Increased understanding of the close interaction between surface waters

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1 A THREE-DIMENSIONAL PLEXI-GLASS MODEL OF THE HYDROGEOLOGY, HYDRO CHEMISTRY AND FLOW SYSTEMS IN THE COASTAL DUNES WITH ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE, CASTRICUM, NETHERLANDS G.B. Engelen Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands R.J. Stuurman Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, presently Ministry of Agriculture NMF, Utrecht, The Netherlands P.J. Stuyfzand KIWA, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands E. Roosma PWN, Bloemendaal, The Netherlands Abstract A detailed integrated study was made of the water supply area with artificial recharge of Provincial Waterworks of North Holland in the coastal dunes near Castricum. It yielded a very complicated three-dimensional picture of the hydrogeological structure and of the distribution of chemical water types due to mixing, cation exchange and time-variant operation of infiltration- and extraction systems. A three-dimensional mock-up contains the aquifers, aquitards, aquicludes, observation- and extraction wells, infiltration works, spatial distribution of 9 different water types and illuminated schematic flow lines of the various natural and man-made flow systems. The main data on construction and construction materials are provided. 1 Introduction Increased understanding of the close interaction between surface waters 193

2 and groundwaters and between water quality and water quantity aspects requires a more holistic approach to solve the wide variety of water problems in regional contexts (Engelen, 1984a). The approach of hierarchically nested groundwater flow systems (Toth, 1963, 1971, 1979; Freeze and Witherspoon, 1966, 1967) has been developed further into a method of regional hydrological systems analysis (Engelen, 1984a). It is based on the integration of a multitude of different types of data : topographic, geomorphological, vegetational, pedological, land use, hydrochemical, hydrological and others. This results in a new type of map with accompanying cross sections : the hydrological systems map. Another method to demonstrate the very complex and close interaction between all these environmental data in the unifying framework of hydrological systems is a three-dimensional plexi-glass demonstration model of a specific area. The presented 3-D mock-up shows a spatial picture of the situation in one of the most thoroughly studied and intensively used dune water catchments of the world : the dunes and aquifers with artificial recharge of Provincial Waterworks of North Holland near Castricum. 2 Background data about the model General information about the ecological, hydrological (Engelen, 1984b), and water supply aspects of this area - the North Holland Dunes Nature Reserve - can be found in a commemorative volume on fifty years of research and management of the area (PWN, 1984). Detailed additional information about the hydrochemistry and hydrology of the area as portrayed in the demonstration model can be found in a report (in Dutch language) by Stuyfzand (1985) and in the proceedings of the SWIM symposium 1986 at Delft (Stuyfzand, in press). The report is part of a broader Ph.D study by Stuyfzand on the hydrochemistry and hydrology of the coastal dune area of the Western Netherlands to be presented at the Vrije Universiteit at Amsterdam. 194

3 3 3.1 Design of th8 model Size and scale The size of the model is approximately 2~x1~x1 m. The scale of the.model in horizontal direction is and in vertical direction 1 : 200. The resulting 25-fold vertical exaggeration allows sufficient space to show all desired features. 3.2 Hydrogeological structure The hydrogeological structure is presentedby nearly horizontal transparent acrylate (plexi-glass) plates as aquitards and aquicludes, while the intermediate void space represents the extent of the aquifers. To visualize the changes in thickness of the aquicludes or aquitards the individual component layers of the plexi-glass plates have been covered by thin light-grey transparent plastic adhesive sheets. Thick aquitards/aquicludes, consisting of stacked plexi-glass layers will turn darker grey in this way and show the spatial differences inpermeability more clearly. 3.3 Observation wells, production and injection wells and infiltration canals The wells in the area consist of five types a) Deep observation wells, indicated by metallic grey tops. All of them have been incorporated in the model. b) Deep production wells to extract natural dune water, indicated by black tops. These are situated in rows. Their locations have all been indicated on the cover plate of the model but only a few representative ones have been selected for actual presentation by bars in the model in order to prevent overcrowding. c) Shallow production wells to recover artificially infiltrated river water, indicated by black tops. These are situated in rows around the infiltration canals. These too have been indicated for the maj9r 195

4 part only on the: cover plate. d) Very shallow observation wells of temporary networks. These have been omitted from the model. e) An abandoned experimental deep injection well in the center of the area and two experimental deep injection wells in operation in the southeast, the latter indicated by red tops. The lay-out of the infiltration canals is shown on the transparent cover plate of the model, together with main roads, villages, etc. 3.4 Hydrochemistry and distribution of water types The complex spatial pattern of the nine chemical groundwater types is caused by the combination of hydrogeological structure, natural processes and human interference by extraction and recharge. Each water type has in the model its own colour shown by transparent plastic sheets on two vertical cross sections and on the bars of the wells. 3.5 Flow visualization The most important flow systems have been visualized by illuminated tubes, according to schematic flow linesofthe various natural and manmade flow systems. A flow effect has been obtained by means of an electronic unit producing flashes at short intervals of four serially-linked sequences of small lamps. The circuits can be activated separately with switches by observers. Acknowledgements The model has been constructed on behalf of Mr. C. Sprey, director of the Provincial Waterworks of North Holland in cooperation between the Department of Hydrogeology and Geographical Hydrology of the Vrije Universiteit at Amsterdam and Ir. E. Roosma, head of the Department of Research and Planning of Provincial Waterworks. The model was built by Drs. R.J. Stuurman according to a design by 196

5 Prof.Dr. G.B. Engelen in cooperation with Mr. Th. Hamer and his technical staff of the Institute of Earth Sciences of the Vrije Universiteit. The data for the model were mainly derived from a report by Drs. P.J. Stuyfzand (1985). References Engelen, G.B. 1984a. Hydrological systems analysis. A regional case study. Report OS 84-20, Institute of Applied Geoscience TNO-DGV, Delft, 43 pp. Engelen, G.B. 1984b. Schuiven met watermassa's. Ret water als onderdeel vanhp-t.duinecosysteem. In: Van duingebruik naar duinbeheer. Vijftig jaar onderzoek en beheer Noordhollands Duinreservaat. PWN, Bloemendaal, pp Freeze, R.A. and P.A. Witherspoon 1966, Theoretical analysis of regional groundwater flow I, II. Water Res. Research 3, 2. I : pp (1966); II : pp (1967). PWN Van duingebruik naar duinbeheer. Vijftig jaar onderzoek en beheer Noordhollands Duinreservaat. Provinciaal Waterleidingbedrijf van Noord-Holland, Bloemendaal, 47 pp. Stuyfzand, P.J Hydrochemie en hydrologie van het duingebied tussen Egmond en Wijk aan Zee. Vrije Universiteit/KIWA/PWN, Report SWE- 85, 012, KIWA, Rijswijk, 205 pp. Stuyfzand, P.J in press. A hydrochemical classification of water types. Principles and application to the coastal aquifers of the Netherlands. Proc. SWIM Symposium Delft, May Toth, J A theoretical analysis of groundwater flow in small drainage basins. J. Geoph. Res. 68, 16, pp Toth, J Groundwater discharge : a common generator of diverse geologic and morphologic phenomena. Bull. Int. Ass. Sc. Hydr. XVI, 1/3, pp Toth, J Cross-formational gravity flow of groundwater. In Problems of petroleum migration. AAPG-studies in geology, no

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