Routing/Interconnection: An Introduction

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1 Routing/Interconnection: An Introduction The Internet works by interconnecting networks This is the IETF RFCs in action IETF89 London London, England 5 th March 2014 Martin J. Levy, Director IPv6 Strategy Hurricane Electric

2 Introduction & Agenda The word Internet Interconnected networks The relationship between individual networks IP transit IP peering An introduction to peering The creation of IXPs (Internet Peering Points) Visualizing interconnected networks 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 2

3 The word Internet - How routing works Technically a very complex subject The Internet is a collection of networks No network stands alone Interconnections are required Robustness can be created Multi-homing (more than one transit) Peering between like networks Diversity (physical and logical) Nothing is static! 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 3

4 The relationship between individual networks Perfect Tier 1 routing Pretty good routing (with many peers; one transit) Classic backbone with two transits (well balanced) 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 4

5 Reality The Internet is complex (but works!) Transit Provider Transit Provider Transit Provider Transit Provider ISP Transit Provider Transit Provider Transit Provider Transit Provider This is messy! 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 5

6 Reality The Internet is complex (but works!) 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 6

7 AN INTRODUCTION TO PEERING 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 7

8 An introduction to peering Internet Exchange Points (IXPs) are a good idea Peering is a good idea A countries self-reliance is a good idea Critical services (DNS, NTP, etc) are a good idea The Internet is not going away; in fact it s growing Peering helps the Internet grow 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 8

9 Peering/Transit - defining the terms Peering The exchange of traffic between two networks Only for traffic associated with the network, or its customers Can be via an IXP (or NAP) or a private interconnect Subject to a bilateral or unilateral contract Either zero-cost, charged-for service or as part of other contracts Majority of negotiations done on a bilateral basis Transit A network providing another network with a full connection to the Internet Sometimes provided as a default route or as full routes Partial Transit A network providing access to only some of the global Internet Sometimes sold as access to a specific provider or destination 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 9

10 Is the Internet growing? Is there more peering? ASNs Network Prefixes ~3,070 new networks in IPv4 table per year ~1,400 new networks in IPv6 table per year Internet Growth still happening More growth within IPv6 vs IPv4; which makes sense More networks joining the global Internet every day This is just a measure of destinations on the Internet It s not an exact measure of peering or transit relationships 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 10

11 Who are the big Internet peering players? IPv4 IPv6 This is a measure of BGP adjacencies Customers are adjacencies Peers are adjacencies A high adjacencies means there s a short path Short as in AS PATH vs. physical path 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 11

12 INTERNET PEERING POINTS 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 12

13 The creation of IXPs (Internet Peering Points) IXPs provide a common facility to interconnect networks Normally defined as an IXP when three or more networks interconnect IXPs provide a common facility for traffic to flow between networks All networks are considered equal Peering is not transit Peering can be multilateral or bilateral IXPs can be membership based, commercial or informal IXPs provide a location for additional services 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 13

14 The creation of IXPs (Internet Peering Points) Initial idea was very simple (Early 1993) NSF created four NAPs (Network Access Points) Opened the Internet to commercial use Additional NAP sites (CIX & MAE-West in California) City Name Pennsauken, NJ Sprint NAP San Francisco, CA PacBell NAP Chicago, IL Ameritech AADS NAP Vienna, VA MFS MAE-East 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 14

15 IXPs (Internet peering points) globally Seattle SIX EQUINIX San Jose EQUINIX ANY-2 AMES EQUINIX ANY-2 LAIIX Los Angeles Chicago EQUINIX Chicago IX Toronto EQUINIX TORIX TIE TELX EQUINIX Atlanta EQUINIX TIE TELX Dallas NAP Chile Santiago NJ & NY EQUINIX TIE TELX NYIIX BigApe EQUINIX NOTA Miami Boston MXP EQUINIX ANY2 Virginia area NAP do Brasil PTTMetro São Paulo CABASE Buenos Aires London LINX LONAP Dublin INEX GigaPix Lisbon ESPANIX Madrid CERN Geneva SwissIX EQUINIX Zurich Paris EQUINIX FRANCEIX SFINX FreeIX Brussels BNIX FreeBiX Amsterdam AMSIX NL-IX VIX Vienna MIX MINAP Milan Oslo NIX Stockholm NetNod STHIX SOL-IX Frankfurt DE-CIX KleyReX MSK-IX Moscow NIX CZ Prague CAIX Cairo KIXP Nairobi JINX Johannesburg NIXI Mumbai NIXI New Delhi Hong Kong HKIX EQUINIX Beijing National IX Guangzhou National IX MyIX Kuala Lumpur EQUINIX SOX Singapore Shanghai National IX IIX Jakarta Taipei TWIX Seoul KIDC KINX JPNAP JPIX DIX-IE EQUINIX Tokyo Sydney EQUINIX PIPE WIX Wellington APE V6IX Auckland Major IXs/NAPs represented; plenty more exist 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 15

