Subsurface storage And artificial recharge for sustainability

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1 Subsurface storage And artificial recharge for sustainability Theo Olsthoorn, Waternet, Worldwaternet and TU-Delft Delft University of Technology Challenge the future

2 Subsurface is more and more used in modern society Infrastructure, tunnels, cables, pipelines etc. Storage Energy Water 2 2

3 Booming Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage in the NL Cooling Heating Heat Cold Aquifer Aantal projecten t/m 2005 (CBS, 2006 en 2007 is schatting) End of 2008: >

4 Glass houses in the Bleiswijk area, Netherlands 5 5

5 Winter rainwater harvesting with subsurface storage by horticulturists in the Western Netherlands (Aquifer Storage Recovery) Storage Recovery 6

6 Stored freshwater floats Interface stable due to on saltwater saltwater extraction Stored freshwater saline 7 7

7 Ismailya Canal, Egypt: unintentional groundwater recharge Ismailya Cairo 9

8 Modeling for Sustainable Use of Groundwater Chaj Doab, Indus Basin, Pakistan Naveed Alam, 10 April 13,

9 Subsurface removal of iron and manganese in Beheira, Egypt people have better water 13 1

10 In-well desalination of brackish groundwater to preserve freshwater and avoid saltwater discharge to the surface water system 14

11 15

12 17

13 Thousands of irrigation wells in Kansas, USA 18

14 Decline of river discharge in China (Konikow & Kendy 2005) Groundwater decline 1m/year River dry since

15 2 20

16 North Sea Amsterdam Dune Area 9 x 4.5 km) Amsterdam The Netherlands 80 km 21

17 Amsterdam Water Supply Dunes view to Zandvoort 22

18 2 3 Groundwater table before

19 Canal construction era

20 26

21 Water abstraction from the Amsterdam Water Supply Dunes million m 3 / year shallow aquifer deep aquifer infiltrated river water 27

22 Water abstraction from the Amsterdam Water Supply Dunes million m 3 / year shallow aquifer deep aquifer infiltrated river water 28

23 Groundwater level decline

24 Pennink (1903) Chloride concentration at different depths in the W-E cross section from the North Sea across the dunes and bordering area 150 m ca m 30

25 Tube well extraction from deeper aquifer > m msl North Sea Polder km c = 1 year c = 4 years c = 40 years c = 200 years 32

26 33

27 Water abstraction from the Amsterdam Water Supply Dunes million m 3 / year shallow aquifer deep aquifer infiltrated river water 34

28 deep extraction with wells m msl North Sea Polder km c = 1 year c = 4 years c = 40 years c = 200 years 35

29 60 km transport system from the river Lek to the dunes. Amsterdam 65 million m 3 per year for 1,2 million people 36

30 Amsterdam Water-Supply Dunes 86 ha of infiltration ponds 25 cm/d 38

31 9 km extraction galleries (drains) 39

32 Artificial recharge in the Amsterdam Water Supply Dunes 65 million m3/yr 41

33 Water abstraction from the Amsterdam Water Supply Dunes million m 3 / year shallow aquifer deep aquifer infiltrated river water 42

34 recovery without wells m msl North Sea Polder km c = 1 year c = 4 years c = 40 years c = 200 years 43

35 Subsurface storage by artificial recharge is key to sustainable use of our groundwater systems as a reliable water resource it turns a local groundwater system into a reliable freshwater resource by decoupling uncertain availability of a (distant) resource from its local demand and by utilizing subsurface quality improvements and, especially removal of bacteria and viruses 44 4

36 Surface and groundwater storage should be used conjunctively upstream surface water reservoirs should preferably provide water for local downstream aquifer storage Irrigation systems should focus more on recharge and less on ultimate surface water distribution This requires an integrated management of the surface and groundwater on the scale of the catchment Which may restore many of your beautiful Khettera 45 4

37 Oman s recharge dams, combine dams with recharge Capturing incidental wadi stormwater runoff Recharge Groundwater in front of users dam 46

38 Thank you for your attention Delft University of Technology Challenge the future 4

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