Value from Waste. Amsterdam s Vision on the 4 th -generation Waste-2-Energy. Ir. M.A.J. (Marcel) van Berlo

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1 Value from Waste Amsterdam s Vision on the 4 th -generation Waste-2-Energy Ir. M.A.J. (Marcel) van Berlo Waste & Energy Company City of Amsterdam ISWA congress 2007 Plant Visit at Afvalenergiebedrijf Amsterdam, 27 september 2007 ISWA

2 1. INTRODUCTION 1. Introduction 2. Scenarios for Recovery 3. Amsterdam 4. New generation of waste incineration 5. Conclusion ISWA

3 Society Air Exhaust Water Society Waste Water Raw materials Waste

4 Closing the loop Air Exhaust gas Water Society Waste Water Raw materials Energy WFPP Waste

5 Desert Scarcity Survival Self supporting Deterrence Robustness Long live cycle Economical (=Zuinig) Waste prevention Residues remain

6 Tropical rain forest: Abundance Growth Competition Complexity Redundancy Short life-cycle Wasteful (=Verspillend) Massive disposal Massive recycling: 1. Eat-and-be-eaten = use the proteins 2. Down cycle = Molecular decomposition 3. Production = from residues

7 Grades of recycling Raw materials Reuse: as-is or repair Second hand car Disassemble: components Dismantling the car Fragment: materials Shredder Society Waste Decompose: Molecules Fermentation, Pyrolysis Convert: Atoms and energy Burn

8 Waste is a RENEWABLE! l 100% Sustainable Energy from an endless flow of waste l 50% Renewable CO 2 -free energy 50% of waste is BIOMASS Waste Fired Power Plant Renewable ENERGY from biomass l Richer than most RAW MATERIALS high concentration of valuable METALS

9 2. Dutch scenario 2012 Total Waste Production Combustible Waste MTon/year Not Combustible Combustible Reuse Landfill Other waste incineration R1 Hazardous waste R1 Sludges D10 Incineration D10

10 Dutch Results of policy Mton/year Reuse/Recycling Incineration Discharge Landfill

11 Dutch waste policy Preference order: 1. Prevention 2. Reuse and Recycling 3. Incineration/energy production 4. Landfill Instruments for steering waste management: Regulations on landfill ( ) Legislation - stringent emission limits incineration(1990) - directives and covenants (glass, paper, CFK) Ban on landfill and landfill tax for combustible waste (1995) Financial incentives (REB 1997, MEP 2005) ISWA

12 Price competition versus Preference order 200 Cost ranges for Waste Management options 200 / ton MSW Landfill Tax Maximum cost range Minimum cost Landfill Incineration Reuse/recycling Cheap landfill beats every other option Landfill tax (or landfill ban) is needed to give reuse/recycling a fair chance WtE (as alternative for land filling) is needed to implement landfill taxes Prices of incineration are within range of reuse/recycling options Countries with high WtE percentage have much better reuse/recycling percentage ISWA

13 2. SCENARIOS: Integral chain efficiency Source Paper Glass Household Separation (mechanical) Paper Glass Percent of Mass 30% 25% 20% 25% Conversion efficiency RDF 40% Digestion 5% recovery WFPP 30% Material Landfill SAI Landfill 1,5% Overall efficiency Energy 28% Energy 2% Energy 30% Materials

14 The NEW Generation WtE Third generation (1985-now) is designed to be CLEAN Fourth generation (now-->.) is designed for RECOVERY of ENERGY and MATERIALS

15 2. PERFORMANCE INDICATORS for WtE Input Output Quantity Effect Evaluation Exhaust gas Dust, NO x, CO, HCl, SO 2, C x H y dioxin, HM, CO 2 Acidity, Toxicity, CO 2 -equiv Waste WtE Electricity Heat Materials Energy Mass R1/D10, Exergy, Primaryresources LCA, GHGemission/ avoidance, LCC Residues Deviation rate

16 RECOVERY is the new RULE! It was WI Waste incineration It is WTE Waste To Energy ca. 15% It will be WFPP Waste Fired Power Plant 30%

17 Electrical Efficiency of Power Plants Depends on fuel quality: l Natural Gas 55 % l Oil 50 % l Coal 45 % l Lignite 40 % l Biomass 35 % l Waste %...30% Current Average Current: State-of-the-Art New: Best Available Technology

