COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

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1 COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY ROBERT J. STERNBERG Yale University HARCOURT BRACE COLLEGE PUBLISHERS Fort Worth Philadelphia San Diego New York Orlando Austin San Antonio Toronto Montreal London Sydney Tokyo

2 Contents Chapter 1 What Is Cognitive Psychology? 1 Cognitive Psychology Defined 2 Philosophical Antecedents of Cognitive Psychology 3 The Emergence of Psychology 6 The Merging of Philosophy and Physiology into Modern Psychology 6 The Diverging Perspectives of Modern Psychology 6 Early Dialectics in the Psychology of Cognition 7 Psychological Antecedents of Cognitive Psychology 10 From Associationism to Behaviorism 10 Behaviorism 11 Gestalt Psychology 12 The Emergence of Cognitive Psychology 13 Research Methods in Cognitive Psychology 14 Goals of Research 14 Distinctive Methods of Research 15 Key Issues in Cognitive Psychology 21 Fields Within Cognitive Psychology 22 Chapter 2 Biological Foundations of Cognitive Psychology 28 Organization of the Nervous System 29 The Central Nervous System: The Brain and the Spinal Cord 31 Viewing the Structures and Functions of the Brain 34 The Brain: Structure and Function 38 The Forebrain 39 The Midbrain 43 The Hindbrain 43 The Cerebral Hemispheres and the Cerebral Cortex 44 Hemispheric Specialization 45 Lobes of the Cerebral Hemispheres and Cortex 49 Association Areas 53 Information Processing in the Nervous System 54 Structural Components: Neurons and Glial Cells 54 Conduction of Information Within Neurons 57 Communication Between Neurons 58 Common Neurotransmitters 60 xiii

3 xiv Contents Chapter 3 Attention and Consciousness 68 Attention and Consciousness 69 Preconscious Processing 70 Controlled Versus Automatic Processes 73 Habituation 79 Functions of Attention 82 Selective Attention 82 Vigilance and Signal Detection 84 ~" Search 86 Divided Attention 93 Theories of Attention 95 Filter and Bottleneck Theories 95 Attentional-Resource Theories 99 Additional Considerations in Attention 100 Neurocognitive Findings on Attention and Consciousness 101 Attention and Perception 102 Chapter 4 Perception 108 Depth Perception 112 Perceptual Constancies 116 Deficits in Forms and Pattern Perception 119 Gestalt Approaches to Form Perception 120 Theories of Perception 123 Constructive Perception 124 Direct Perception 125 Synthesizing the Two Theories 126 A Computational Theory of Perception 127 Spatiotemporal Boundary-Formation Theory 129 Theoretical Approaches to Pattern Recognition 129 Bottom-up Theories 129 Top-down Influences on Perception 138 Reading: Text Perception and Comprehension 139 Why Text Processing Is So Difficult 139 Lexical Processes 140 Comprehension Processes 143 Auditory Perception: Speech Perception 147 Basic Facts About Speech 147 Theoretical Approaches to Speech Perception 148 Is Speech Perception Special? 150

4 Contents XV Chapter 5 Knowledge Representation: Images and Propositions 156 Mental Representation of Knowledge 158 Representations of Declarative Knowledge: Words Versus Pictures 158 Mental Imagery 161 Dual-Code Hypothesis: Analogical Images Versus Symbols 162 Prepositional Hypothesis 165 Functional Equivalence: Mental Manipulations of Images 171 Mental Rotations 172 Image Scaling: Phenomena Related to Image Size 174 Image Scanning 177 Possible Synthesis: Dual-Code, Revisited 178 Kosslyn's Synthesis 178 Johnson-Laird's Synthesis 181 Cognitive Maps 182 Rats, Bees, and Humans Mental Shortcuts 184 Text Maps 188 Psychobiological Findings Regarding Mental Imagery 188 Primate Studies 188 Studies of Abnormal Brains 189 Studies of Normal Human Brains 190 Chapter 6 Knowledge Representation and Information Processing 196 Representations of Declarative Knowledge 198 Concepts and Schemas 198 Semantic Network Models 201 Representations of Procedural Knowledge 202 The Production and the Production System 203 Conceptual Dependency 204 Integrative Models for Representing Declarative and Nondeclarative Knowledge 204 Combining Representations: ACT and ACT* 204 Models Based on the Human Brain 208 Parallel Processing: The Connectionist Model 211 How Domain General or Domain Specific Is Cognition? 216

