JASE-world Waste to Energy Sub WG Masanori Tsukahara Hitachi Zosen Corporation

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1 Presentation of Japanese technology of waste to energy JASE-world Waste to Energy Sub WG Masanori Tsukahara Hitachi Zosen Corporation

2 JASE-W established in Oct 2008 Introduction of JASE-world Members Digits in parentheses show numbers of members as of APR 2011 Corporate(72) Steel(2), Power & Gas Supply(8), Finance(5), Trading(7), Manufacturer - General(18), Electric(7), Electronic(3), Ceramic(1), Rubber(3) - Housing(2), Construction(1), Petroleum(1), Car(1), Petrochemicals(3), Engineering(10), Industrial Association(20) Observer(12) Activities Policy Proposal to Government METI, MOFA, JETRO, NEDO, JBIC, JICA, WB, ADB, NEXI, IFC, IEEJ, Clean Association of Tokyo 23 Project Exploration through 4 Working Groups(WG) associated with G&B Mission Overseas Publication of Japanese Smart Energy Technologies PR through International & Domestic Expositions News Release by Website and Advertise on News Paper Mr. H Yonekura, Chairman of JASE-W (Chairman of Japan Business Federation) Japanese Business Alliance for Smart Energy - Worldwide 2

3 Presentation of Japanese technology of waste to energy Introduction of Waste and Resources in Tokyo 3

4 Waste Treatment Transition in Japan( ) Incineration is common in Japan due to the limited habitable land and pressure of waste volume reduction Unit: Thousands ton/year Recycle, etc Landfill Incineration Source: 3R Forum 4 4

5 Flow of waste and resources in Tokyo 23 cities Waste Resource Combustible waste Incombustible waste Large-sized waste Resources Collection / Transport of waste (Each city) Transfer incombustibles Transfer large-sized waste Collect resources Intermediate processing of waste (Clean Association of TOKYO 23) Incineration plants Incombustible Waste Processing Center Pulverization Processing Plant for Large-sized Waste Ash-melting plants Pulverized Waste Processing Center Utilization of produced heat -Use by generating power -Surplus heat used for air conditioning and swimming pools in the area Used as construction material, and other uses. Recovery / Sales of Steel and aluminum Final disposal (Tokyo Metropolitan Government) Outer Central Breakwater Landfill Disposal Site or New Sea Surface Disposal Site Recovered as resource or product by recycling centers of manufactures or 5 private recycling businesses. Clean Association of TOKYO 23 consists of Head Office and branches including incineration plants and other processing facilities. The total number of staff members is 1,137 as of April From Clean Association of TOKYO 23 5

6 Suginami Plant (left) & Toshima Plant (right) 6 From Clean Association of TOKYO 23 6

7 Presentation of Japanese technology of waste to energy Advanced Incineration Technology of Japan 7

8 Advantages and Disadvantages of WtE Advantages Improvement of environment and sanitary condition around landfill site Volume Reduction (Over 90%) Mass treatment possibility Good adaptability for treatment of various wastes 8 With respect to Waste to Energy Disadvantages Negative image (hazardous pollutants emission, e.g. dioxin) It s no problem by adopting the appropriate exhaust gas treatment system. Higher Initial Cost than Landfill Provide the stable energy among the various renewable energy resources and contribute nation s energy security Carbon emission credit(especially in changing from landfill) 8

9 Waste to Energy Plant Waste receiving charging system Incinerator & Boiler system Waste heat utilization system Flue gas cleaning system Ash treatment system 9 9

10 Change in calorific value of municipal solid waste Lower calorific value (kj/kg) Large difference Incinerator introduced from Europe Technology development High water content waste incineration technology Gasification ash melting furnace and melting furnace developed :The first incineration plant in Japan 1960:The first machinery incineration plant completed(japanese technology) 1965:The first waste to energy plant completed(european technology) 1996~2004:Ash melting mandated by the government Pollution control technology YEAR Dioxin control technology 出 典 : Efficient heat recovery and power generation technology 狩 郷 修 ごみ 焼 却 炉 選 定 の 技 術 的 評 価 ごみ 処 理 施 設 整 備 の 計 画 設 計 要 領 日 Japan 本 1 欧 Europe 州 10 10