18 EXergy Production 50,0% 45,0% 40,0% Exergy equ. Recovered metals Exergy efficiency 35,0% 30,0% 25,0% 20,0% 15,0% 10,0% 5,0% 0,0% DUMPSITE LANDFILL+ biogas engines WtE WtE Convention Average NL al WtE Optimised WtE Conv.+CHP WtE Optim.+CH P WtE heat only Exergy equ. Recovered metals 0,0% 0,0% 4,5% 7,0% 10,8% 7,0% 10,8% 4,5% Exergy efficiency 0,0% 2,0% 14,6% 19,8% 30,0% 24,5% 33,1% 14,6%

19 0,84 WtE heat only R1 / D10 (with proposed limits) R1 / D10 (with proposed limits) 1,11 0,91 0,88 0,65 0,6 0,63 0,5 0,05 0 WtE Optim.+CHP WtE Conv.+CHP WtE Optim. WtE Conv. WtE Average LANDFILL DUMPSITE 1,2 1 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0

20 3. Amsterdam: Waste & Energy Enterprise l l l l l l l Owned by Local government Long term contracts Commercial operation: 70 /ton of waste Capital intensive Industrial scale Mission: Maximise the use of waste Ambitious targets - Best environmental performance - Lowest cost

21 Generations in Waste incineration Generation Capacity [ton/year] Operational paradigm Start collection Open air incineration 1 st Hygiene 2 nd Flue gas de-dusting 3 rd Chemical cleaning 4 th RECOVERY of ENERGY and MATERIALS

22 1 st Incineration

23 AVI-Noord

24 Aerial picture (overview)

25 Construction of WFPP in Amsterdam

26 Amsterdam waste and Energy production Waste [Tons/Year] Ele k tricity [MWh/Year] e 3e HR-AEC AEC - slib AEC - afval e AVI-Noord2 4e e AVI-Noord1 E-productie e e e Generations Waste to Energy in Amsterdam ISWA

27 2000 SIZE MATTERS Investment in relation to the capacity of 4 Dutch AVI s Investment in per ton / year AVI Amsterdam Capacity in 1000 ton / year

28 4. New generation in Waste incineration Historical waste incineration generations : l 0 Open air incineration l 1 st 1900 oven l 2 nd 1960 dust removal from flue gas l 3 rd 1985 chemical cleaning of flue gas In this presentation we outline a new step: l 4 th 2006 RECOVERY of energy and materials

29 Why new generation? Historical development of public awareness: RECOVERY is the A newly identified need leads to a new technical concept. next logical step. The adapted installations will have additional lifetime because of social acceptability

30 4th-generation Incineration = WFPP l l Cost must go down Reliable, proven technology l Energy Optimisation to the max!! Leap from 22% to >30% l Material reuse to the max!! Fe, Al, Cu, Gypsum, CaCl2, Washed bottom ash = N1 quality building material Washed fly ash = inert

31 CONCEPT for RECOVERY 850 kwh/ton = 30 of energy in waste Energy utilisation rate = 0,84 Chemicals 10 kg 30 % of energy in waste EU discussion on R1/D10 Fluegass Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fluegass cleaning Output per ton of waste: SAI Non Ferro 5 kg Iron 25 kg Sand 100 kg Granulate 100 kg Fines 20 kg Salt Gypsum Fly-ash Residue 7 kg 5 kg 10 kg 5 kg

32 Sorting After Incineration Bottom ash Washing water Sort 6-40mm Magnet Eddy current Coarse granulate <2mm 2-6mm Cyclone Magnet Clean sand Iron Density separation Fine granulate Non-Fe metals Dewatering Sludge cake

33 Bottomash treatmentplant ISWA

34 HR-AVI project = WFPP l l Systematic approach to optimise recovery Using proven technologies in new combination l Electrical efficiency >30% l New logistic concept l Budget: 400 M l Construction start: Begin 2004 l Completion: End 2006

35 Evaporator Superheater Economiser 1e 2e 3e 850 C 1 st 2 nd 650 C 3 rd 4 th 180 C SSH 1 SSH 2 SSH 3 SSH 4 ECO 1 ECO 2 ECO 3 terti terti α secu Prim secu Bodemas Ketelas 1 Ketelas 2 Sketch boiler design - Large 1st draw: Height >20m, Flue-gas velocity < 3m/s - Large 2nd and 3rd-draw - Super-heater: Flue-gas velocity < 2,5 m/s - Second Economiser after fabric filter - Flue-gas recirculation (primary and secondary air)

