The Science of Human Learning: Instructional Design that Maximizes Retention and Application

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1 The Science of Human Learning: Instructional Design that Maximizes Retention and Application ALICE CHUANG, MD, UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA, CHAPEL HILL, NC FRANCIS NUTHALAPATY, MD, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA, GREENVILLE, SC APGO FACULTY DEVELOPMENT SEMINAR, JANUARY 11, 2016, BONITA SPRIN GS, FL Disclosures None of the authors nor their spouses have relevant financial disclosures Objectives Outline basics of how human brains store, retrieve and process information Define transfer and describe its importance in long-term learning Revisit Bloom s Taxonomy and how to apply it Create ideas to apply the above fundamentals to our classrooms and clinical learning environments 1

2 Information Processing Model Memory Definitions: Short-term memory: Immediate memory: conscious and subconscious, Working memory: conscious, Phonological Loop Central Control Visuospatial sketchpad Verbal and Visual Effective teaching utilizes different teaching methods which capitalize on the brain s processing channels. Visual Verbal and Visual Having students practice Practice and Teach others Self-directed review of ppt or reading Lecture with strategic visual elements Demonstration with student participation Have student demonstrate to learners 2

3 Chunking DNAN BCT VF BIU SA Role of emotions Brain prioritizes processing: Emotions Learning Survival Working memory Long-term memory/storage Is MEANING* present? Does this have relevance? Yes No Moderate High Low Moderate No Yes Does it make SENSE? Do I understand? 3

4 Long term memory/storage Usually data encoded during sleep If data can be retrieved after 24 hours, likely encoded. When testing students learning: Test without warning (or students will review) Wait 24 hours Test only what should have been retained Learning v. concern Learning Low concern 2 Moderate concern 4 High concern 6 Learning Retention More than learning (Think Step 1) Retention is the successful location, identification and retrieval of learning in the future. o Prior learning o Significance o Understanding o Focus o Rehearsal: repetition with processing (not the same as doing repetitions or practicing a motor skill) o Rote: rehearsal with no processing o Elaborative: with processing, linking to previous learning, finding relationships 4

5 Rehearsal Paraphrasing Note taking/outlining Predicting Questioning Summarizing Primacy-Recency Effect Degree of retention/time (min) Degree of retention/time (min) Primacy-Recency Effect Teach new material first Since retention is greatest at beginning of class, don t ask questions in case students answer incorrectly. The incorrect information may be retained. Don t use prime-time for administrative tasks Use down-time for activities, discussion, rehearsal, etc. Use closure for second prime-time 5

6 Retention increases when lessons are shorter Average approximate prime- and down- times in learning episodes Episode Time Prime-Times Down-times Total Minutes % total minutes Minutes 20 minutes minutes minutes % total minutes Learning motor skills: Practice makes permanent When repeating a skill over and over, the brain is actually remodeling. Conditions for successful practice: Student has prerequisite knowledge about the skills and its applications Student understands how to apply that knowledge Student must have capacity to self-assess and make improvements Student must be motivated Distributed practice (many sessions over time) is superior to massed practice (one long practice) Retrieval (recall v. recognition) Recognition: matching an outside stimulus to stored data Recall: Sending cues to long-term memory, search and find information from a storage location, consolidate, decode and send to working memory Reconsolidation: Retrieval of information, processing in working memory with some degree of alteration or relearning Retrieval rate is independent of learning rate. Retrieval affected by context and how information is encoded. 6

7 Transfer Transfer during learning: Effect of past learning on the processing of current learning Transfer of learning: Degree of application of learning in the future Positive transfer: When past learning helps with current learning Negative transfer: When past learning interferes with current learning Factors which promote Transfer Lesson hearkens to a previous positive learning experience Critical attributes: distinguishing features Bridging: helping students see the new learning in new contexts (forming analogies, metacognition) Hugging: makes the current learning situation more like future situations where learning is applied (simulation, mental practice) Emphasizing differences when teaching Avoid teaching concepts that are similar too close together (i.e. menorrhagia, metrorrhagia) Remember we store based on similarities (filing cabinet) but we retrieve by differences (finding a friend in a crowd). 7

8 Increasing level of complexity -----> 10/15/2015 Complexity v. Difficulty Complexity requires higher order cognition, moves up the taxonomy Difficulty requires more effort power but not higher order cognition Strive to build higher order cognition not just increasing difficulty with assessment and exercises. Bloom s Level Create Evaluate How could you alter this recipe and make it Chocolate Gooey Cake? Please pay careful attention to ensure final cake texture is similar to original recipe Compare the Gooey Butter Cake recipe to your grandmother s favorite cake recipe. Which would you prefer to eat and why? Increasing Level of Difficulty -----> How could you alter this recipe to make it Chocolate Gooey Cake and Almond Gooey Cake? Please pay careful attention to ensure final cake texture is similar to original recipe. Compare the Gooey Butter Cake recipe to your grandmother s favorite cake recipe. Which would you prefer to eat and why? In what settings would each recipe be most appropriate to serve? Explain what ingredient gives the Gooey Explain what ingredients give the Gooey Butter Cake its Analyze Butter Cake its crispy texture on top. crispy texture on top and gooey inside texture. Explain what might happen to the texture Explain what might happen to the texture of your Gooey of your Gooey Butter Cake if you bake it Butter Cake if you bake it for too short or too long. Think of Apply for too long. Think of both short term and both short term and long term consequences for the cake long term consequences for the cake and and for anyone who consumes it. for anyone who consumes it. Explain the recipe in your own words. Explain the recipe in a way children could understand and Understand in your own words for adults. Remember Name the 5 ingredients in the Gooey Butter Cake Recipe Name the 5 ingredients and the quantities needed for the Gooey Butter Cake Recipe Reference and Acknowledgements Sousa, D. (2011). Basic Brain Facts. In How the Brain Learns (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Dr. Yan Yang-Vanover, University of Cincinnati 8

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