ISBN

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "ISBN 978-80-971318-4-5"

Transcription

1

2 ISBN Panoráma Považia z kláštora na Veľkej Skalke / Benedictine monastery Veľká Skalka Benediktínsky kláštor Rajhrad / Benedictine monastery Rajhrad

3 Vitajte! Kdesi som čítal, že kto nepozná Rajhradsko, nepozná Moravu. To isté platí na slovenskej strane o Trenčianskom kraji, ktorý je výnimočný svojou históriou, prírodnou krásou, kultúrou, duchovnými tradíciami, školstvom, ale aj ekonomickou silou. Tento fakt potvrdzuje tradičná spolupráca slovenských a moravských regiónov v podobe projektov cezhraničnej spolupráce. S potešením vám chcem oznámiť, že neobyčajne pestré a rôznorodé podoby doterajšej česko-slovenskej cezhraničnej spo- Welcome! This project is opening a latter-day history of crossboard cooperation of the two oldest pilgimage places of Slovakia and Moravia Little and Grand Skalka upon Trenčín and Benedictine Monastery Rajhrad. Considering restoration, saving and dissemination of heritage of these national cultural monuments two NGOs Beňadik non-investment fund in Trenčín and Ora et Labora foundation in Rajhrad were inspired to reflect upon new opportunities of common development of spiritual and culture-historical heritage to contemporaries from both sides of the border: Firstly the restoration of monastical 3

4 lupráce sa rozširujú aj o duchovný rozmer. Zásluhu na tom má nový mikroprojekt Benediktínskymi cestami. Tento pilotný projekt otvára novodobú históriu cezhraničnej spolupráce dvoch najstarších pútnických miest Slovenska a Moravy, prostredníctvom Neinvestičného fondu (N. F.) BEŇADIK Trenčín a NADACE ORA ET LABORA Rajhrad, zjednotených pod heslom ORA ET LABORA MODLI SA A PRA- CUJ. Poslaním oboch organizácií je získavanie zdrojov na podporu a rozvoj týchto národných pútnických miest. Práve rozvoj, teda obnova, zachovanie a šírenie odkazu národných kultúrnych pamiatok Veľká a Malá Skalka a Benediktínskeho kláštora Rajhrad inšpiroval obe neziskové organizácie k novým možnostiam spoločného rozvíjania duchovného a kultúrno-historického odkazu súčasníkom na oboch stranách hranice. Obaja partneri sa na začiatku zhodli na týchto troch okruhoch spolupráce: V prvom rade ide o obnovu kláštorných areálov k tejto aktivite prispejú výmenné pobyty študentov a mládeže na rekonštrukčných prácach, zastrešených Piaristickým gymnáziom v Trenčíne a Gymnáziom Židlochovice. Táto spolupráca by mala prispieť nielen k technickej obnove kláštorných areálov, ale aj k vzájomnému poznávaniu spoločného historicko-duchovného odkazu mladými ľuďmi z oboch regiónov. Druhou oblasťou spolupráce sú už tradičné návštevy pútnických miest na Velehrade a Hostýne, ktoré má slovenský národ vo veľkej úcte. Rozšírili sa o vzájomnú účasť na duchovných a kultúrnych aktivitách v oboch regiónoch. Do tretice ide o informačné a propagačné zviditeľnenie oboch historických miest. Vzhľadom na horší stav Skalky, vyžadujúci si rozsiahlejší informačný systém pre návštevníkov mimo letnej sezóny, sú spracované a osadené na ôsmich informačných tabuliach v rámci náučného chodníka Veľká a Malá Skalka. Dúfame, že k rozvoju cestovného ruchu prispeje aj táto spoločná kvalitná slovensko-česko-anglická publikácia, propagujúca oba benediktínske kláštory a zároveň in- Študenti z Gymnázia v Židlochoviciach na výmennom pobyte na Skalke / Students at Skalka territories is concerned through exchanges of students and youth on reconstructive works provided by Piarist Gymnasium in Trenčín and Židlochovice Gymnasium. Traditional visits of pilgrimage places in Velehrad and Hostýn are the second field of cooperation, which have been expanded on mutual participation at spiritual and cultural activities in both regions. And thirdly information unhiding of both historical places is concerned. Development and embeding of eight information boards on nature trail Grand and Little Skalka is being planned. We hope also this brochure will contribute to tourism development. MUDr. Pavol Sedláček, MPH, Chairman of Trenčín Self-governing Region Študenti z Piaristického gymnázia v Trenčíne na výmennom pobyte v Rajhrade / Students in Rajhrad 4

