Three Day Agenda. Day 1: Brain Basics Day 2: Prediction Day 3: Postponement & Preparation

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1 Three Day Agenda Day 1: Brain Basics Day 2: Prediction Day 3: Postponement & Preparation

2 I. Types of memory A. Declarative B. Nondeclarative Class Agenda II. Postponement A. Exercise B. Socially active C. Nutrition D. Mental E. Stress F. Sleep III. Prepare A. Action Plan for Cognitive Health

3 I. Types of memory A. Declarative B. Nondeclarative Class Agenda II. Postponement A. Exercise B. Socially active C. Nutrition D. Mental E. Stress F. Sleep III. Prepare A. Action Plan for Cognitive Health

4 Encoding Storage Retrieval Forgetting Physiology of Memory Systems and Types of Memory

5 Short-term Rehearsal Memory (111) (111) (111) (111) Sensory Memory 6 Encoding Storage Retrieval Forgetting Physiology of Memory Systems and Types of Memory

6 Ineffective Encoding Memories never stored due to lack of attention Encoding Storage Retrieval Forgetting Physiology of Memory Systems and Types of Memory

7 Declarative Memory System (Factual Information) Memory Nondeclarative Memory System (Actions, Perceptual Motor Skills, Conditioned Reflexes, Emotional Memories) Example: Riding a bike Handle Bars Pedals Spokes Encoding Storage Retrieval Forgetting Physiology of Memory Systems and Types of Memory

8 Declarative Memory System (Factual Information) Memory Semantic Memory System (General Knowledge, Stored Undated) Example: Lincoln Gave Gettysburg Address Episodic Memory System (Dated Recollections of Personal Experiences) Example: First Kiss Encoding Storage Retrieval Forgetting Physiology of Memory Systems and Types of Memory

9 Retrospective Memory Prospective Memory Past Future The Present Encoding Storage Retrieval Forgetting Physiology of Memory Systems and Types of Memory

10 Three Measures of Retention: Recall Measure Recognition Measure Retention Measure Encoding Storage Retrieval Forgetting Physiology of Memory Systems and Types of Memory

11 Mean Number of Test Items Recalled Synonyms Antonyms Unrelated Adjectives Nonsense Syllables Numbers None Decreasing Interference Type of Interfering Material Encoding Storage Retrieval Forgetting Physiology of Memory Systems and Types of Memory

12 Executive functions Planning Cognitive Tests Shifting attention Language (non-motor) Word fluency Verbal working memory Verb generation

13 I. Types of memory A. Declarative B. Nondeclarative Class Agenda II. Postponement A. Exercise B. Socially active C. Nutrition D. Mental E. Stress F. Sleep III. Prepare A. Action Plan for Cognitive Health

14 Cognitive Health How can we maintain cognitive health? Exercise Socially active Nutrition Mental Stress Sleep Mature Workforce Initiative of The Conference Board and The Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives with support from The Atlantic Philanthropies.

15 Cognitive Health How can we maintain cognitive health? Exercise Increased blood flow to the hippocampus may trigger or support new neuron growth, which in turn may improve learning. Increases the number of glia, brain cells that support neurons and speed neural processing htm htm Mature Workforce Initiative of The Conference Board and The Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives with support from The Atlantic Philanthropies.

16 Cognitive Health How can we maintain cognitive health? Social Interaction Subjects undergo psychological assessment to identify leadership attributes, then answer questions while having an electroencephalography (EEG) scan. Differences were particularly pronounced toward the back of the right brain, an area associated with social skills, selfawareness, and awareness of the subtleties of other people s emotions. Primarily helps manage stress Mature Workforce Initiative of The Conference Board and The Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives with support from The Atlantic Philanthropies.

17 Cognitive Health How can we maintain cognitive health? Mental stimulation ACTIVE included 2,802 adults 65 and older who were randomly assigned to participate in one of three cognitive training programs that taught them strategies for improving memory, reasoning, or speed of processing. Mature Workforce Initiative of The Conference Board and The Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives with support from The Atlantic Philanthropies.

18 Cognitive Health How can we maintain cognitive health? Mental stimulation A fourth group of controls received no training. The training interventions involved up to 10 sessions over a six-week period. A proportion of the study participants also received four booster sessions over the course of the five-year study period. Each participant underwent cognitive testing before and after the interventions, and annually thereafter. Mature Workforce Initiative of The Conference Board and The Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives with support from The Atlantic Philanthropies.

