1 An unusual tunnel collapse, the Hull Wastewater Transfer Tunnel Australian Tunnelling Society Wednesday, 26th March, 2014 Steve Macklin Principal Tunnel Engineer/ Engineering Geologist, GHD Melbourne
2 References: Chamley et al (2000) North America Tunneling Conference, Boston June Published AUA News September Caiden, Chamley & Covil (2005) RETC Proceedings, 2005 BTS Informal Discussion at the ICE, November 2001, Tunnels & Tunnelling, March 2002 Machon & Stevens (2004) - Proc. Institution of Civil Engineers, GE3 Grose & Benton (2005) Proc. Institution of Civil Engineers, GE4 Various (2006) - Discussion: Proc. Institution of Civil Engineers, GE2 Munks, Chamley & Eddie (2004) Proc. North American Tunnelling 2004 Brown (2004) - Proc. Institution of Civil Engineers, GE3 Tunnels & Tunnelling March 2002
3 The project The failure The investigation Possible causes Remediation Implications for the insurance industry Lessons learned Questions An unusual tunnel collapse, the Hull Wastewater Transfer Tunnel
4 The project 10.6km tunnels 10No. Shafts 7.5m to 12.5m int. diam. 2No. Jet grout maintenance blocks 6No. De-watering & comp. air stops 3.6m ID lining: 6No. Trapezoidal Segments, 1m long, 250mm thick Segments cast vertically location 50M contract to construct a 10.6km long tunnel for Yorkshire Water's 200M Humbercare sewage collection and processing scheme.
5 The project Medium dense silty, fine to medium alluvial SAND (non-tidal aquifer) 2. Firm to stiff and friable PEATY CLAY/SILT, with fragments of timber, aquitard, k h 400k v 3. Upper alluvial SILTY FINE SAND grading down to GRAVELLY SAND to SANDY GRAVEL 4. Soft to firm to stiff thinly LAMINATED CLAY (aquiclude, k h 10k v ) 5. Dense fine AEOLIAN SAND 6. glacial SAND AND GRAVEL (tidal aquifer) HOLOCENE PLEISTOCENE
6 The project The failure The investigation Possible causes Construction News, 14 September 2000 Remediation Implications for the insurance industry Lessons learned Questions. All tunnels leak to some extent, but when I was told of the enormity of this situation I couldn't understand what could have gone wrong
7 Failure sequence: The failure 19:00 R2403 2L/min leak right knee 23:30 7L/min 00:30 black organic smelling water, leaking around circle joint 01:30 sand filling invert, rings buckling 02:20 invert heaving, re-bolting attempted 02:45 manrider derailed and abandoned 03:00 segments crazing and spalling 03:30 tunnel abandoned 04:00 water main burst, ground cracking, shaft sinking 07:30 tunnel inspected, filled with fine sand 60m diameter depression - maximum 2.6m settlement the volume of the settlement depression was about 2600m 3 - tunnel filled with fine sand/silt approx. 200m either side of shaft
8 The project The failure The investigation Possible causes Grose & Benton, 2005 Remediation Implications for the insurance industry Lessons learned Questions The investigation into the cause of the collapse demanded.. urgent answers. Clearly, future tunnelling, and the previously constructed tunnel, were at risk until conclusions were available regarding the cause
9 The investigation So why did an apparently stable, grouted-up lining fail weeks after construction? Was it: Something in the ground conditions (e.g. peat compressibility, mobile sands)? Hydrogeological effects (e.g. damming, tidal fluctuations in water pressure)? A design flaw (e.g. segment capacity, shear pad failure, gasket bypassed)? Construction problems (e.g. ring damage during shaft entry, removal of circle joint bolts, annulus grouting, shaft disturbance)?