5 formácie o projekte a partnerovi aj na svojich webstránkach. Verím, že všetky tieto aktivity prispejú k prehĺbeniu cezhraničnej spolupráce a prispejú aj k posilneniu spoločného génia loci oboch benediktínskych kláštorov s ich odkazom pre budúcnosť. Očakávame, že nedeliteľnou súčasťou mikroprojektu bude aj odovzdanie skúseností zo 16-ročnej praxe NADACE ORA ET LABORA Neinvestičnému fondu BEŇADIK, vzájomná inšpirácia v organizovaní kultúrnych podujatí v kláštorných objektoch, zvyšujúca sa ich príťažlivosť pre odbornú a laickú verejnosť až po záverečné vyhodnotenie a nasledujúce pokračovanie spolupráce pri ďalších pozoruhodných cezhraničných projektoch. MUDr. Pavol Sedláček, MPH predseda Trenčianskeho samoprávneho kraja Vystavme pomník našej cirkevno-národnej slobody! Obnovme chrám našich slovenských patrónov, sv. Andreja a Beňadika s misijným ústavom pre celé Slovensko! Položme základ našej lepšej budúcnosti! (Citát z výzvy prvých slovenských biskupov v Nitre z roku 1921 na obnovu starobylej Skalky. Zdroj: Pri jej 90. výročí zarezonovala znovu. Osobnosti z cirkevného, kultúrneho, verejného, podnikateľského a umeleckého života v regióne Trenčín, ale aj na celom Slovensku a v zahraničí prijali počas slávnostnej svätej omše na Malej Skalke 20. februára 2011 novú výzvu na obnovu najstaršieho pútnického miesta na Slovensku. V tom istom čase vznikol z iniciatívy nitrianskeho biskupa Mons. Viliama Judáka a početných osobností trenčianskeho regiónu i z celého Slovenska Neinvestičný fond Beňadik, ktorého hlavným poslaním je obnova a rozvoj starobylej Skalky. Beňadik non-investment fund has arisen from initiation of Nitra s bishop Mons. Viliam Judák as well as populous characters of Trenčín region in Its main aim is restoration and development of ancient Skalka upon Trenčín, the oldest pilgrimage place in Slovakia. Nitriansky biskup Karol Kmeťko a pápežský protonotár Andrej Hlinka v roku 1924 na Skalke, (V roku 1924 nitriansky biskup vyhlásil celý areál Skalky za slovenské pútnické miesto s významom, aký majú Lurdy vo Francúzsku) / Nitra Bishop Karol Kmeťko at Skalka 1924 Ora et Labora foundation has been established by Rajhrad municipality in 1995 and its activities focuses on preservaton and utilization of Benedictine Monastery Rajhrad, the oldest monastery in Moravia. The name of the foundation revers to monastic programme of the Benedictines Pray and work. Mutual Czecho-Slovakian microproject By Benedictine Journeys aims at bulding up the nature trail at Skalka upon Trenčín and contributing to restoration of the ancient monastery in Moravian Rajhrad. The project has been supported by European Regional Development Fund through Crossborder Cooperation Programme SR ČR Along the Benedictine Ways In 2013, we are celebrating the 1150th anniversary of the arrival of Sts. Cyril and Methodius in the territory of former Great Moravia and Pannonia. Their mission wasn t the beginning but the continuation of the expeditions of the Christian pilgrims and missionaries to 5