16 Why peering helps grow the local IP market Two points of view each can work together Peering improves traffic flows and reduces costs Traffic flowing with less hops or latency is more efficient Networks that peer can reduce transit expenditure Networks that peer see local content or local eyeballs easier Peering reduces transit revenue from major players Reduced revenue is a short term effect (but it s there) As customer experience improves; network dependence grows Peering never replaces 100% of transit needs 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 16

17 VISUALIZING NETWORKING 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 17

18 Route propagation graphs ASN originating routes Select tab for more information Peers or transits that see routes Transit provider Transit provider Routes see downstream of peers 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 18

19 Example listings A listing of all active ASNs within a country A listing for a specific ASN A list of all peers of a networks 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 19

20 Looking at specific networks MNT Congo Two transit providers Note: Common upstream The rest of the Internet (only major networks shown) 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 20

21 Looking at specific networks NORDUnet Single transit provider The rest of the Internet (only major networks shown) 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 21

22 COLLECTIONS OF NETWORKS 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 22

23 Seychelles AS36902 Intelvision AS37343 TELECOM SEYCHELLES AS37518 Fiber Grid AS62255 Asmunda New Media Rest of World AS36867 Kokonet AS36958 Cable & Wireless AS57565 Blue Media AS58001 Ideal Solution 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 23

24 The Democratic Republic of the Congo AS37453 Vodacom Congo AS37483 Congo Chine Telecom AS37102 CIELUX TELECOM RDC AS37260 Cybernet SPRL 2013 Rest of World AS37447 OASIS SPRL AS32842 IBURST RDC AS37020 Celtel DRC AS37447 OASIS SPRL AS37453 Vodacom Congo Rest of World AS37483 Congo Chine Telecom AS37571 ITM AS37609 ROKE TELKOM CONGO AS37020 Celtel DRC AS37638 Orioncom SPRL March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 24

25 Liberia AS37410 Lonestar Communications Corporation 2013 Rest of World AS37094 CELLCOM Telecommunications Inc. AS37560 Cyberdyne S.A. AS37203 LBTELCO AS37410 Lonestar Communications Corporation AS37557 NOVAFONE Rest of World 2014 AS37203 LBTELCO AS37094 CELLCOM Telecommunications Inc. 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 25

26 Lebanon AS42003 LIBANTELECOM AS43824 Masco Group AS47935 ComNet ISP AS16130 FiberLink Networks AS42334 Broadband Plus AS51558 Smart Telecom AS39402 FERRARI-NETWORKS AS60398 Communication International Trading Company AS57256 Pros-Services AS60372 EagleNet AS43019 farahnet AS44189 Middle East Airlines AS Computel AS38999 Mobile Interim Company No.2 AS3176 Banque Du Liban AS42020 Liban Teleco AS Data Quest AS34741 Bank Beirut AS41833 Moscanet (WISE) AS51910 AS57513 Mobile Interim Company 1 AS35074 Cobranet Limited Teltac WorldWide AS34708 Gulf Research & Development AS41211 Banque Libano-Francais AS50430 P-Group (Offshore) AS50285 onetplus AS T.H. Global Vision AS42852 Solidere Beyrouth Rest of World AS WIN DSL AS24634 Cyberia AS39010 TerraNet AS34160 Transtrum BV AS AS39275 Byblos Bank AS57937 Sama Offshore AS35197 Virtual ISP Kleos (Offshore) AS43680 DSP AS9051 IncoNet Data Management AS12812 American University Beirut AS56530 Protel Offshore AS31126 SODETEL AS tasjil art production distributions AS61113 Capital Outsourcing AS39918 Azal Group Holding AS47674 Saatchi & Saatchi Beirut AS24982 BankMed AS49004 ACTEL AS Lebanese American University AS58281 FIDUS AS39868 FRANSABANK AS Lebanese Canadian Bank AS60406 ALJADEED AS48740 Online Money Transfer AS34370 CSC Lebanon AS WAVES AS51938 MedSystems 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 26

