name Date Partners LAB 6: GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES And thus Nature will be very conformable to herself and very simple, performing all the great Motions of the heavenly Bodies by the attraction

### GENERAL SCIENCE LABORATORY 1110L Lab Experiment 3: PROJECTILE MOTION

GENERAL SCIENCE LABORATORY 1110L Lab Experiment 3: PROJECTILE MOTION Objective: To understand the motion of a projectile in the earth s gravitational field and measure the muzzle velocity of the projectile

### LAB 6 - GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES

L06-1 Name Date Partners LAB 6 - GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES OBJECTIVES And thus Nature will be very conformable to herself and very simple, performing all the great Motions of the heavenly Bodies

### One- and Two-dimensional Motion

PHYS-101 LAB-02 One- and Two-dimensional Motion 1. Objective The objectives of this experiment are: to measure the acceleration of gravity using one-dimensional motion to demonstrate the independence of

### Physics 1020 Laboratory #6 Equilibrium of a Rigid Body. Equilibrium of a Rigid Body

Equilibrium of a Rigid Body Contents I. Introduction II. III. IV. Finding the center of gravity of the meter stick Calibrating the force probe Investigation of the angled meter stick V. Investigation of

### Lab M1: The Simple Pendulum

Lab M1: The Simple Pendulum Introduction. The simple pendulum is a favorite introductory exercise because Galileo's experiments on pendulums in the early 1600s are usually regarded as the beginning of

### Updated 2013 (Mathematica Version) M1.1. Lab M1: The Simple Pendulum

Updated 2013 (Mathematica Version) M1.1 Introduction. Lab M1: The Simple Pendulum The simple pendulum is a favorite introductory exercise because Galileo's experiments on pendulums in the early 1600s are

### ENERGYand WORK (PART I and II) 9-MAC

ENERGYand WORK (PART I and II) 9-MAC Purpose: To understand work, potential energy, & kinetic energy. To understand conservation of energy and how energy is converted from one form to the other. Apparatus:

### Lecture 2. Displacement. Speed. Average velocity. Instantaneous velocity. Gravity and acceleration. Cutnell+Johnson: chapter 2

Lecture 2 Displacement Speed Average velocity Instantaneous velocity Gravity and acceleration Cutnell+Johnson: chapter 2 Most physics classes start by studying the laws describing how things move around.

### Acceleration Due to Gravity

Activity 5 PS-2826 Acceleration Due to Gravity Kinematics: linear motion, acceleration, free fall, graphing GLX setup file: free fall Qty Equipment and Materials Part Number 1 PASPORT Xplorer GLX PS-2002

### 1 of 7 9/5/2009 6:12 PM

1 of 7 9/5/2009 6:12 PM Chapter 2 Homework Due: 9:00am on Tuesday, September 8, 2009 Note: To understand how points are awarded, read your instructor's Grading Policy. [Return to Standard Assignment View]

### Conservation of Energy Physics Lab VI

Conservation of Energy Physics Lab VI Objective This lab experiment explores the principle of energy conservation. You will analyze the final speed of an air track glider pulled along an air track by a

### LABORATORY 9. Simple Harmonic Motion

LABORATORY 9 Simple Harmonic Motion Purpose In this experiment we will investigate two examples of simple harmonic motion: the mass-spring system and the simple pendulum. For the mass-spring system we

### Kinematics: The Gravity Lab Teacher Advanced Version (Grade Level: 8 12)

Kinematics: The Gravity Lab Teacher Advanced Version (Grade Level: 8 12) *** Experiment with Audacity and Excel to be sure you know how to do what s needed for the lab*** Kinematics is the study of how

### LAB 1 Graphing techniques and the acceleration of objects in free fall on Planet 'X'- by R.E.Tremblay

Purpose: To learn how to make position and velocity verses time graphs when given the position of an object at various times. You will also learn how to determine initial velocity and acceleration from

### Gravity Pre-Lab 1. Why do you need an inclined plane to measure the effects due to gravity?

AS 101 Lab Exercise: Gravity (Report) Your Name & Your Lab Partner s Name Due Date Gravity Pre-Lab 1. Why do you need an inclined plane to measure the effects due to gravity? 2. What are several advantage

### EXCEL EXERCISE AND ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY

EXCEL EXERCISE AND ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY Objective: To learn how to use the Excel spreadsheet to record your data, calculate values and make graphs. To analyze the data from the Acceleration Due