6 V septembri 2011 sa N. F. prihlásil k VI. výzve TSK mikroprojektom cezhraničnej spolupráce pod názvom Benediktínskymi cestami, ktorého poslaním je vybudovať na Skalke náučný chodník a u nášho partnera v Rajhrade prispieť k obnove starobylého kláštora. this area. The first ones were the Christian legionaries recruited from the Roman troops of Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Between the years 172 and 180, they were fighting to the north of the limes romanum, close to modern-day Trenčín, against the Germanic tribe of Quads. Rajhrad zničené priestory kláštora / Rajhrad The monastery before reconstruction Náš partner NADACE ORA ET LABORA z moravského Rajhradu prijal našu výzvu na spoluprácu a takto sa nám predstavil: Objekt kláštera Rajhrad je nemovitou památkou. Její záchranu podporuje NADACE ORA ET LABORA založena Městem Rajhrad v březnu 1995 a zapsána u Krajského soudu v Brně pod č. N 4 v nadačním rejstříku. Nese název podle řeholního programu benediktinů MODLI SE A PRACUJ. Své působení zahájila posláním: záchrana a využití nemovité kulturnní památky benediktinského kláštera, zdejšího barokního skvostu, který je nejstarším klášterem na Moravě, představeným podle posledního projektu slavného architekta A. B. Santiniho-Aichla, záchrana kulturní památky knihovního fondu a mobiliáře historické klášterní knihovny. Nadace úzce spolupracuje s vlastníkem Benediktinským opatstvím, a spolu s Městem Rajhrad pomáhá získávat prostředky na realizaci oprav. Působí pouze dobrovolným úsilím svých členů a nemá žádné zaměstnance. Od roku 1995 nadace shromáždila více než 7 milionů korun od drobných dárců, od fyzických a právnických osob. Značná část obnovy byla financována z dotací a grantů. Rajhrad priestory po rekonštrukcii v roku 2012 / Rajhrad The monastery after reconstruction Since ancient times, there had been two lines of the Amber Road in the rivers Váh and Moravia valleyes. It was an ancient trade route leading from the Baltic Sea to the Mediterranean Sea and oriental countries, used by Roman, Byzantine, Arabic and Frankish merchants. They were accompanied on their travels by the first Christian missionaries the Benedictines, men in brown cowls called cultural ploughmen of medieval Europe. Benedictines This religious order contributed the most to the preservation of the ancient culture, erudition and economic development in the Middle Ages. Regula Benedicti, or Humble Regulations for Beginners, compiled in the 6th century for the monastery of Monte Cassino by St. Benedict of Nursia, were adopted in the whole Christian Europe 300 years later by St. Benedict of Aniane. The basic rule that distinguished Benedictine monks from the others was humility in everything ranging from eating, drinking, sleeping, and working up to the unreserved obedience towards their superiors. Through work did they learn to be humble, which was really a turning point at that time. They weren t just praying and con- 6

7 Také díky projektu Evropského fondu regionálního rozvoje Společně bez hranic Benediktinskými cestami jsme přispěli k obnově kláštera díky výměně studentů v dvou letních táborech. Součástí projektu byla také kulturní a duchovní výměna. Věřící z Rajhradu navštívili poutní místo Skalka s jeho klášterem, Pěvecký sbor města Rajhrad přednesl v Piaristickém kostele v Trenčíne hudební pásmo Popelka nazaretská. Pěvecký sbor PIARISIMO Piaristického gymnázia Dr. Jozefa Braneckého navštívil Rajhrad při příležitosti 964. výročí založení kláštera v Rajhrade pásmem světských i duchovních písní. mail: templating, but they were working physically, although this type of work was considered inferior. This way, Benedictines returned dignity to physical work. Ora et labora (pray and work) was a new progressive idea in the development of the society at that time. Gradually, various tendencies were formed in the Benedictine order. The Cistercians (by Robert of Molesme from the Cîteaux Abbey) focused on manual work and self-sufficiency, the Carthusians (from the 11th century by St. Bruno from the Grand Chartreuse in the French Alps) proved their humbleness by wearing frocks from the most rough cloth, and their only treasures were books and extensive library collections. The Cluniac Reforms promoted pilgrimage as a way of repentance and started to organize pilgrimages to Santiago de Compostela. Veľká Skalka oltár kláštornej kaplnky zničený v r / Veľká Skalka The chapel 1972 Benediktínskymi cestami V roku 2013 oslavujeme výročie príchodu cyrilo -metodskej misie na územie bývalej Veľkej Moravy a Panónie. Nebol to však začiatok, ale pokračovanie ciest kresťanských pútnikov a misionárov na toto územie. Úplne prví boli kresťanskí legionári v rímskom vojsku cisára Marca Aurelia, ktorí bojovali proti Kvádom severne od limes romanum, niekde pri Trenčíne v rokoch Veľká Skalka kláštorná kaplnka obnovená po roku 1989 / Veľká Skalka The chapel 1989 In the 9th through 13th centuries, the Benedictine Order was forming the culture of the medieval Europe also by developing and supporting science and fine arts. Reading, transcribing old manuscripts, or creating new texts and works of art were all inseparable parts of their devotion and efforts. Wherever the Benedictines worked, monastery scriptoria were transferring and passing on antic culture and education to the medieval Christian society. In the territory of the present-day Czech Republic, the most important centers of Romanic culture were the Strahov Monastery in Prague, the Břevnov Benedictine Monastery