27 AS36928 AS27874 ENAP - Empresa Nacional del Petroleos Chile AS21614 LatLink.net S.A AS52353 Celulosa Arauco y Constitucion S.A. AS28116 Universidad de Adolfo Ibanez AS28077 Informes Garantizados S.A. AS20015 FullCom S.A. AS17126 E-money AS18492 Almacenes Paris Comercial S.A AS Redcol S.A. AS52341 Centennial Cayman Corp Chile S.A AS27888 Caja de Compensacin de Asignacin Familiar La Araucana AS27880 ATENTO CHILE S.A. AS28099 ihosting Servicios Internet AS22860 SERVICIOS INTERNET AS27899 Quintec Soluciones Informaticas S.A. AS28047 Cientec Computacion S.A. AS CDEC - SIC AS27856 UNIVERSIDAD UNIACC AS28120 Arquicomp AS7004 CTC Transmisiones Regionales S.A. AS27909 Correos Chile AS27849 SYSTEL S.A. AS13424 Intercity AS27931 Tecnolex AS26604 Euroamerica Seguros de Vida S.A AS10778 MCL Internet AS17147 Ministerio del Interior y de Seguridad Publica - Gobierno de Chile AS14117 Telefonica del Sur S.A. AS28060 Pullman Cargo S.A AS27701 Netline AS Golder Associates S.A. AS52368 ZAM AS27766 LAN CHILE (Lineas Aereas de Chile) AS7418 TELEFNICA CHILE S.A. AS52252 Entel PCS Telecomunicaciones S.A. (Sis) AS28098 ABGON COMUNICACIONES AS18941 El Mercurio S.A.P. AS16874 SONDA S.A. AS28091 Soluciones Integrales S.A AS19411 Nap Chile AS28044 ADT SECURITY SERVICES AS20256 Ultramar Agencia Maratima AS26048 CHILENA CONSOLIDADA SEGUROS S.A. AS27962 AltaVoz S.A. AS19338 Telmex Chile Internet S.A. AS19228 ENTEL CHILE S.A. AS27659 Ingeniera e Informtica Asociada AS52306 NIC Chile AS52246 EMPRESAS INDEXA S.A. AS14259 Gtd Internet S.A. AS27897 SEGIC USACH AS27853 Administradora BANCHILE de Fondos Mutuos AS27943 Laboratorios Recalcine S.A. AS52226 CODELCO Chuquicamata AS21765 VOISSNET S.A. AS15311 Telefonica Empresas AS19077 CYBERCENTER S.A. AS28106 BANCO PENTA AS27986 ENTEL CHILE S.A. AS26610 Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria Rest of World AS27963 Anglo American Chile AS16990 TRANSBANK S.A. AS28096 Sociedad de Telecomunicaciones Geonet AS27952 Banco Central de Chile AS16471 Adexus S.A. AS11340 Red Universitaria Nacional AS22661 Telex Chile S.A. AS27838 Servibanca S.A. AS27746 LAN CHILE (Lineas Aereas de Chile) AS27901 Pacifico Cable S.A. AS7993 Global One Chile AS22047 VTR BANDA ANCHA S.A. AS6429 Telmex Chile Internet S.A. AS14966 Larrain Vial S.A AS27735 Synapsis Soluciones y Servicios IT AS27678 NIC Chile AS16742 Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso AS52280 INTERNEXA Chile S.A. AS27925 Entel PCS Telecomunicaciones S.A. AS13774 Corpbanca AS21862 SODIMAC SA AS52234 NIC Chile AS52267 BanChile Seguros de Vida S.A. AS52230 Mapfre Compaia de Seguros AS27904 Virutex Ilko S.A. AS27978 Telmex Servicios Empresariales S.A. AS27676 ALMA - Atacama Large Millimeter Array