3D characterisation of a heterogeneous urban subsurface

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1 3D characterisation of a heterogeneous urban subsurface Jeroen Schokker, Michiel van der Meulen and colleagues TNO Geological Survey of the Netherlands

2 Geomodelling and the built environment Traditionally, the Geological Survey of the Netherlands produced maps that mainly focussed on non-urban areas: scale / resolution qualitative data density not focussed on application one size fits all

3 Organisational setting

4 Key-register for the subsurface (BRO) Survey database to become part of the Dutch e-government By law, government bodies will have to feed and consult our database Single acquisition and storage, multiple use Data and models Operational in 2014/2015 More use by more users Higher expectations accountability, reproducibility detail, resolution reliability, credibility

5 Definition of a geomodel (at GSN) Prediction of geometry and properties of the subsurface data: single observations map: 2D projection model: continuous representation, built with geological expertise Successor of geological maps Quantitative Stochastic, allowing quantification of model uncertainty Application / user oriented Focus on shallow subsurface

6 Layer-based models DGM: Geological formations REGIS: Aquifers and aquitards with hydrological parameters Voxel models GeoTOP: Detailed 3D model upper 30 m Nederland 3D: Low-resolution 3D model up to -50 m

7 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Workflow W-03 Lithostratigraphical interpretation (DINO) 2D interpolation of stratigraphical surfaces layer-based models 3D interpolation of lithoclasses within each stratigraphical unit voxel models Stochastic simulation techniques allow quantification of uncertainties

8 Current status of GeoTOP modelling Westelijke Wadden Oostelijke Wadden Noord-Holland Amsterdam Zuid-Holland Goeree 2008 Rivierengebied Zeeland

9 Cores Boringen with voorzien van lithostratigrafie lithostratigraphy Step 1 50 m 9 3D model van de ondiepe ondergrond van Zuid-Holland 30 November 2009

10 PLEISTOCENE Step 2 10 Fluvial deposits (Rhine) Sterksel Fm, Urk Fm 3D model van de ondiepe ondergrond van Zuid-Holland 30 November 2009

11 Glacial cover 11 Ice-pushed deposits Several Fms 3D model van de ondiepe ondergrond van Zuid-Holland 30 November 2009

12 12 Glacial meltwater deposits Drente Fm 3D model van de ondiepe ondergrond van Zuid-Holland 30 November 2009

13 13 Marine and coastal deposits Eem Fm 3D model van de ondiepe ondergrond van Zuid-Holland 30 November 2009

14 14 Fluvial deposits (Rhine) Kreftenheye Fm 3D model van de ondiepe ondergrond van Zuid-Holland 30 November 2009

15 15 Aeolian deposits Boxtel Fm 3D model van de ondiepe ondergrond van Zuid-Holland 30 November 2009

16 Onderste Pleistocene eenheid (Waalre) HOLOCENE 16 Peat formation Basisveen Bed 3D model van de ondiepe ondergrond van Zuid-Holland 30 November 2009

17 17 Freshwater to brackish-water clay Velsen Bed 3D model van de ondiepe ondergrond van Zuid-Holland 30 November 2009

18 18 Lower tidal deposits (tidal channel facies) Wormer Member 3D model van de ondiepe ondergrond van Zuid-Holland 30 November 2009

19 19 Lower tidal deposits (tidal flat facies) Wormer Member 3D model van de ondiepe ondergrond van Zuid-Holland 30 November 2009

20 20 Coastal peat formation Hollandveen Mb 3D model van de ondiepe ondergrond van Zuid-Holland 30 November 2009

21 21 Fluvial deposits Echteld Fm 3D model van de ondiepe ondergrond van Zuid-Holland 30 November 2009

22 22 Upper tidal deposits Walcheren Mb 3D model van de ondiepe ondergrond van Zuid-Holland 30 November 2009

23 Man-made ground 23 3D model van de ondiepe ondergrond van Zuid-Holland 30 November 2009

24 anthropogenic & undifferentiated clay and loam peat fine sand medium sand coarse sand Step D lithoclass model (including man-made ground) 3D model van de ondiepe ondergrond van Zuid-Holland 30 November 2009

25 anthropogenic & undifferentiated clay and loam peat fine sand medium sand coarse sand 25 3D lithoclass model (excluding man-made ground) 3D model van de ondiepe ondergrond van Zuid-Holland 30 November 2009

26 anthropogenic & undifferentiated clay and loam peat fine sand medium sand coarse sand

27 S N Bovenkerkerpolder Amstelveen City Centre IJ A dam Noord Lithostratigraphy and lithoclasses of the subsurface of Amsterdam

28 Issues related to geomodelling in the built environment (1) Model data data acquisition use of third-party data use of other data types (cpts) ageing of data Presence of man-made ground extent and thickness? lithological characteristics? properties (geotechnical, hydrological)? modelling procedures?

29 Issues related to geomodelling in the built environment (2) Model resolution does not fit application in urban areas subsurface infrastructure, geotechnical problems environmental issues (pollution, subsidence) cultural heritage preservation Combination with other subsurface and surface data? buildings underground constructions cables, wires, pipelines

30 Extent and age of made ground in Amsterdam 1538

31 Lithology of man-made ground Relatively few well-described data points Pattern partly reflects period of data acquisition

32 Additional data leads to a high-resolution model North Sea Amsterdam The Hague Utrecht Rotterdam Randstadrail tunnel

33

34 Geotechnical profile Z RandstadRail (lithology) N

35 Lithological profile from GeoTOP voxel model Z RandstadRail (lithology) N anthropogenic & undifferentiated clay and loam peat fine sand medium sand coarse sand

36 High resolution pilot study using more data GeoTOP (100 x 100 x 0,5 m): anytime, anyplace Enhanced resolution (20 x 20 x 0.5 m): custom-made

37 Above-ground information The urban environment is a detailed one! Stepwise change: CityGML (3D info) towards 3D urban planning Surface & subsurface how to combine these evolving domains? object-oriented vs. voxelised buildings sitting on placemats Urban Strategy

38 Combining subsurface & surface information Technical issues will be resolved Thinking needs to be aligned system approach When more detail is requested: not a matter of more computer power but of more data! (including other data) New development: key register for the subsurface

39 Perspective (short to medium term) Data and use: concentrated in cities better characterisations of man-made ground including underground infrastructure? delivering information for 3D planning 3D 4D (processes, predictions in timespace) subsidence P human effects P groundwater flow P sediment dynamics Application to urban environment?

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