8 Údoliami riek Váhu a Moravy viedli od staroveku dve vetvy významnej Jantárovej cesty, ktorá bola prirodzenou spojnicou medzi pobrežím Baltického mora a krajinami Stredozemného mora a Orientu. Tieto cesty radi využívali rímski, byzantskí, arabskí, franskí obchodníci. Spolu s nimi, po týchto istých cestách, prechádzali, ale aj zostávali, prví franskí kresťanskí misionári benediktíni, prezývaní aj kultúrni oráči stredovekej Európy. Benediktíni (Ordo Sancti Benedicti, OSB) Tento mníšsky rád sa zaslúžil najväčšou mierou o zachovanie starovekej vzdelanosti, ekonomiky a kultúry, a ich prenos do stredovekej spoločnosti. Regule Benedicti, alebo Skromné pravidlá pre začiatočníkov, ktoré sv. Benedikt z Nursie zaviedol v polovici 6. storočia pre kláštor v Monte Cassine, presadil o tristo rokov neskôr v celej kresťan- Sv. Benedikt z Nursie / St. Benedict of Nursia Zdroj: Internet, Wikipédia Benediktínski pustovníci sv. Svorad a Beňadik vyobrazení na oltári a na bočných stenách kostola na Malej Skalke (founded by St. Vojtech who baptized the pagan Vajk, future King Stephen I of Hungary), and the Rajhrad Monastery in Moravia. In the Hungarian Kingdom, there was a monastery on the Holy Mount of Pannonia (modern-day Pannonhalma) since the era of King Stephen I. Nitra, the capital of the Principality of Nitra, became the Benedictine center as early as the 9th century. The Benedictines in Slovakia It was Pribina who greatly contributed to the settling down of the Benedictine Order in the territory of modern-day Slovakia. He was born about the year 800; between 825 and 833, he was the Prince of Nitra (at that time called Nitrava). The Principality of Nitra occupied approximately the territory of contemporary 8

9 Slovakia, with its most important hill-forts and settlements from Pobedim and Skalka near Trenčín in the western part up to Spišské Tomášovce and Čingov in the east. In the middle of the 9th century, all the area including Pannonia, current Moravia and western Slovakia was divided between the Diocese of Salzburg and the Diocese of Passau. Members of the Benedictine Order were executing Christian and missionary activities. Prince Pribina invited the Metropolitan of Salzburg, Adalramus, who came in 828 to consecrate the first Christian stone church in Nitra. This date is the official beginning of the Christianization of Slovakia. The existence of the church has been proved, but we still don t know its exact place of occurrence. Benedictine pilgrims Sts. Andrew Svorad (left) and Benedict (right) at Malá Skalka skej Európe sv. Benedikt z Aniane. Základným pravidlom, ktoré odlišovalo benediktínskych mníchov od ostatných, bola pokora vo všetkom v jedení, pití, spánku, v plnení povinností, a súčasne aj bezvýhradná poslušnosť voči nadriadeným. Prelomovou kultúrnou novinkou v mníšskom živote bol spôsob, ako sa učiť pokore bolo to prostredníctvom práce. Už nie iba rozjímanie a modlenie, ale každý druh práce, aj fyzickej, ktorá bola v stredovekom chápaní podradnou činnosťou. Z kultúrneho hľadiska to znamenalo úplnú rehabilitáciu ľudskej práce, ktorá dostala rovnakú dôstojnosť ako modlitba. Heslo Ora et labora (modli sa a pracuj) je treba chápať aj v dobovom kontexte, ako pokrokovú a revolučnú myšlienku vo vývoji 9 Pannonian Crossroads After he involuntarily left Nitra, Pribina founded the center of his new principality in Blatnohrad (Blatengrad, Mosaburg, nowadays Zalavár), an area near the mouth of the River Zala settled by the Slavs. The Principality of Pannonia was surrounded by the Danube river in the north and east and occupied the territories of presentday Austrian Burgenland, part of Slovenia and Steiermark (from Veszprém and Pécs to Ptuj in Slovenia today). In Pannonia, Pribina continued his efforts at Christianization. He collaborated with Benedictine missionaries. The Church of Blatnohrad was solemnly consecrated on January 24, 850. Within the 21 years of Pribina s success- Najstaršia kaplnka v benediktínskej časti kláštora na Veľkej Skalke / The chapel at Veľká Skalka

