1 DESIGNING A SCHOOL GARDEN Sandy McGroarty, An Taisce Green-Schools
2 Designing the Garden Why do you want a garden? Ornamental Edible Forest Garden Outdoor Classroom Biodiversity Maintenance over the Summer Water conservation
3 Some Ideas Forest garden (Permaculture design) Biodiversity Garden Organic gardening Outdoor Classroom Using re-cycled materials Rainwater Harvesting
4 Forest Gardens The ZEN of all gardens Collection of trees, shrubs and plants that grow together to share resources, shelter and shade each other, fertilise each other and be friends No-dig system Weed control: ground cover plants + mulches Pest find it difficult to find the plants (ie not monocultures) Careful planning, observation and hard work at the beginning
5 Edible Forest Gardens A forest garden is based on perennial plants School year doesn t fit into annual vegetable crops as they are closed for the growing + harvesting season Low-maintenance with little attention in Summer Food during school months Excellent habitat for wildlife Beautiful space Learning opportunities
7 Choosing + Growing your Plant Stock
9 Biodiversity Garden Attract wildlife: Butterflies, Bees, Birds, Insects, Bats Plant native species- attract native species! Plants with early, mid and late season flowers Wildflowers, Lawn flowers, trees, shrubs Fruits, dead materials Hedgerows, Wildlife corridors Bird/bat boxes, bug hotels Biodiversity Trail
10 Organic Gardening No chemicals Soils are enriched with natural substances (compost, Liquid feeds, Green Manures, Seaweed) Work with nature (pollinators, soil insects, predators) Garden for other species and they will garden for you Low-tech Native local varieties Non-GMO Companion planting Crop rotation Cover crops, nitrogen fixers Mulches
12 Outdoor Classroom
13 Recycled Materials
15 Water Conservation Garden Regularly check your outdoor taps, pipes and plumbing fixtures for leaks. Ban the hose! If you must water your plants, do it in the early morning or evening when it's cooler and only with a watering can, targeting only the plants that need water. Grass can survive for long periods without water and will quickly recover when the next rain showers arrive. Raising lawnmower blades to a higher level will help stop grass from scorching in warm weather. Leaving the clippings on the lawn protects roots and returns nutrients to the soil. Compost- Compost provides valuable nutrients and helps retain moisture in the soil. Mulches- Using mulch such as wood chips, bark or gravel will help prevent water evaporation and will suppress weed growth saving water and the need for weeding. Regularly weed and hoe your garden, to ensure that watering helps your plants and not your weeds. Trees, shrubs and plants- use plants that require less water or native plants that are adapted to the Irish climate. These will also encourage the maximum amount of native biodiversity into your garden.
16 Rainwater Collection
17 Using your skills Metalwork, woodwork, T-drawing, Art, Biology, etc.
18 The Design: Plan, Maintain, Enjoy 1. Analyse your needs + wants 2. Analyse + Map your area for: Shade, light, slope, drainage, Wind, Temperature (Frost), access 3. Understanding your Soil 4. Matching your Plant stock to your garden conditions 5. Research, Research, Research!!! 6. Skills in the group, school and community 7. Make the Design 8. Fund-raising 9. Action Plan
20 Understanding your Soil 1. What soil do you have? 2. What type of plants would you like to grow 3. Match the plant to the soil type 4. Improve + maintain your soil fertility
21 ph test 0-14 (acidic<7>alkaline) You can have several different levels of ph in a garden Adjusting the soils ph - lime You can then pick plants that will survive and thrive in your soil conditions.
22 SOIL TEXTURE + STRUCTURE Clay does not drain easily, becomes water-logged, muddy and difficult to work with. Work in plenty of organic matter to improve drainage. Plus- nutrients don t drain away. Silty Like clay, more fertile Sandy Dry, loose water easily as they drain quickly so can become nutrient deficient. Benefit from mulching. Peat soil high in organic matter, acidic and damp.
23 Nutrient Deficiencies Nutrient deficiencies: your plants will show you!
24 Enriching your Soil Lime Compost/Wormery Liquid feeds Green Manures Mulches Nitrogen fixers Crop rotation Cover crops
25 Crop Rotation Group 1: Potatoes, corgettes, pumpkins, tomatoes Group 2: Brassicas (cabbages, brussels sprouts, broccoli) Group 3: Root Crops (carrots, beetroot, parsnips) Cover crops (Clover)
26 Seeds Local varieties Organic / non-gmo Save seeds each year Swap seeds Buying compost, vermicillite or brown envelope seeds
28 Tools, Materials + Equipment
29 Compost bins
30 Making Ethical Decisions 1) Do I need it? 2) Can i make it? 3) Can i borrow it/buy it secondhand, recycled, reused, up-cycle, etc? 4) If i HAVE to buy, can i buy products that are sustainable, local, natural, fairtrade, organic, etc? 5) If i can t buy within these criteria, is there another solution i hadn t thought of?
31 Ground Preparation Clearing the ground Marking out + preparing drills/raised beds, etc ensuring access without soil compaction Improving soil fertility (composting, manuring, liming, etc) can depend on what you re growing Digging the seed bed- Forking, Raking + Levelling
32 Sowing Seeds or Transplanting Sowing seeds outdoors (Not too early, not too deeply, not too thickly), Thinning Compost- Peat free, local, recycled, organic? Vermiculite Grow + Transplanting from container (compost, cover, warmth, light + water, Prick out, Harden off to prepare for outdoors)
33 Maintaining the Garden Watering Feeding Pruning Mowing Weed-control Pest + Disease control
34 Weeds What is a weed? Takes up space + stops other plants from growing Weeds are pioneer species + some surprisingly beneficial Weeding (Gloves!!!) Can be composted as long as they havnt seeded, diseased plants Mulching
35 Pests Slugs, snails, beetles, caterpillars, weevil, aphids, rabbits... Predators: ladybirds, hoverflies, wasps, carabid beetles, spiders, birds, etc. All prefer to inhabit a natural ecosystem Monocultures!!! By hand, physical barriers (traps, barriers, woodchips, copper wire, eggshells) Biological control
The idea of a healthy garden, rather than simply pest and disease free plants, is at the heart of organic growing. The first part of this section, Keeping the garden healthy, looks at ways of maintaining
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