19 Cognitive Health How can we maintain cognitive health? Mental stimulation Structured cognitive training programs can significantly improved cognitive skills. Benefits persisted even after five years. Intellectual stimulation drives the brain to develop denser synaptic connections. Mature Workforce Initiative of The Conference Board and The Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives with support from The Atlantic Philanthropies.

20 Cognitive Health How can we maintain cognitive health? Nutrition Veggies - In a large government-funded study, women in their 60s who ate more green leafy and cruciferous vegetables (cauliflower, broccoli, or cabbage) did much better on cognitive tests6 10 years later. Fatty Fish Blueberries learning and memory aid htm 13.htm Mature Workforce Initiative of The Conference Board and The Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives with support from The Atlantic Philanthropies.

21 Cognitive Health How can we maintain cognitive health? Stress management htm Mature Workforce Initiative of The Conference Board and The Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives with support from The Atlantic Philanthropies.

22 Cognitive Health How can we maintain cognitive health? Stress management Meditation Richard Davidson and colleagues at the University of Wisconsin showed that expert meditators have a higher level of the brain waves associated with advanced mental activity such as attention and learning. Mature Workforce Initiative of The Conference Board and The Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives with support from The Atlantic Philanthropies.

23 Cognitive Health How can we maintain cognitive health? Stress management Meditation Can also produce thicker cerebral cortex especially in older subjects. Laughter htm Mature Workforce Initiative of The Conference Board and The Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives with support from The Atlantic Philanthropies.

24 Cognitive Health How can we maintain cognitive health? Stress management Multitasking Bottleneck in frontal lobes. Creates an inefficient brain. Good stress htm Mature Workforce Initiative of The Conference Board and The Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives with support from The Atlantic Philanthropies.

25 Cognitive Health How can we maintain cognitive health? Sleep htm Mature Workforce Initiative of The Conference Board and The Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives with support from The Atlantic Philanthropies.

26 Time Wakefulness REM Stage1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 The Nature of Consciousness Biological Rhythms and Sleep The Sleep and Waking Cycle Dreams Hypnosis Meditation Drugs

27 Wakefulness Stage1 REM REM Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 The Nature of Consciousness Biological Rhythms and Sleep The Sleep and Waking Cycle Dreams Hypnosis Meditation Drugs

28 Waking Total Daily Sleep REM Sleep Non-REM Sleep 1-15 Days 3-5 Months 6-23 Months 2-3 Years 3-5 Years 5-9 Years Years Years Years Years 50 Years 90 Years The Nature of Consciousness Biological Rhythms and Sleep The Sleep and Waking Cycle Dreams Hypnosis Meditation Drugs

29 Cognitive Health How can we maintain cognitive health? Sleep The sleep research demonstrates a novel dialogue between the hippocampus and cortex during sleep, which the authors believe plays a key role in memory formation. Mature Workforce Initiative of The Conference Board and The Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives with support from The Atlantic Philanthropies.

30 Home Test of Cognitive Function Memory Tests Ruler Test 11s/our-bodies/2011/01/catch-the-ruler!.aspx

31 Home Test of Cognitive Function Memory Tests Create word lists. Recall locations of items in your home or community. Move things to different places without telling your family member

32 Home Test of Cognitive Function Ruler Test Ask a friend or family member to hold the ruler at their head level with arm stretched out. Make sure the ruler is vertical and held with the thumb and index finger at the end with the highest measurement. Put your thumb and index finger at the bottom of the ruler, slightly open. Do not be touching the ruler. Try to catch the ruler with your fingers when it is dropped. Write down the measurement on the ruler where it was caught.

33 Home Test of Cognitive Function Ruler Test Distance on the ruler (centimetres) Reaction time (seconds)

34 I. Types of memory A. Declarative B. Nondeclarative Class Agenda II. Postponement A. Exercise B. Socially active C. Nutrition D. Mental E. Stress F. Sleep III. Prepare A. Action Plan for Cognitive Health

35 Action Plan Goals: Action steps: Timeline (when you will assess your progress): Revise goals or set new ones:

36 Thank you! Dr. Jeffrey C. Amundson Department of Psychology & Education UW-Colleges UW-Marshfield/Wood County

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