AS52248 Forum Servicios Financieros S.A. AS27680 TELEFONICA MOVIL DE CHILE S.A. AS27911 Metlife Chile Seguros de Vida AS16629 CTC. CORP S.A. (TELEFONICA EMPRESAS) AS20191 Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile AS27979 Stel Chile S.A. AS52313 Luz Linares S.A. AS6471 ENTEL CHILE S.A. AS Orbyta S.A. AS27918 Sinacofi S.A. AS21753 Consorcio seguros Vida AS27651 ENTEL CHILE S.A. AS27657 GlobalCom S.A. AS16849 NewPlanet S.A AS16780 Banco SantanderSantiago AS27732 A.F.P. Habitat S.A. AS27965 Intcomex Chile S.A. AS22975 Banco de Chile AS23140 Universidad de Chile AS13381 CMET SACI AS27677 Telefonica Moviles Soluciones y Aplicaciones AS52315 Servicios de Administracion Previsional S.A. AS28059 Banco Hipotecario de Fomento AS15208 Servicio de Impuestos Internos AS6535 Telmex Servicios Empresariales S.A. AS27995 CLARO CHILE S.A. AS27946 Direccin General del Territorio Martimo AS25718 Turismo Cocha S.A Country by country diagrams Turks and Caicos Islands Rest of Chile AS22306 Fiscal Services World AS22933 Cable and Wireless AS40143 University Technology AS27027 Anbell Telecommunications AS37669 IG Telecom AS33576 Digicel Jamaica Rest of World AS10292 Cable & Wireless Jamaica Jamaica AS11580 Island Networks AS30689 FLOW AS3586 University of the West Indies Gabon AS37493 Wifly Gabon AS16058 Gabon Telecom Internet Network AS37169 SOLSI Gabon AS37246 ASN Atlantique Telecom Gabon AS37390 IPi9 Rest of World AS51259 Pixel AS36880 Connectivite Internet Pour l'afrique AS DATACELL LIMITED LIABILITY AS35878 Dekal Wireless Jamaica AS37616 Airtel Gabon S.A AS AS37582 Agence Nationale des Infrastructures Numeriques et des Frequences (ANINF) AS39280 Ultel ICC Ministry of ICT of Azerbaijan AS34170 AS "Baksell Azerbaijan Telecomunication ISP AS57304 SUPERONLAYN AS8814 AZERIN AS42779 Azerfon AS AS36988 Africell - Lintel (SL) AS37100tv6tAS37100tSeacom LTD AS39232 Uninet AS37208 Afcom (SL) Limited AS39397 Az.StarNet AS Azertelekom AS44725 AZQTEL AS37164 CELTEL aka ZAIN Sierra Leone AS29630 Azerbaijan Research Educational Networking Association (AzRENA) AS43637 Sierra Leone Rest of World AS37449 LIMELINE (SIERRA LEONE) LIMITED AS57675 Seabak AS41997 Stellford Rest of World AS29049 Delta Telecom AS48830 Transeurocom SOL AS37100tv4tAS37100tSeacom LTD AS37456 Atlas Communications Sierratel AS37174 Comium Data Sierra Leone Limited. AS57293 AG Telecom AS59523 CNC.AZ MMC AS34876 "SMART SISTEMZ TECHNOLOJI" MMM AS29584 AZEDUNET AS28787 Baktelekom AS13099 AzEuroTel AS Eurosel AS57819 SISTEMA AS AS15815 IntraNS AS15723 Azeronline Information Services MEQA-TELEKOM Azerbaijan AS37418 Guaranty Trust Bank Sierra Leone AS31721 Azercell Telecom AS 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 27