### The Acceleration Due to Gravity

1 The Acceleration Due to Gravity Introduction: Acceleration is defined as the rate at which the velocity of a moving object changes with time. Accelerations are always caused by forces. In this laboratory

### 1 One Dimensional Horizontal Motion Position vs. time Velocity vs. time

PHY132 Experiment 1 One Dimensional Horizontal Motion Position vs. time Velocity vs. time One of the most effective methods of describing motion is to plot graphs of distance, velocity, and acceleration

### Summary Notes. to avoid confusion it is better to write this formula in words. time

National 4/5 Physics Dynamics and Space Summary Notes The coloured boxes contain National 5 material. Section 1 Mechanics Average Speed Average speed is the distance travelled per unit time. distance (m)

### 4 Linear Motion. You can describe the motion of an object by its position, speed, direction, and acceleration.

You can describe the motion of an object by its position, speed, direction, and acceleration. 4.1 Motion Is Relative An object is moving if its position relative to a fixed point is changing. 4.1 Motion

### 4.1 Motion Is Relative. An object is moving if its position relative to a fixed point is changing.

4.1 Motion Is Relative You can describe the motion of an object by its position, speed, direction, and acceleration. An object is moving if its position relative to a fixed point is changing. 4.1 Motion

### Position-time and velocity-time graphs Uniform motion problems algebra Acceleration and displacement

Position-time and velocity-time graphs Uniform motion problems algebra Acceleration and displacement Topics: The kinematics of motion in one dimension: graphing and calculations Problem-solving strategies

### Speed A B C. Time. Chapter 3: Falling Objects and Projectile Motion

Chapter 3: Falling Objects and Projectile Motion 1. Neglecting friction, if a Cadillac and Volkswagen start rolling down a hill together, the heavier Cadillac will get to the bottom A. before the Volkswagen.

### Kinematics 1D ~ Lab. 4. What was the average speed of the truck for the six seconds? show your work here.

Kinematics 1D ~ Lab Name: Instructions: Using a pencil, answer the following questions. The lab is marked based on clarity of responses, completeness, neatness, and accuracy. Do your best! Part 1: Graphing

### PS-5.1 Explain the relationship among distance, time, direction, and the velocity of an object.

PS-5.1 Explain the relationship among distance, time, direction, and the velocity of an object. It is essential for students to Understand Distance and Displacement: Distance is a measure of how far an

### Experiment 9. The Pendulum

Experiment 9 The Pendulum 9.1 Objectives Investigate the functional dependence of the period (τ) 1 of a pendulum on its length (L), the mass of its bob (m), and the starting angle (θ 0 ). Use a pendulum

### Equations of Motion Introduction: Objectives: Methods:

Equations of Motion Introduction: The equations of motion are used to describe various components of a moving object. Displacement, velocity, time and acceleration are the kinematic variables that can

### Experiment 2 Free Fall and Projectile Motion

Name Partner(s): Experiment 2 Free Fall and Projectile Motion Objectives Preparation Pre-Lab Learn how to solve projectile motion problems. Understand that the acceleration due to gravity is constant (9.8

### WEEK 6: FORCE, MASS, AND ACCELERATION

Name Date Partners WEEK 6: FORCE, MASS, AND ACCELERATION OBJECTIVES To develop a definition of mass in terms of an object s acceleration under the influence of a force. To find a mathematical relationship

### The Magic Chart Honors Physics

The Magic Chart Honors Physics Magic Chart Equations v = v o + a t x = v o t + 1/2 a t 2 x = ½ (v o + v) t v 2 = v 2 o + 2a x x = vt - 1/2 a t 2 x Who Cares Quantity v a t v o THE WHO CARES QUANTITY tells

### Experiment P-1 Falling Objects

1 Experiment P-1 Falling Objects Objectives To study the motion of falling objects. To learn about the effect of air resistance force. To study motion parameters of a bouncing ball. Modules and Sensors

### The moment of inertia of a rod rotating about its centre is given by:

Pendulum Physics 161 Introduction This experiment is designed to study the motion of a pendulum consisting of a rod and a mass attached to it. The period of the pendulum will be measured using three different

### Acceleration due to Gravity

Acceleration due to Gravity 1 Object To determine the acceleration due to gravity by different methods. 2 Apparatus Balance, ball bearing, clamps, electric timers, meter stick, paper strips, precision