5 XVi Contents Chapter 7 Memory: Models and Structures 221 Exceptional Memory 222 Deficient Memory: Amnesia 222 Outstanding Memory: Mnemonists 223 Tasks Used for Measuring Memory 225 Recall Versus Recognition Tasks 225 Implicit Versus Explicit Memory Tasks 225 Tasks Involving Procedural Versus Declarative Knowledge 227 Traditional Model of Memory 228 The Sensory Store 229 The Short-Term Store 232 The Long-Term Store 233 Alternative Perspectives, Alternative Metaphors 234 Working Memory 234 Levels of Processing: An Alternative Framework for Understanding Memory 235 Multiple-Memory-Systems Model: Procedural, Episodic, and Semantic Memory 237 Concepts and Schemas: The Structure of Semantic Memory 239 A Connectionist Perspective: Parallel Distributed Processing 241 Neuropsychology of Memory 242 Development of Memory: Structural Differences 245 Chapter 8 Memory Processes 251 Three Operations 252 Encoding of Information 253 Initial Encoding of Information for Brief Storage and Temporary Use 253 Forms of Encoding for Long-Term Storage 254 Forgetting Information: How Information Is Lost From Working Memory 255 Interference Theory 255 Decay Theory 258 Transferring Information From Working Memory to Long-Term Storage 259 Rehearsal 259 Organization of Information 260 Mnemonic Devices 261 Development of Memory: Differences in Metacognitive Processes 263 Retrieval 265 Difficulties in Studying Retrieval Processes 265 Retrieval From Short-Term Memory 266

6 Contents xvii Processes of Memory Construction: The Constructive Nature of Memory 269 Effects of Prior Knowledge on Encoding and Retrieval 269 Effects of Subsequent Knowledge on Retrieval 269 Context Effects of Encoding and Retrieval 272 Chapter 9 Language: Nature and Acquisition 279 General Properties of Language 280 Description of Language in Its Own Words 283 Language Acquisition Stages of Language Acquisition 286 Theoretical Explanations of Language Acquisition 287 Cognition and Language Acquisition 292 Semantics: The Study of Meaning 294 Theories of Meaning 295 Relationships Among Concepts: Basic Levels, Explanations, and Inferences 299 Interaction of Semantics and Other Aspects of Language 300 Syntax: The Study of Structure 301 The Syntax Tendency 302 Parsing and Phrase Structure 303 Relationships Among Syntactical Structures 303 Relationships Between Syntactical and Lexical Structures 307 Chapter 10 Language in Context 313 Discourse: Language in Context 314 Language in a Cultural Context Linguistic Relativity and Linguistic Universals Bilingualism Dialects Gender and Language Language in a Social Context Speech Acts Conversational Postulates Language in a Cognitive Context Scripts Slips of the Tongue Metaphorical Language Other Ways in Which Language Interacts With Thought Language in a Physiological Context 338

7 xviii Contents Chapter 11 Problem Solving and Creativity 345 The Problem-Solving Cycle 346 Well-Structured Versus Ill-Structured Problems 350 Well-Structured Problems 350 Ill-Structured Problems 357 Hindrances to Problem Solving 364 Mental Sets, Entrenchment, and Fixation 364 Negative Transfer 366 Aids to Problem Solving 366 Positive Transfer 367 Incubation 370 Expertise: Knowledge and Problem Solving 371 Creativity 375 Psychometric Approaches 376 Cognitive Approaches 377 Personality and Motivational Approaches 378 Social, Societal, and Historical Approaches 378 Integrative Approaches 379 Chapter 12 Decision Making and Reasoning 385 Judgment and Decision Making 386 Classical Decision Theory 387 Satisficing 388 Elimination by Aspects 389 Heuristics and Biases 390 Two Types of Reasoning 397 Deductive Reasoning 397 Conditional Reasoning 398 Syllogistic Reasoning 403 Helps and Hindrances to Deductive Reasoning 412 Inductive Reasoning 413 Reaching Causal Inferences 414 Categorical Inferences 417 Reasoning by Analogy 418 Alternative Views of Reasoning 418

8 Contents Chapter 13 Cognitive Development 424 Theories of Cognitive Development 426 The Cognitive-Developmental Theory of Jean Piaget 426 The Cognitive-Developmental Theory of Lev Vygotsky 439 Information-Processing Theories of Cognitive Development 442 Physiological Perspective on Cognitive Development 448 Cognitive Development in Adulthood 450 Patterns of Growth and Decline 451 Wisdom and Aging 453 General Principles of Cognitive Development 453 Chapter 14 Human and Artificial Intelligence 458 Measures of Intelligence 460 History of Intelligence Testing 460 Scoring Intelligence Tests 461 The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales 462 The Wechsler Scales 462 Structure of Intelligence: A Factor-Analytic Approach 465 Early Factorial Models 466 Multidimensional Models 466 Processes of Intelligence: An Information-Processing Approach 468 Nettelbeck: Inspection Time 469 Jensen: Choice Reaction Time 469 Hunt: Lexical Access Speed and Speed of Simultaneous Processing 470 Sternberg: The Componential Theory and Complex Tasks 471 Simon: Complex Problem Solving 472 Biological Bases of Intelligence: A Physiological Approach 473 Context of Intelligence: A Cultural Approach 474 Cultural Influences on Perceived Intelligence 474 Culture-Relevant Assessment of Intelligence 476 Integrative Approaches to Intelligence 477 Gardner: Multiple Intelligences 477 Sternberg: The Triarchic Theory 479 Simulations of Intelligence: Artificial-Intelligence Approaches 481 Can a Computer Program Be "Intelligent"? 481 Questions About the Intelligence of Intelligent Programs 488 Improving Intelligence: Effective, Ineffective, and Questionable Strategies 490

9 XX Contents Glossary References Credits Name Index Subject Index 543

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