10 vtedajšej spoločnosti. Postupne sa formovali nové smery aj v benediktínskej reholi cisterciáni (podľa Roberta z Molesmes z kláštora Citeaux v Burgundsku) venovali najväčšiu pozornosť obrábaniu pôdy a k tomu prináležiacim prácam (zveľaďovanie Božej záhrady), kartuziáni (od 11. storočia podľa opáta Bruna v Grande Chartreuse v Alpách) zase dokazovali pokoru tým, že nosili šaty z najhrubšieho materiálu a ich jediným bohatstvom boli knihy a veľká knižnica. Presadenie pútnictva, ako spôsobu pokánia, je zase výsledkom Clunyjskej reformy (benediktínsky kláštor v Cluny), ktorá začala organizovať pravidelné púte k sv. Jakubovi do Compostely. V storočí boli benediktíni rádom, ktorý formoval kultúru stredovekej Európy aj v oblasti rozvíjania vied a výtvarného umenia neoddeliteľnou súčasťou práce bol dôraz na pravidelné čítanie a prepisovanie starých rukopisov, tvorbu nových textov Hrad Nitra / Nitra Castle Socha Pribinu na Nitrianskom hrade / The statue of Pribina in Nitra ful reign ( ), Blatnohrad became an important centre of Christian culture and missionary activities. Pribina s son Koceľ, a Christian since he was born, became Prince of Pannonia after his father. A zealous Christianizer, he continued the work of his father. In 863, Sts. Cyril and Methodius from Thessaloniki were passing the territory of Koceľ as they were coming to Moravia on the invitation of Prince Rastislav, but it is not known if they actually met. Indisputable, however, remains the fact that Cyril and Methodius visited Koceľ in Blatnohrad in 867, on their journey from Moravia to Rome. Their gathering aroused mutual sympathies. Koceľ became an assiduous defender of the Slavic alphabet and liturgy. He ordered tens of his scholars to learn the new alphabet and ceremonials. In 869, he asked Pope Adrian II to consecrate Methodius as Bishop of Pannonia. Trenčín Region The monastery in Skalka near Trenčín is the oldest Benedictine settlement in the region of Trenčín. Skalka became a significant sacral site after the arrival of St. Benedict, around the year 1031, and later after his martyrdom. St. Andrew-Svorad and St. Benedict were the first saints to be canonized in the Hungarian Kingdom, as early as the 11th century. At that time, Skalka became an important pilgrimage site the oldest in the territory of modern-day Slovakia and in the entire Hungarian Kingdom. 10

11 a umeleckých diel. Kláštorné skriptóriá sa stali mostom, ktorý prenášal antickú vzdelanosť do stredovekej kresťanskej spoločnosti tento trend sa prenášal do všetkých krajín, kde rád pôsobil. V Čechách bol najvýznamnejším centrom šírenia románskej kultúry kláštor v Prahe na Strahove, v Břevnove založil benediktínsky kláštor sv. Vojtech (biskup, ktorý urobil z pohanského Vajka kresťana Štefana, neskôr kráľa), nemenej významným bol Rajhrad na Morave. V Uhorskom kráľovstve plnil materskú funkciu kláštor na Panónskej hore (dnešná Pannonhalma) už od čias kráľa Štefana I., ale ešte o vyše storočie starším strediskom benediktínov bola Nitra ako sídelné mesto Nitrianskeho kniežatstva už v 9. storočí. Benediktíni na Slovensku O udomácnenie kresťanských misionárov benediktínov na území Slovenska sa ako prvý zaslúžil Pribina. Narodil sa približne okolo roku 800, v rokoch bol kniežaťom v Nitre (vtedajšej Nitrave). Nitrianske kniežatstvo zaberalo približne celé dnešné Slovensko, s najvýznamnejšími hradiskami a sídlami od Pobedimu a trenčianskej Skalky na západe, po Spišské Tomášovce a Čingov na východe. V polovici 9. storočia bola oblasť celej Panónie, ako aj dnešnej Moravy a západného Slovenska rozdelená medzi cirkevnú pôsobnosť Salzburskej a Pasovskej diecézy a vykonávateľmi misijnej kresťanskej činnosti boli príslušníci benediktínskeho rádu. Na pozvanie kniežaťa Pribinu prišiel vysvätiť prvý kamenný kresťanský kostol v Nitre v roku 828 osobne salzburský arcibiskup Adalramus tento dátum, a tento kostol je teda oficiálnym začiatkom christianizácie Slovenska. Existencia kostola je historicky síce potvrdená, ale na jeho presné určenie miesta a archeologické objavenie sa ešte stále čaká. Zalavár Blatnohrad, pamiatka na sv. Cyrila a Metoda / Zalavár Blatnohrad The statue of Sts. Cyril and Method Skalka As a Point of Origin Skalka near Trenčín is the place related to the oldest legend of the then Hungarian Kingdom The Lives of Saint Hermits, Svorad The Confessor and Benedict the Martyr, written by Maurus, Bishop of Päťkostolie (Quinque Ecclesiae /Pécs). It dates back to the years 1064 to 1070 and was written by Maurus, a Benedictine monk from the monastery of Pannonhalm, future Bishop of Pécs, who personally knew Benedict from Skalka. These facts were written on the occasion of canonization of both saints St. Svorad the Confessor and St. Benedict the Martyr, the oldest Saints in the Hungarian Kingdom. In the Middle Ages, the legend was noted in the whole Europe. Up to this time, its then descriptions have been preserved in the Royal Library in Brussels, the Mazarin Library in Paris, the Szechenyi Library in Budapest, or in Munich. Its oldest version dating back to the 13th century is available in the Zagreb Breviary in the University Library in Zagreb. Zalavár Blatnohrad, kresťanský kostol / Zalavár Blatnohrad Christian church Panónske križovatky Po nútenom odchode z Nitry založil a vybudoval Pribina pri ústí rieky Zaly do Blatenského jazera, na území osídlenom Slovanmi, Blatnohrad (Blatengrad, Mosaburg, 11