### Magnetic Fields and Their Effects

Name Date Time to Complete h m Partner Course/ Section / Grade Magnetic Fields and Their Effects This experiment is intended to give you some hands-on experience with the effects of, and in some cases

### LAB MECH 16. CALC From Physics with Calculators, Vernier Software & Technology, 2003.

LAB MECH 16. CALC From Physics with Calculators, Vernier Software & Technology, 2003. INTRODUCTION A swinging pendulum keeps a very regular beat. It is so regular, in fact, that for many years the pendulum

### Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard Level 2

Exemplar for internal assessment resource Physics for Achievement Standard 91168 Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard 91168 Level 2 This exemplar supports assessment against: Achievement Standard

### Projectile Motion & Conservation of Energy

Projectile Motion & Conservation of Energy Equipment Qty Item Part Number 1 Mini Launcher ME-6800 1 Metal Sphere Projectile 1 and 2 Meter Sticks 1 Large Metal Rod ME-8741 1 Small Metal Rod ME-8736 1 Support

### Experiment 4. Newton s Second Law. Measure the frictional force on a body on a low-friction air track.

Experiment 4 Newton s Second Law 4.1 Objectives Test the validity of Newton s Second Law. Measure the frictional force on a body on a low-friction air track. 4.2 Introduction Sir Isaac Newton s three laws

### Activity 5a Potential and Kinetic Energy PHYS 010. To investigate the relationship between potential energy and kinetic energy.

Name: Date: Partners: Purpose: To investigate the relationship between potential energy and kinetic energy. Materials: 1. Super-balls, or hard bouncy rubber balls. Metre stick and tape 3. calculator 4.

### GRAPH MATCHING EQUIPMENT/MATERIALS

GRAPH MATCHING LAB MECH 6.COMP. From Physics with Computers, Vernier Software & Technology, 2000. Mathematics Teacher, September, 1994. INTRODUCTION One of the most effective methods of describing motion

### Newton s Second Law. ΣF = m a. (1) In this equation, ΣF is the sum of the forces acting on an object, m is the mass of

Newton s Second Law Objective The Newton s Second Law experiment provides the student a hands on demonstration of forces in motion. A formulated analysis of forces acting on a dynamics cart will be developed

### The quest to find how x(t) and y(t) depend on t is greatly simplified by the following facts, first discovered by Galileo:

Team: Projectile Motion So far you have focused on motion in one dimension: x(t). In this lab, you will study motion in two dimensions: x(t), y(t). This 2D motion, called projectile motion, consists of

### STAAR Tutorial: Motion, Speed, Velocity and Acceleration

Name: Teacher: Period: Date: STAAR Tutorial: Motion, Speed, Velocity and Acceleration TEK 6.8C (Supporting): Calculate average speed using distance and time measurements. TEK 6.8D (Supporting: Measure

### Experiment 6: Magnetic Force on a Current Carrying Wire

Chapter 8 Experiment 6: Magnetic Force on a Current Carrying Wire 8.1 Introduction Maricourt (1269) is credited with some of the original work in magnetism. He identified the magnetic force centers of

### Appendix C: Graphs. Vern Lindberg

Vern Lindberg 1 Making Graphs A picture is worth a thousand words. Graphical presentation of data is a vital tool in the sciences and engineering. Good graphs convey a great deal of information and can

### CME Conservation of Mechanical Energy revised May 5, 2015

CME Conservation of Mechanical Energy revised May 5, 2015 Learning Objectives: During this lab, you will 1. learn how to communicate scientific results in writing. 2. estimate the uncertainty in a quantity

### Equations: Average Speed (v) = distance time Velocity = displacement time Acceleration = V f - V i time

Motion (Speed, Velocity, Acceleration) Test Review Name _Riehbrandt Key for student use_ Physical Science Riehbrandt Hr. Equations: Average Speed (v) = distance time Velocity = displacement time Acceleration

### Graph Matching. walk back and forth in front of Motion Detector

Experiment 1 One of the most effective methods of describing motion is to plot graphs of distance, velocity, and acceleration vs. time. From such a graphical representation, it is possible to determine

### What assumptions are being made by modelling an object as a projectile? Time (t seconds)

Galileo s projectile model In this activity you will validate Galileo s model for the motion of a projectile, by comparing the results predicted by the model with results from your own experiment. Information

### The quest to find how x(t) and y(t) depend on t is greatly simplified by the following facts, first discovered by Galileo:

Team: Projectile Motion So far you have focused on motion in one dimension: x(t). In this lab, you will study motion in two dimensions: x(t), y(t). This 2D motion, called projectile motion, consists of

### Motion 1. 1 Introduction. 2 The Motion Sensor

Motion 1 Equipment: DataStudio, motion sensor mounted about 25 cm above lab bench, Data studio files mot1.ds and mot2.ds. Lab Report: Describe procedures not given in the write up. Submit data graphs where

### : Lab 1: Measurement and Uncertainty Pendulum Period

Introduction : Lab 1: Measurement and Uncertainty Pendulum Period Physics is primarily an experimental science. Physics theories are tested and refined and are only retained when they are proven to be

### The Bullet-Block Mystery

LivePhoto IVV Physics Activity 1 Name: Date: 1. Introduction The Bullet-Block Mystery Suppose a vertically mounted 22 Gauge rifle fires a bullet upwards into a block of wood (shown in Fig. 1a). If the

### Projectile Motion Vocabulary

Projectile Motion Vocabulary Term Displacement vector Definition Projectile trajectory range 1 Page What is a displacement vector? Displacement Vector of (10 m, 45 o ) 10 m θ = 45 o When you throw a ball

### 8. As a cart travels around a horizontal circular track, the cart must undergo a change in (1) velocity (3) speed (2) inertia (4) weight

1. What is the average speed of an object that travels 6.00 meters north in 2.00 seconds and then travels 3.00 meters east in 1.00 second? 9.00 m/s 3.00 m/s 0.333 m/s 4.24 m/s 2. What is the distance traveled

### EXPERIMENT 2: FREE FALL and PROJECTILE MOTION

TA name Lab section Date TA Initials (on completion) Name UW Student ID # Lab Partner(s) EXPERIMENT 2: FREE FALL and PROJECTILE MOTION ONE AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS WITH GRAVITY 117 Textbook Reference:

### Projectile Motion. y - y o = v oy t - (1/2)gt 2 [2]

Projectile Motion In this experiment we will study motion in two-dimensions. An object which has motion in both the X and Y direction has a two dimensional motion. We will first determine at what velocity

### 10.1. Solving Quadratic Equations. Investigation: Rocket Science CONDENSED

CONDENSED L E S S O N 10.1 Solving Quadratic Equations In this lesson you will look at quadratic functions that model projectile motion use tables and graphs to approimate solutions to quadratic equations

### Uncertainties and Error Propagation

Uncertainties and Error Propagation By Vern Lindberg 1. Systematic and random errors. No measurement made is ever exact. The accuracy (correctness) and precision (number of significant figures) of a measurement

### Logger Pro Modeling, Fitting and Linearization

Appendix C When physicists compare theory with experiment, they usually consider a physical model of the situation. The Bohr model or quark model may be the first that come to mind, but in fact nearly

### PENDULUM PERIODS. First Last. Partners: student1, student2, and student3

PENDULUM PERIODS First Last Partners: student1, student2, and student3 Governor s School for Science and Technology 520 Butler Farm Road, Hampton, VA 23666 April 13, 2011 ABSTRACT The effect of amplitude,

### Experiment 2: Conservation of Momentum

Experiment 2: Conservation of Momentum Learning Goals After you finish this lab, you will be able to: 1. Use Logger Pro to analyze video and calculate position, velocity, and acceleration. 2. Use the equations

### PROJECTILE MOTION. Objective: To calculate the initial velocity of a projectile and verify the equations of projectile motion.

PROJECTILE MOTION Objective: To calculate the initial velocity of a projectile and verify the equations of projectile motion. Apparatus: Spring gun with ball, plumb bob, level, meter stick, target paper,

### Chapter 6A. Acceleration. A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University

Chapter 6A. Acceleration A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University 2007 The Cheetah: : A cat that is built for speed. Its strength and agility

### Experiment 1 The Metric System and Measurement Tools

Experiment 1 The Metric System and Measurement Tools Preparation Prepare for this week's quiz by reading about the metric system in your textbook. Read the introduction to the manual and the first experiment

### AP Physics 1 and 2 Lab Investigations

AP Physics 1 and 2 Lab Investigations Student Guide to Data Analysis New York, NY. College Board, Advanced Placement, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks

### Determination of Acceleration due to Gravity

Experiment 2 24 Kuwait University Physics 105 Physics Department Determination of Acceleration due to Gravity Introduction In this experiment the acceleration due to gravity (g) is determined using two