1. General. 2. Water Depths. Memo. Horns Rev B. Cable Geological and Geotechnical Conditions. John Frederiksen, J. Lorin Rasmussen.

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1 Memo Project Client Subject From To Horns Rev B Energinet Horns Rev B. Cable Geological and Geotechnical Conditions John Frederiksen, J. Lorin Rasmussen Energinet Att.: Henning Øbro Rambøll Danmark A/S Bredevej 2 DK-2830 Virum Danmark Phone Direct Fax Date Ref General JRF/JLR A(1) The present memo contains a description of the expected geological and geotechnical conditions in the alignment for the cable from the Horns Rev B-wind farm to the coast of Jutland that has been suggested according to the received drawing. The memo concentrates on the upper metres of the series of layers below the area. 2. Water Depths Along the alignment for the cable the water depths range from 10 m to 15 m in the farm area and less than 10 m at the Vejers Banke. See Figure 1. Rambøll Danmark A/S Danish reg. no: CVR-NR Member of FRI

2 Figure 1. Water Depths at Horns Rev Ref. /1/ 3. Geological Conditions 3.1 Most Important Background Material for the Evaluations Already in the period from a detailed geological mapping of that part of the actual area situated inside the coastline was conducted. The results of the mapping campaign were presented in /6/. This also included a coloured geological map of the area. The knowledge on the development of the coastal zone that had been obtained when the map was published in 1925 was considerately extended through many careful studies on the coast development performed during the next decades. Later on better investigation methods have been developed. Of special importance for the present case is an investigation that was done in the first part of the 1990 s in the neighbouring area to the south of the present /8/. This investigation was for a great part based on georadar-profiling. This gave a convincing picture of the depositional story for the geological series of layers in the area. The up to date knowledge on the geological development of the upper part of the series of layers in the area was in 2004 summarized in /7/ (location 85). Of significant interest is, furthermore, the result of the geotechnical borings in the area performed in 1997 and described in /3/. Ref /JRF/JLR A(1) 2/10

3 Finally, in /1/ a detailed description of the geological series of events in the time from the second last glaciation and until present is given, mostly concentrating on the areas situated outside the present coastline. 3.2 Expected Soil Conditions The Area Outside the Coastline. The main part of the actual area has probably been covered by the sea already in the last interglacial period. The deposits from the so-called Eem-sea are still to be found below significant parts of the area, but in other parts they have been eroded away by the large melt water rivers streaming from the ice, standing at the Main Stationary Line in the central part of Jutland in the last glacial period. Those rivers have first eroded deeply into the river bed, but later on they have deposited a cover of meltwater sand and gravel on the river bed. The deposits from the Eem-sea, which are often dominated by gyttja, are presumably not present in levels above elevation -20 m in the area. After the glacial time the sea level raised again, and the sea reached for a period further into the land than the present day coastline. The waves and currents redeposited the upper part of the meltwater deposits, and furthermore it brought to the area very significant amounts of material from the areas along the coast situated north of the actual. The deep basin-structure that had earlier been so characteristic for the morphology of the area now was partly filled in, and the sea-deposited sand and gravel material is to be found from the sea bottom to considerable depth below far the most of the alignment for the cable. The landscape that was firstly covered by the Eem Sea and later on by the meltwater rivers was originally a glacial landscape from the second last glaciation, the Saale glaciation. There is a reasonably significant risk that erosional remnants from that landscape possibly in the form of clay till is locally present close below the sea bottom. Most obviously is the possibility that Vejers Banke - partly or total - might show to be built up by glacial materials almost directly below the sea bottom. It is also a possibility that heavily eroded remnants of the old glacial landscape are present close below the sea bottom in other parts of the alignment, even though their presence are not indicated from the present day morphology The Coastal Area. As already mentioned, the near-shore part of the present land area has earlier in the postglacial time been covered by the sea. However, just at the location where the cable will reach land, the earlier sea-covered part forms a relatively slim zone. According to the geological map, the zone is a little less than 1.5 km wide in the cable route. The sea deposits in this zone are, however, covered by dunes, and the dune-belt continues in eastern direction further past the highest earlier coastline. Ref /JRF/JLR A(1) 3/10