12 dnes Zalavár), ktorý sa stal centrom nového kniežatstva. Panónske kniežatstvo tvorilo územie ohraničené riekou Dunaj na severe a východe, na západe zaberalo aj dnešný rakúsky Burgenland, severovýchodnú časť súčasného Slovinska a Štajersko (od Veszprému a Pécsu po slovinský Ptuj). V Panónii pokračoval Pribina v christianizačnom úsilí a spolupráci s benediktínskymi misionármi, v roku 850 (24. januára) sa konalo slávnostné vysvätenie kostola v Blatnohrade. Úspešné pôsobenie Pribinu ako panónskeho kniežaťa trvalo 21 rokov ( ). Blatnohrad sa stal významným centrom kresťanskej vzdelanosti a misijným východiskom. Po Pribinovi sa stal panónskym kniežaťom jeho syn Koceľ, ktorý bol kresťanom už od svojho narodenia. Pokračoval v úspešnom diele svojho otca a bol horlivým christianizátorom. Keď solúnski bratia Konštantín-Cyril a Metod v roku 863 prichádzali na pozvanie kniežaťa Rastislava na Moravu, prechádzali cez Koceľovo územie, ale o ich možnom stretnutí nemáme zachované informácie. Konštantín-Cyril s Metodom sa určite zastavili v Blatnohrade u Koceľa v roku 867 počas svojej cesty z Moravy do Ríma. Vzájomné stretnutie muselo vyvolať obojstranné sympatie a záujem Koceľ sa stal zástancom slovienskeho písma a liturgie a vybral niekoľko desiatok svojich vzdelancov, aby sa vyučili v novom písme a obradoch. V roku 869 požiadal pápeža Hadriána II., aby vysvätil Metoda za panónskeho biskupa. Zalavár Blatnohrad, základy Pribinovho kostola / Zalavár Blatnohrad Pribina s church Maľba na motívy Maurovej legendy na strope farského kostola v Skalke nad Váhom / Maurus legend in a mural paintingin the church at Skalka nad Váhom The text accounts the hermit life of St. Andrew-Svorad in the cave under Zobor near Nitra, his 40-day lent on 40 nuts, his asceticism and penance as proved by a chain ingrown into his flesh, found after his death, and the miracles he did when he brought to life a dead bandit in his cave and saved a criminal condemned to the gallows. Svorad s life and actions were retold by his disciple Benedict, who continued his hermit life in the cave at Skalka near Trenčín after the death of his teacher. Three years later, in 1034, Benedict was assaulted and killed by bandits who expected to find a treasure in the cave. The body they threw to the river Váh was protected by an eagle and stayed intact the whole year after his death. The cult of adoration of St. Benedict has been known since the latter half of the 11th century. In the place where he had lived, the Church of St. Benedict had been constructed before the end of the 11th century, but its existence has been traced back only to the year It was when the pilgrimage tradition at Skalka began. Malá Skalka (Lesser Skalka) On the way to Nemšová from Trenčín, a twin-tower church, visible from distance, will catch your eye. The baroque appearance of the church goes back to the year 1745, as a result of reconstruction by the Trenčín Jesuits 12