28 AS33772 BENSON INFORMATICS LIMITED AS37013 Satcom Networks Africa AS37142 Zanzibar Datacom AS36909 Habari Node AS37143 Arusha Art AS33791 Tanzania internet service providers association AS37364 Tanzania Communications Regulatory Authority AS32860 CATS-NET-NETWORK AS37496 Aga Khan University AS37084 Simbanet (T) AS36930 ZanZibar Telecom AS37100tv4tAS37100tSeacom LTD AS36908 Vodacom Tanzania AS37045 Tanzania Network Information Centre (tznic) AS37423 Atemi AS37149 Six Telecoms Tanzania AS22354 UNIV-DAR AS37182 Tanzania Research and Education Network - TERNET AS37133 Airtel Tanzania Rest of World AS37035 MIC Tanzania AS37419 Tanzania Revenue Authority AS37245 ASN DOVETEL (T) AS12143 STARTEL AS33765 TANZANIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS CO. AS37213 Spice Net Tanzania AS37100tv6tAS37100tSeacom LTD AS37027 Simbanet (T) AS36965 WIA Tanzania AS37101 Vizadanetworks AS37349 Aptus Solutions AS37126 Bell Communications AS31810 AOTL AS37372 Powercomputers Telecommunication AS37120 Selcom Broadband AS37362 Tanzania Ports Authority AS37464 VIRTUAL SOLUTIONS AS36892 AFSAT COMMUNICATION T AS12143 Tanzania AS37126 Bell Communications AS37278 Bank M (Tanzania) AS32860 CATS-NET-NETWORK AS37245 ASN DOVETEL (T) AS37423 Atemi AS37149 Six Telecoms Tanzania AS37143 Arusha Art AS37464 VIRTUAL SOLUTIONS AS37592 Gapco Tanzania AS37035 MIC Tanzania AS37100tv6tAS37100tSeacom LTD STARTEL AS37362 Tanzania Ports Authority AS37133 Airtel Tanzania AS37100tv4tAS37100tSeacom LTD AS37142 Zanzibar Datacom AS37027 Simbanet (T) AS36908 Vodacom Tanzania AS37084 Simbanet (T) Rest of World AS33765 TANZANIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS CO. AS AS37364 Tanzania Communications Regulatory Authority AS37182 Tanzania Research Education Network - TERNET AS36930 ZanZibar Telecom AS37419 Tanzania Revenue Authority Aptus Solutions AS37101 Astrium Services Business Communications AS37213 Spice Net Tanzania AS37045 AS37120 Selcom Broadband Tanzania Network Information Centre (tznic) AS33772 BENSON INFORMATICS LIMITED AS37496 AS22354 UNIV-DAR Aga Khan University AS33791 Tanzania internet service providers association AS36965 WIA Tanzania AS36909 Habari Node AS31810 AOTL AS37013 Satcom Networks Africa AS37372 Powercomputers Telecommunication 2014 AS36892 AFSAT COMMUNICATION T 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 28