4 In /3/ boring profiles for 3 borings conducted on land within the nearest 700 m to the present shore has been included. All of the borings have first passed wind blown sand above thick layers of young, clean, sea-deposited sand. The base of the young marine sand deposits raises from elevation m in B1, which is located a little more than 100 m from the coast to elevation -8.2 m in the most easterly located boring B3, which is placed approximately 700 m from the coast. The borings all seems to be located in depressions between the dunes, e.g. in areas where the cover of wind-borne sand is relatively thin. According to /8/ it seems to be common in the area right south of the present to find a peat layer, separating an upper from a lower layer of aeolian sand. However, such conditions have not been recognized in the performed borings. It is still a possibility that such a peat layer can be present locally in the cable line. 3.3 Sediment Flow Figure 2. Sediment Flow at Horns Rev, Ref./1/ In the actual area a considerable amount of sediment is currently transported in a southerly direction along the coast. According to /1/, recent estimations show that about 2.5 million m 3 of sand are every year transported into the area from north. It is estimated that maybe 750,000 m 3 of the material has each year in Ref /JRF/JLR A(1) 4/10

5 the last 8000 years been deposited in the Henne Strand-Blåvands Huk area, while the rest of the material is transported further on into the tidal area. The coastline at Kærgård Plantage has earlier undergone a period of accretion but is now no matter the significant surplus of material yearly brought into the area - largely in equilibrium. This fact indicates that the infilling of the basin further away from the coast must still be ongoing. The feature that is the most characteristic and well defined for the coast is the location of the foot of the sand dunes. It is in ref. 10 demonstrated that although wind and waves during severe storms may locally and temporarily attack this line, the foot of the dunes at the coast of Kærgaard Plantage has not been subject to any significant alteration for the period from 1969 to Local erosion in the beach zone has been measured and found to be approximately 1 m below the beach. 10 years of spring and autumn cost profile measurements performed by Kystinspektoratet by 10 lines 1 km apart and located symmetrically around the coast of Kærgård Plantage have given the variation pattern that is depicted in Figure 3. The variation between the upper and the lower profile is approximately 5 m. For the pipeline at Kærgård Plantage the laying profile has been chosen to obtain at least 1.5 m of cover under the lowest registered profile. Comparing the surveys performed during the period with the surveys at 1870/1910 the following changes can be detected: Nymindegab (10 km north of Kærgård Plantage): The coast has advanced approximately 400 m. Kærgård Plantage: The coast has advanced 100 m to 150 m and very little change has occurred since Blåvands Huk 15 km: South of Kærgård Plantage: Accretion towards the west, regression towards the north. The net result is 750 m towards north-west. Ref /JRF/JLR A(1) 5/10

6 Figure 3. Seabed Profile from 1969 to 1980, Kærgård Plantage. Ref. /10/ 4. Geotechnical Conditions Two existing shore approaches of pipelines are depicted in Figure 4: One at Blåbjerg Plantage and one at Kærgaard Plantage. Figure 4. Location Plan Shore Approaches 4.1 Kærgård plantage, Pipeline: The soil investigations for the shore approach of the existing pipeline have shown that the soils within boring depth consist mostly of compact marine sandy gravel, which is covered by medium compact aeolian sand from the foot of the sand dunes and towards east. Ref.: /2/, /4/,/5/. The boundary between aeolian Ref /JRF/JLR A(1) 6/10