13 Trenčiansky kraj V Trenčianskom kraji je najstarším benediktínskym kultúrnym centrom kláštor na Skalke pri Trenčíne. Významným sakrálnym objektom sa Skalka stala po príchode sv. Benedikta, okolo roku 1031, a jeho neskoršej mučeníckej smrti. Svätí Svorad (Andrej) a Benedikt sa stali prvými kanonizovanými svätcami Uhorského kráľovstva (ešte v 11. storočí) a Skalka sa stala odvtedy významným pútnickým miestom najstarším na Slovensku. Skalka ako východisko Skalka pri Trenčíne je miestom spojeným s najstaršou legendou z obdobia Uhorského kráľovstva Životom svätých pustovníkov Svorada Vyznávača a Benedikta Mučeníka, napísaný Maurusom, Päťkostolným biskupom. V rokoch ju napísal Maurus, benediktínsky mních z kláštora v Pannonhalme, neskorší biskup v Pécsi (Päťkostolí), ktorý osobne poznal Benedikta zo Skalky. Spísanie skutkov súviselo s kanonizovaním oboch svätcov a sv. Svorad-Andrej a sv. Benedikt sa tak stali najstaršími uhorskými svätcami vôbec. V stredoveku bola legenda známa v celej Európe jej dobové opisy sú dodnes zachované v Kráľovskej knižnici v Bruseli, v Mazarinovej knižnici v Paríži, v Mníchove, v Széchényiho knižnici v Budapešti, najstaršia verzia z 13. storočia je v Záhrebskom breviári v Univerzitnej knižnici v Záhrebe. Obsahom textu je pustovnícky život sv. Svorada-Andreja v jaskyni pod Zoborom pri Nitre jeho 40-dňový pôst so 40 orechmi, pravidelné odriekanie, ktoré po smrti ukázala reťaz vrastená do tela, i zázraky, ktoré vykonal, keď prebral k životu mŕtveho zbojníka vo svojej jaskyni a neskôr aj odsúdeného zločinca spod šibenice. Svoradove skutky a život porozprával jeho žiak Benedikt, ktorý po smrti svojho učiteľa pokračoval v pustovníckom živote v jaskyni na Skalke pri Trenčíne. Benedikta po troch rokoch pustovníčenia (v roku 1034) prepadli a zabili zbojníci, ktorí Veľká Skalka, pôvodné sochy v priestore rajskej záhrady / The Paradise garden at Veľká Skalka in the place of the former late-gothic chapel without towers. In the late 16th century, the chapel got rebuilt by Hungarian Palatine Juraj Thurzo, one of the most outstanding local representatives of humanism, Reformation and Renaissance. In 1924, Karol Kmeťko, Bishop of Nitra, proclaimed Skalka a Slovak pilgrimage site, similar in importance to Lourdes in France. Veľká Skalka (Greater Skalka) The church is presumed to have been standing in the place of canonization of St. Benedict at Veľká Skalka around the year 1083, although the oldest written record refers back to as late as 1208; in 1224, the Benedictine monastery is first mentioned. Between 1224 and 1528, Veľká Skalka, pôvodná socha sv. Beňadika v jaskyni / Veľká Skalka The original statue in the cave there was a Benedictine Abbey at Skalka, founded following the permission by Jakub, Bishop of Nitra: Jakub, Bishop of Nitra, is establishing the abbey at Skalka confirming to the rules of St. Benedict and is donating the 13

14 Malá Skalka v roku 1910 čakali, že nájdu v jaskyni poklady. Telo, ktoré hodili do rieky Váh, strážil orol a zostalo neporušené celý rok. Kult uctievania sv. Benedikta na Skalke sa spomína už od druhej polovice 11. storočia a na mieste jeho pobytu bol už koncom storočia postavený kostol sv. Benedikta, ktorý je písomne doložený z roku V tomto období sa začala aj pútnická tradícia Skalky. Malá Skalka Na ceste z Trenčína do Nemšovej upúta pozornosť kostol s dvoma zďaleka viditeľnými vežami táto baroková podoba kostola pochádza z roku 1745 a je výsledkom stavebnej činnosti trenčianskych jezuitov. Pôvodne stála na tomto mieste neskorogotická kaplnka bez veží. Malá Skalka je miesto, kde podľa legendy zhodili zbojníci Benedikta do Váhu. V roku 1924 tu nitriansky biskup Veľká Skalka pred rokom 1924 Malá Skalka v roku

15 Veľká Skalka v roku 1905 Malá Skalka pred rekonštrukciou v roku 1924 land of Újazd to serve as the maintenance of the monks.... Architectural relics indicate the flourishing period of the Benedictine Abbey; on 23 June 1238, Hungarian King Belo IV stopped there. On the premises of the monastery, there is an entrance to St. Benedict Cave that can be considered the oldest cave accessible to the public in Slovakia. It refers to St. Benedict s life. When the hermit got attacked by bandits during a prayer, he besought God for help, touched the rock with his hand, and the rock opened up; you can still see his hand imprint on the rock by the cave entrance. At the entrance to the cave, an early- Gothic stone portal of an artistic value has been preserved, originating at the turn of the 14th century. It was the period of Matúš Čák s favour. Likewise, the preserved documents confirm that in the 14th and 15th centuries, there used to be a monastery scriptorium, Veľká Skalka v roku