29 AS12455 Kenya AS37307 Alliance for a Green revolution in Africa AS37499 UAP Holdings AS37330 Royal Media Services AS37274 NIC Bank AS37247 JHPIEGO CORPORATION AS37579 Nation Media Group AS3741 AS37166 Kenya Airways AS36904 Craft Silicon AS37601 General Motors East Africa AS37261 ROCKFELLER Foundation AS37338 G4S Security Services kenya AS36886 ALFA SOLUTIONS AS37165 WebRunner AS36975 Commercial Bank Africa AS37156 Xtranet Communications AS15808 ACCESSKENYA GROUP AS37298 Equity Bank AS37240 Mombasa IXP AS37071 Econet Wireless Kenya AS37044 Tangerine AS15399 Wananchi Group AS37578 TESPOK AS37100tv4tAS37100tSeacom LTD AS37019 Intersat Africa AS37061 One Communications AS12556 Internet Solutions (Kenya) AS37346 Davis & Shirtliff AS37052 United Nations Office Nairobi AS37514 Tullow Kenya B.V AS37305 AS37219 Frontier Optical Networks AS36952 KENCALL-EPZ Directorate e-government Rest of World AS37367 Callkey EA AS36866 Jamii Telecommunications AS33771 Safaricom AS21280 Swift Global Kenya AS36948 AS9129 AS36967 DATABIT LIMITED AS37354 SawaSawa.com KENIC AS37137 Gateway Telecommunications (Kenya) Limited AS36915 Africa Online Kenya Jambonet AS36914 AS37684 KENET AS Angani AS37470 Kenya Red Cross AS37685 Compfix Data AS36926 celtel Kenya AS33770 Liquid Telecommunications Kenya AS30994 Kenya Airways Branch providing Travel Agents A ASN DT AS36966 Edgenet AS37129 Rasmilink AS37242 AS Number for Commcarrier AS37421 Cellulant AS37396 OCEAN FIVE TELECOMS LIMITED AS37109 MyISP AS25568 KENYAWEB.COM AS37393 Plan International Kenya AS30991 AS37210 National Bank Kenya AS13224 Nairobinet Online AS Equity Bank SahanNet 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 29