7 sand and marine sandy gravel is found at elevation + 2 m at the foot of the sand dunes. The angle of internal friction of the aeolian sand is greater than 36 0 and the angle of internal friction of the marine sandy gravel is greater than Characteristic Soil Parameters. Based on the results of Standard Penetration Tests, SPT, carried out in the boring on the beach, the sand and gravel are estimated to be dense to very dense. 4.2 Blåbjerg plantage, Pipeline: A soil investigation consisting of borings and in situ testings was carried out during The results have been presented in /3/. The boring on the beach has passed marine, medium to coarse sand and gravel down to elevation m. Below this level late glacial and glacial deposits are detected consisting of clay and sand. Borings behind the dunes indicate aeolian sand to elevation +2 m and post glacial sand down to -12 m to -8 m. Below this level the soil consists of late glacial and glacial sand and clay till Characteristic Soil Parameters. Based on the results of the in situ Standard Penetration Tests (SPT) and the results of laboratory tests, typical soil profile have been established for the shore approach site. The design soil profile at Blåbjerg Plantage is given in Table 1. The profile is based upon boring No. 1. Ref. 3. Sand/ gravel /9 40 Sand /9 36 c u (kpa) Soil Type Elevation Top of Layer (m) Depth (m) γ (kn/m 3 ) above/be -low water table ϕ (degree) Sand /9 36 ϕ (degree) c (kpa) Silt/Clay / Clay Till / Sand /10 36 Clay/Silt /sand / Table 1. Design Soil Profile. Ref /JRF/JLR A(1) 7/10

8 Soil Unit Weight The values have been based on tests performed on undisturbed soil samples and where no tests are available the soil unit weight has been based on general experience. Angle of Internal Friction The values given have been based upon relationship between the results of SPT and the angle of internal friction. Undrained Shear Strength The values given have been based upon vane shear strength. Effective parameters The effective parameters are evaluated in accordance to the Danish Code of Practice, Foundation, DS Offshore The top layer is expected to be formed of postglacial marine fine to medium sand and possible clay till at Vejers Banke. In Figure 5 the S indicates sand deposits on the seabed based on information from the navigation map. Based on general experience from other investigations the relative density of the sand deposits is expected to be dense to very dense with an angle of internal friction greater than The relative densities of the upper sand layers are governed by the wave activity. Ref /JRF/JLR A(1) 8/10

9 Figure 5. Soil Types taken from the Navigation Map, ref. 9. At Vejers Banke the strength of the possible clay till is unknown. 5. Alternative Cable Route In order to avoid the expected clay till at Vejers Banke an alternative alignment of the cable is depicted in Figure 6. Figure 6. Alternative Alignment of the Cable Ref /JRF/JLR A(1) 9/10

10 West of Vejers Banke the navigation map indicates stones on the seabed, signature ST in Figure 6, so in order to avoid the expected clay till a more westerly route is proposed. 6. References 1. Blåvands Huk Horns Rev området et nyt Skagen? Birger Larsen. Geologi. Nyt fra GEUS nr Danish Natural Gas transmission System. North Sea Pipeline. Kærgaard Nybro Landline.Soil Survey Report. NGG naturgasgruppen Dansk Naturgas A/S Natural Gas Transmission Line, Blåbjerg Plantage Geotechnical Investigations Factual Report RAMBØLL August Dansk Olie & Naturgas A/S. Danish Natural Gas Transmission System. North Sea Pipeline. Onshore Soil Surveys report. NGG Naturgasgruppen Dansk Olie & Naturgas A/S. Danish Natural Gas Transmission System. North Sea Pipeline. Offshore Soil Surveys report. NGG Naturgasgruppen. Volume A Geologisk Kort over Danmark. Kortbladet Blåvandshuk, Danm.Geol. Unders. I rk, nr Geologisk Set. Det sydlige Jylland. En beskrivelse af områder af national geologisk interesse. Skov- og naturstyrelsen Nielsen, Søren T, Clemmensen, Lars B og Andreasen, Frank 1994: The middle and late Holocene Barrier Spit System at Vejers, Denmark. Structure and development. Bull. Geol. Soc. Denm. Vol. 42 pp Søkort Nordsøen Horns Rev udgave Kort & Matrikelstyrelsen Technical note. North Sea Pipeline. Shore Approach. Updating of Low Envelop Documentation. NGG. Naturgasgruppen Ref /JRF/JLR A(1) 10/10

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