10 The investigation A comprehensive investigation was undertaken, this included: New ground investigations including: 22 BHs, 71 CPTs, PM tests Triaxials, Rowe Cells, oedometer, Pollen & species analysis, C 14 dating (Uni Hull) and LOI (in peat); Atterbergs; PSD; SEM (aeolian sand); dispersivity (laminated clay); water chemistry; Centrifuge (Cambridge Univ. Eng. Dept.); Hydro (piezo, 2No. Pump tests, tracer Uni Sheffield) lining design checks 2D and 3D FEA modelling of possible failure mechanisms Witness statements to reconstruct sequence of events Examination of available construction records
11 The investigations Centrifuge tests limited by modelling simplifications required, however confirmed: Tunnel buoyancy caused longitudinal deformation relative to fixity at the shaft softening/ disturbance of soil local to the shaft Circle joint opening If laminated clay in invert stays intact NO FAILURE But if fine single size SAND gains access FAILURE
12 The project The failure The investigation Possible causes Remediation Grose & Benton, 2005 Implications for the insurance industry Lessons learned Questions A relatively unusual feature of the collapse was that there was no immediately obvious cause.. usually the blame is attributed to some design or construction aspect or.. adverse ground conditions. but in this case all seemed satisfactory
13 Possible causes Consequence of longitudinal movement: top hat incident? shear pads failure? Nib crushed gasket bypassed?
14 Possible causes Highly mobile fine sand silt in: In Holocene alluvium laminated clay Aeolian sands Previous problems: Hull Tidal Surge barrier (Fleming et al 1980 and McMillan, 1984) Shaft tremmie problems with trapped silt sludge (T4) Problems with ground anchor holes piping Possible glacial disturbance providing water path in laminated clay The peat/organic clay: Disturbance and softening during shaft construction? Loss of confinement due to buoyancy, compression? leakage & consolidation at the early stages? Groundwater pressure: Failure at HIGH TIDE damming by tunnel 2bar in lower aquifer but... Upper aquifer no tidal response so lower pressure
15 The project The failure The investigation Possible causes Brown, 2004 Remediation Implications for the insurance industry Lessons learned Questions. The use of liquid nitrogen to create a stable environment in which to rebuild the tunnel was a technically challenging option. Cost and programme implications were significant
16 Remediation 40m 75m W2 W1 E1 E2 E3 Re-mining using AGF to form 1.5m ice-walls around tunnel
17 The project The failure The investigation Possible causes Remediation Implications for the insurance industry Lessons learned Questions Underwriters reluctant to Insure Tunnel Projects without adoption of Joint Code of Practice please provide your views and comments June 2003, from AON, KCRC s Insurance Brokers (Jesudason HKIE, download March 2014)
18 Insurance implications Chamley et al (2000): The Construction All Risks (CAR) insurance policy covered both client and contractor - protected against the damage repair costs. ACCELERATION INSURANCE addressed the measures necessary to get the construction back on track to meet the completion date. Where the CAR policy does not cover the remedial works and programme mitigation costs, the COST OVER-RUN INSURANCE limited the clients financial liability. Client saw little impact and the anticipated outturn cost was within the original estimate.
19 Insurance implications Munich Re - Wannick (2006) BTS closed face tunnelling report on Hull and Portsmouth collapses May 2002 BTS ABI JCOP published September International Tunnelling Insurance Group (ITIG) by 2005
20 The project The failure The investigation Possible causes Covil et al (2005) Remediation Implications for the insurance industry Lessons learned Questions four key risks during construction are safety (life and economic), cost, time and quality. These can all be identified, assessed, valued, mitigated and then apportioned to the appropriate project stakeholder
21 Lessons learned Carry out detailed geo-hazard risk assessments and risk management processes early (e.g. identifying previous issues with the mobile sands ) Keep on top of TBM data logging never know when you need the data note the Closed Face working party (2002) recommendations (4.2) Ensure annular grouting and take a zero tolerance to leaks Smooth transition from rigid shaft to flexible tunnel design for permanent bolts or some other means Are shear pads (for build accuracy) a good idea? Distance between EPDM gasket and extrados? Segment design and casting adequate cover and joint quality Monitoring (e.g. ground movement, water pressures) in critical locations - difficult around a working shaft but this is a key risk area Design for sufficient redundancy / robustness avoid false economies
22 The project The failure The investigation Possible causes Grose & Bentley (2005)_Discussion Remediation Implications for the insurance industry Lessons learned Questions buoyancy and tidal variations caused repeated cyclic movement of the tunnel even with a fully grouted annulus. This. may have created both a path for the sand to travel towards the tunnel and compromised the gasket.
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