30 AS12392 Belgium AS57484 PARI-Link Bvba AS42329 AS29595 IPG Global Care&Contact Center AS BELNET AS49333 Roularta Media Group SA CRELAN AS41233 Atos Worldline SAS AS29005 Belgacom S.A. AS50906 Luciad NV AS28827 Fortis Bank AS in Belgium AS41008 Cegeka NV AS41756 Orascom Telecom Algeria Spa AS42628 Netline SPRL AS39804 Vlaamse Dienst voor Arbeidsbemiddelling en Beroepsopleiding AS34167 Euro Pool System International B.V. AS41282 Daikin Europe NV AS Corelio Publishing NV AS25136 Portima AS41991 Baloise Belgium NV AS13088 ASSOCIATED DEXIA TECHNOLOGY SERVICES AS39234 AS43581 Stone Internet Services bvba Smartphoto Services NV AS21373 National Bank Belgium AS31651 Interxion Belgium NV. AS35001 AS34762 AS29096 MyOwn sprl Combell group NV B.Lite Telecom SPRL/BVBA AS60765 AS6774 Next Generation Innovation Belgacom BVBA International Carrier Services SA AS3173 Stanleyworks (Europe)GmbH AS Inter IKEA Treasury S.A. AS62325 Ogone SPRL AS6696 Online Internet nv/sa AS EUROCONTROL AS3304 Scarlet AS50675 Ergatel Nv AS6848 Telenet N.V. AS30961 Openminds bvba AS DNS-Belgium AS EURid vzw AS21175 WIS Telecom SA AS28747 Easyhost BVBA AS49285 ITAF bvba AS49621 Thinfactory N.V AS51796 nexperteam cvba AS49046 VRT NV van Publiek Recht AS44944 BASE Company NV/SA AS49677 Maehdros SPRL AS35056 AG Insurance N.V. AS5432 BELGACOM S.A. AS25147 AS Ecoplast Cheops Technology NV AS21239 AS DNS-Belgium Citymesh NV AS34958 AS8221 Look a Box SPRL ISABEL NV AS CBlue SPRL AS6716 Tunz.com SA/NV AS15583 Getronics Belgium NV/SA (G-NET) Number AS31449 BELCENTER SPRL AS21489 NATO Consultation AS60436 KBC Group NV AS39923 Unix-Solutions BVBA AS42160 LCP AS dc oostkamp AS47537 AS28691 WeePee NV Jean-Francois Stenuit AS48137 AS PI-GROUP BVBA North Atlantic Treaty Organization AS50156 Boxed IT AS13226 CYBERNET SA AS44806 FirstServed N.V. / S.A AS21139 AS will be used for SONY INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AS43719 IBM Services Financial Sector Luxembourg AS43759 AS56837 BNP PARIBAS INVESTMENT PARTNERS BELGIUM SA Tigron bvba AS62424 STARWOOD HOTELS AND RESORTS WORLDWIDE AS24998 Orbit One bvba AS60735 Unifoot N.V. AS25428 COLRUYT GROUP SERVICES N.V. AS9166 HostIT NV AS Nuance Communications International AS9208 WIN AS31154 Toyota Motor Europe AS41604 TSC Communication Group AS50857 MAC Telecom S.A. AS31237 LOTERIE NATIONALE - NATIONALE LOTERIJ AS Ioteo SA AS57948 Cobalt Group BVBA AS42744 AZ Sint Jan AV AS SCRL Intercommunale de Sante Publique du Pays de Charleroi AS56808 HDP & ARISTA Services SA AS42851 Elia Asset AS number AS8368 AS9031 AS29435 AS5463 Belgian Network Solutions B.V.B.A AS41293 AS41135 N.V. Perceval S.A. regio[.net] GmbH & Co. KG Voxbone worldwide AS AS28704 AS AS31713 AS29533 AS43076 Rest of Telindus N.V. SPRL IBM OF BELGIUM AS39318 Gateway Communication FreeBIX - Internet Exchange Point "Global Broadband Solution" societe de droit americain World Nucleus BVBA AS34144 AS50998 EUSIP bvba AS31511 Ulysse Group S.A. AS48517 AS58122 Infrabel NV van publiek recht Destiny N.V NorthgateArinso Belgium NV AS20501 AS49145 Banque de Luxembourg SA CORESIO BELGIUM BVBA Brutele SC AS8201 XS4ALL Belgium NV AS21108 AS48315 AS41471 SIEMENS AG AS31241 Alpha Networks S.P.R.L. 's AS number AS28988 Massive Media Match NV AS43751 ASP.be SA Fluxys Belgium sa Keytradebank SA/NV AS2611 AS62383 AS15442 AS29587 AS35733 BELNET Procter & Gamble Service GmbH AS59547 Lambrechts Data Services VOF AS Schedom Vof ASN for EURid SYNTIGO S.A./N.V. CloudFounders NV AS AS251 Vlaamse Media Maatschappij N.V. Future in Question AS9009 M247 AS47377 AS48638 AS44708 MOBISTAR ENTERPRISE SERVICES SA Cronos NV AS42030 AS42792 PAUL WURTH S.A. "Global Broadband Solution" societe de droit americain Direction Generale du Tresor AS15776 AS43256 International Business Machines AS51466 "Global Broadband Solution" societe de droit americain Belgium AS35593 Bridgestone Europe SA/NV AS UniWeb RealDolmen NV AS58367 AS28707 FOSDEM VZW AS20650 Kangaroot BVBA AS35821 Connexeon IP NEXIA N.V. AS AS44312 AS39579 Association Aquilenet AS21424 AS56675 Moving Art Studio ASBL CHICAGO METALLIC CONTINENTAL ING Belgique SA O.A.C. bvba AS48075 Society For Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication SCRL AS12493 Mobistar SA AS31612 AGFA GEVAERT NV AS56799 Jordens Datacenter NV AS16294 Zemblaz n.v. AS35219 Rackboost NV AS31669 Riffle Media BVBA AS51867 Research In Motion Belgium BVBA AS EXXOSS SPRL AS49964 VERIXI SPRL AS60780 Artilium NV AS61023 Worldcall AS33864 Wallonie Data Center Network AS15681 Gaz de France AS56693 TwoTown Belgique AS35230 DG International Limited AS20601 HIX GROUP S.R.L AS16194 RealDolmen NV AS31309 New Media Ventures BVBA AS25194 AGC Glass Europe AS Caviar Group NV AS8476 BVDEP AS47861 Peter E. J. Durieux AS39628 Firstlink Networks AS12942 Network Research Belgium AS12763 Honda Europe NV AS "Global Broadband Solution" societe de droit americain AS42018 TELENET NV AS15983 Carrefour Belgium AS41035 Banque CPH SCRL AS15383 CIRB-CIBG AS48408 ROOTSECURITY BVBA AS51797 BIGUP SPRL AS25344 Technofutur TIC ASBL AS16326 SmalS-MvM AS35627 Tom Laermans AS StarsNet n.v./s.a. AS41778 Ithagi BVBA AS MEDIACTIVITY SPRL 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 30