11 Technical Features of Incinerator For Complete Burn Out of Low calorific Refuse Enough large grate area Good radiant effect for refuse drying Mixing and loosening of refuse by vertical step Appropriate supply of combustion air Capacity: 4-900t/day/unit 11 Waste constituent(%) Radiant Heat Mixing and Loosening Appropriate Hot Air Supply moisture Burning Combustible ash 11

12 Flue Gas Cleaning System Compressed Air Spray Nozzle Bag Filter Flue Gas Flue Gas Cooler Silo Silo Induced Draft Fan Stack Activated Carbon Slaked Lime Cooling Water Tank Cooling Water pump Quantitative Feeder Injection Blower 12 12

13 Dioxin Emissions from Waste Incinerators in Japan 1997:Guidelines for Prevention of dioxin and related to waste disposal ,432(100%) Dioxin Emissions (g/year) 総 排 出 量 [g-teq/ 年 ] ,582(48.2%) 2,728(36.7%) 2,187(29.4%) 1,745(23.5%) 97% Reduction Small 小 型 Incinerator 焼 却 炉 Industrial 産 廃 焼 却 Waste 施 設 Incinerator Municipal 一 廃 焼 却 Waste 施 設 Incinerator ( ) 内 の 数 値 は,1997 年 度 の 総 排 出 量 を100%としたときの 割 合 (10.2%) 226(3.0%) 206(2.8%) 135(1.8%) 232(3.1%) 225(3.0%) 191(2.6%) 年 Year 度 Ministry of Environment web site 13

14 Waste to Energy Plant built by Japanese Company China 23 Plants (15 Plants are under construction ) Japan 800 Plants For electricity 304 Plants (1,673MW) (2009) Korea 15 Plants Taiwan 24 Plants Thailand 1 Plants Singapore 3 Plants 14 CHENGDU, China 14

15 Presentation of Japanese technology of waste to energy Waste Heat Recovery Technology of Japan High efficiency refuse burning power generation Steam turbine G Super Heater Economizer Feedwater Tank & Deaerator condenser Refuse fired boiler(hightempertaure higi-pressure type) P P Condensate Tank 15

16 Efficient waste power generation Waste heat utilization system Plant Internal Use Steam Generation Boiler Power Generation Electricity Sales Steam Turbine Electricity Furnace & Steam supply Combustion (Municipal Solid Waste) Boiler feed water pump Deionizer Deaerator feed water pump Steam condenser Condenser tank Deaerator Steam Boiler Steam Turbine Electric Power Generation Steam Supply to Demander 16 Hot Water Boiler Hot water supply to Demander Japan Smart Community Alliance

17 Acquirable energy (electricity) Relationship between Capacity of facility and Electricity generated 施 設 規 模 ごとの (Calorific 発 電 value 量 (Hu=8,800kJ/kg of waste ; = 8,800KJ/kg) 時 の 試 算 例 ) Over 10,000 kw Electricity (kw) 発 電 量 (kw) 施 設 規 模 (t/ 日 ) Capacity of facility (t/day) Number of Pop. 500 thousands 17 17

18 Presentation of Japanese technology of waste to energy Business Model of waste Management 18 18

19 Business Model in China 19 19

20 Feed in Tariff Scheme for power from MSW Purchase Price (USD/kWh) Period Comments Japan years Depending on the ratio of biomass Germany years Price for new facility decrease by 2% every year. Netherland 0.14 (Before 15 years) Over 500kW 0.09 (After 15 years) Austria years If fuel is waste, price decrease by 25-40% depends on biomass. China Including incentive Indonesia ,050 IDR/kWh Malaysia MYR/kWh 出 典 : ジェトロユーロトレンド 新 局 面 を 迎 える 欧 州 の 再 生 可 能 エネルギー(RE)( ) 他 20 20

21 Feasibility Study We research a municipality to be able to do a feasibility study together, with Japanese feasibility study scheme. Research of Technical Feasibility Survey of waste characteristics, LCV and amount of waste Waste stream Proposal of suitable waste treatment system Estimation of electricity output Evaluation of Environmental and Social Impacts GHG Emission Reduction Effect Research of legal system and procedure related to Environmental Assessment Financial and Economic Feasibility Site Location Terms of Contract PPP, Etc

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