36 Superheater Turbine 135 bar 335 C 130 bar 480 C 14 bar 190 C 13 bar 320 C 0,03 bar 25 C x 1 x2 Drum Reheater Boiler Sketch steam reheating Superheated steam C Steam pressure bar Steam reheating after HP-turbine Extra economiser

37 HP-Turbine Generator LP-Turbine Condensor ISWA Cooling water Reheaters (2x)

38 ISWA High Efficiency concept WFPP

39 Boiler WFPP ISWA

40 Flue-gas cleaning WFPP ISWA

41 Energy-potential in Waste Waste in EU: 182 MTon/year x 10 MJ/kg x 30% Electricity: = 550 PJ / year = 150 TWh / year = MW-continuous = 8 % of total EU-production Avoided CO 2 = 200 million tons per year

42 Efficiency breakdown 100% 100% 100% 100% Boiler losses (stack) Boiler losses (stack) 80% 60% 40% 80% 60% 40% Boiler losses (stack) Cooling = Loss 20% el 80% 60% 40% Boiler losses (stack) Cooling = Loss 30% el 20% el 80% 60% 40% Cooling = Loss Heat 20% el Cooling = Loss Heat 30% el 20% 0% Conventional 20% 0% WFPP 20% 0% Conv+ heat 20% 0% Derating of electricity by heat delivery WFPP+ heat 20% el Derating of electricity by heat delivery ISWA

43 Greenhouse effect overall Greenhouse effect overall kg CO2/ton Waste Greenhouse effect overall Landfill Combined heat and power 400 Electricity Heat DUMPSITE LANDFILL+ biogas engines WtE Average NL WtE Conventional WtE Optimised WtE Conv.+CHP WtE Optim.+CHP WtE heat only

44 Greenhouse gas balance [kg CO2 / ton Waste] DUMPSIT E LANDFILL WtE Average WtE Conv. WtE Optim. WtE Conv.+CH P WtE Optim.+CH P WtE heat only Avoided CO2 by Heat delivery Avoided CO2 by Electricity production Avoided CO2 by metal recovery Methane (CO2-equiv.) CO2 emission Fos.orig CO2 emission Bio.orig CO2 used for biomass

45 WFPP is the most cost-effective renewable option / avoided ton of CO 2 Cost per avoided ton CO Waste-2-Energy WFPP Wind on land Biomass Wind on sea Photo-voltaic ISWA Sources: EZ, Regeling subsidiebedragen milieukwaliteit elektriciteitsproductie; VROM, personal communication; ECN, 2002, Duurzame Energie en Ruimte, M. Menkveld; analysis Deloitte

46 % Optimal Electrical efficiency Electricity price [ /MWh] Small installation Big installation Source: W+G OPTIMISATION: Local conditions Cooling water Type of waste Size of installation Electricity price Depreciation time Subsidies Environmental profile Permit conditions ISWA

47 Business case for 4 th -generation M / year Income from waste and energy Extra lifetime 4thgeneration Gain on permiting HE Green Fee Aditional Electricity 10 Electricity Year (before/after scheduled startup) Waste ISWA

48 Business case for 4 th -generation ISWA

49 SYNERGY Waste Waste Water Sewage Sludge Incineration Exhaust Biogas Engines Biogas Heat Sewage Treatment Plant Electricity Electricity Water ISWA

50 Patents for licensing with support for implementation Flue gas Cleaning 1. Dioxin removal in wet flue gas cleaning with detergents 2. Mercury removal in wet flue gas cleaning 3. Combining waste incineration and sewage treatment plant Energy Recovery 4. High Efficiency - Waste Fired Power Plant 5. Flue gas recirculation to primary air 6. Steam super heater construction with screen pipes 7. Steam super heater with unround pipes Material recovery 8. Salt fabrication from flue gas cleaning residue 9. Recovery of fine Non-Ferrous metals from bottom ash 10. Gravity Separation of Non-Ferrous metals from bottom ash ISWA

51 6. CONCLUSION COST can/must go DOWN SIMPLE process do it OPTIMAL Environmental efficiency use all SYNERGY Electrical Efficiency > 30% ISWA

52 Conclusion: Waste is the directly available raw material for clean renewable energy and high quality building materials Let s explore together world s most valuable mineral ISWA

53 Nothing is waste! Nothing is to be wasted! ISWA

54 Tropical rain forest

55 AEB Amsterdam Picture WFPP

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