31 AS SARL SGCA AS Groupe Telergos SAS AS60197 Lorraine Data Network AS49286 AS Groupe Ecole Superieure de Commerce de Rennes Techcrea Solutions AS MAILJET SAS AS TRUST INFO AS1937 CRATERE AS Centre Interbancaire Regional Rhone Alpes SA AS48879 GEEKNODE AS50135 OpWan AS34924 Musiwave Network AS ILOTH AS Evolix AS SENSO TELECOM SAS AS Association de Gestion Ecole Centrale Delectronique AS2202 Reseau Regional REAUMUR AS Interveille Global SAS AS35600 VEDEGE SAS AS60226 METEORAGE SAS AS41020 STMicroelectronics International NV AS51888 Pilot Systems consulting AS39023 Snowite AS47244 Proxid AS35540 OVH Telecom AS48819 TIXEO AS47658 LAGARDERE ACTIVE DIGITAL SAS AS57591 Alpha System AS49961 Fingerprint Technologies AS43278 Blogspirit Network AS51459 Manhattan SAS AS31132 CIENUM SAS AS34000 Conseil General des Bouches-du-Rhone AS Centre National de la Fonction Publique Territoriale AS12566 Societe Francaise du Radiotelephone S.A. AS2445 Reseau de Collecte du Nord-Est Francilien AS49960 SCI The Wall AS25442 Credit Agricole Cheuvreux SA AS29199 ESCP EUROPE AS60630 Association Alsace Reseau Neutre AS35334 RD Medias AS Wizeo SAS AS21041 SCC SERVICES AS43698 Ariege Telecom AS Winamax SAS AS12744 KEYRUS S.A. AS48413 GROUPE SOLLY AZAR AS39241 OVERLAP AS43654 TAS TELEGESTION ALARME SERVICES AS51345 EDIVIA AS ALYSEO AS50897 TELECOM BRETAGNE AS47818 Midi Pyrennees Informatique Hospitaliere AS U LINK AS ORSID PRODUCTION SAS AS42117 INOLIA S.A. AS13223 CONSEIL DE L EUROPE AS48703 CNAMTS - AS de la Caisse Nationale Assurance Maladie AS20482 ABP Informatique SAS AS13034 PAGESJAUNES SA AS47355 OPALYS TELECOM AS ARSOE de Bretagne - Cooperative Agricole AS47835 Ataraxie AS60555 Micro & Services Informatiques SAS AS60718 OELIS AS56553 Bayard Informatique unipersonnelle AS1938 Irisa/Inria Rennes AS DEVELOPPEMENT D'APPLICATIONS SUR RESEAUX A VALEUR AJOUTEE AS31255 SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC INDUSTRIES SAS AS51366 CANAL PLUS FRANCE S.A AS8309 SIPARTECH AS SAS HERAULT NETWORKS AS SAS INTERCLOUD AS2471 Iles de la Guadeloupe AS29605 BCS Technologies SA AS1945 Lyon Recherche et Enseignement Suprieur (LyRES) AS49219 L2CT AS59520 DAVIXX AS AS51128 AS LGSI AS49230 Arum Technologies AS39117 Placenet.fr AS NUMBER AS31629 LOREAL SA AS39606 Automatic Answer Communication AAC AS21203 FR-CMA-CGM AS58324 Debitex Telecom SASU AS57654 CEFI SAS AS42487 VIALIS - Regie Municipale Colmar AS21000 ATOS Origin Infogerance AS21409 Ikoula Net SAS AS44986 Amadeus S.A.S. 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AS51270 L'Occitane SA AS48179 Pays Voironnais Network AS41156 SUPINFO Ecole Superieure d'informatique de Paris AS43439 Xplorium France AS3296 Societe Generale AS2094 Telecom & Management Sud Paris AS24871 IPercom AS51095 Center.com EU AS29301 KARAVEL SAS AS50758 Astrium sas AS49137 APPLI NOT AS60697 Association de moyens klesia AS41157 ASN routed by Oxymium AS Communaute d'agglomeration de Montpellier AS41334 MANCHE TELECOM AS48813 enix AS PREDICTYS SAS AS1948 Education research network the Saclay plateau AS SARL IPSET AS43249 JOUVE SA AS39005 AS8310 PACWAN AS49030 Applied Technologies Internet SAS AS49881 SOCIETE DU JOURNAL MIDI LIBRE AS V Technologie SAS AS41542 Risc Group IT Solutions AS50982 Assurance Mutuelle des Motards AS31375 ANTOINE VERSINI AS12395 ADISTA SAS AS29372 SFR AS49112 ARMOR CONNECTIC SAS AS61205 INFOMIL AS Ameos AS48504 OpenIP AS51870 La Francaise des Jeux AS15829 EUTELSAT S.A. AS47891 GROUPE CYPRES AS25186 Orange S.A. AS29679 Groupe Express-Roularta AS1935 Reseau Regional Limousin AS43814 Finatech AS41405 AZYLOG AS43121 ETC SAS AS57943 IZZYCOM SAS AS CACIIS AS2450 CNES-Toulouse AS12807 CVF S.A AS42363 PHPNET FRANCE AS57103 Voxity AS20603 Orange S.A. AS47300 INRS AS261 FR AS34237 POL AS MOREA CONSEILS AS24600 Orange S.A. AS Quadix Technologies AS48668 IVISION SAS AS2065 Reseau metropolitain de Montpellier HDMON AS789 IN2P3 AS57273 Bytewise AS51207 Free Mobile SAS AS41526 Association XNAME AS62202 Union Technique du Batiment Societe cooperative a forme anonyme a capital variable G France 1,125 active ASNs (254 with v6) 5 March 2014 Hurricane Electric - Martin J. Levy - Director IPv6 Strategy - IETF89 London 31

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