16 Karol Kmeťko vyhlásil celý areál Skalky za slovenské pútnické miesto s významom, aký majú Lurdy vo Francúzsku. Veľká Skalka Kostol na mieste kanonizácie sv. Benedikta musel stáť na Veľkej Skalke už okolo roku 1083, písomne je doložený v roku 1208, od roku 1224 aj s benediktínskym kláštorom. V rokoch bolo na Skalke benediktínske opátstvo, zriadené na základe súhlasu nitrianskeho biskupa Jakuba: Jakub, nitriansky biskup ustanovuje opátstvo podľa regule sv. Benedikta na Skalke, a na vydržiavanie rehoľníkov venuje Zem Újazd, predtým patriacu Mogosovi, ktorý ju daroval Nitrianskemu biskupstvu... Architektonické fragmenty poukazujú na priaznivé obdobie benediktínskeho opátstva 23. júna 1238 sa tu osobne zastavil aj uhorský kráľ Belo IV. Veľká Skalka, severný pohľad na kláštor so vstupnou bránou / The entrance gate V areáli kláštora je vchod do Benediktovej jaskyne, ktorú môžeme považovať za najstaršiu, verejnosti sprístupnenú jaskyňu na Slovensku. Viaže sa k životu sv. Benedikta keď pustovníka pri modlitbe prepadli zbojníci, poprosil Boha o pomoc, dotkol sa rukou skaly a tá sa otvorila doteraz možno pri ústí jaskyne nájsť odtlačok ruky na skale. Na mieste vchodu do jaskyne je zachovaný výtvarne hodnotný kamenný ranogotický portál z prelomu 13. a 14. storočia obdobia priazne Matúša Čáka. V storočí je doložené aj kláštorné skriptórium, kde sa ručne prepisovali a viazali knihy Skalka bola Veľká Skalka, jezuitská časť kláštora / The Jesuit part of the monastery where books were rewritten and bound manually. This period saw Skalka as a notable spiritual and library centre of the central Vah Valley region. Since 1528, the yields of the Abbey had belonged to the Nitra bishops, but the monastery kept on dilapidating up to 1644, when Trenčín Jesuits took over its administration. In 1644, king Ferdinand III donated all the possessions of the former Benedictine monastery to Trenčín Jesuits. The Jesuits gave to the monastery of Skalka its current looks they reconstructed and extended some of the old buildings, stabilized the defensive walls, and built a stone staircase numbering 180 stairs leading from the road to the entrance. They also gave its baroque façade to the church at Malá Skalka. Its current appearance basically results from the reconstruction and expansion of the premises carried out by the Jesuits throughout the 17th and 18th centuries. Veľká Skalka, vchod do jaskyne s ranogotickým portálom / The early gothic portal 16

Mons. Marián Chovanec banskobystrický diecézny biskup

Mons. Marián Chovanec banskobystrický diecézny biskup Pane, prichádzame na toto posvätné miesto poznačené životom svätých pustovníkov sv. Svorada-Andreja a sv. Beňadika, aby sme sa cez ich život priblížili k Tebe a mohli Ťa nasledovať v každodennom živote.

More information

Welcome to the Czech Republic

Welcome to the Czech Republic Welcome to the Czech Republic Rambling through the southern Moravia, the southern Bohemia and the Šumava region to Prague in a group of two, four or more people with own driver guide by a car. The programme

More information

Charles Bridge. Old Town Square. Municipal House and Powder Gate. Wenceslas Square and National Museum

Charles Bridge. Old Town Square. Municipal House and Powder Gate. Wenceslas Square and National Museum TRIP: (PROLONGED) ROYAL ROUTE Újezd via Petřín funicular Petřín Hill, Petřín Tower via Petřín Hill Loreta via Loretánská street (/ Nový Svět street) and Hradčanské náměstí Prague Castle Area via Staré

More information

Information Centres: Important Web sites:

Information Centres: Important Web sites: Information Centres: MIC Bruntál, nám. Míru 7, tel: 554 713 099, e-mail: mic@mubruntal.cz IC Karlova Studánka, tel: 554 772 004, e-mail: info@jeseniky-praded.cz IC Rýmařov, nám. Míru 13, tel: 554 212 381,

More information

Označení materiálu: VY_22_INOVACE_AJ_E_63. Autor: Jana Řehořová. Tematický celek: Czech history. Učivo (téma): Prague. www.zlinskedumy.

Označení materiálu: VY_22_INOVACE_AJ_E_63. Autor: Jana Řehořová. Tematický celek: Czech history. Učivo (téma): Prague. www.zlinskedumy. Označení materiálu: VY_22_INOVACE_AJ_E_63 Autor: Jana Řehořová Tematický celek: Czech history Učivo (téma): Prague www.zlinskedumy.cz Stručná charakteristika Prezentace poslouží jak pro potřeby E- twinningového

More information

Tours Prague and Czech Republic November 2011

Tours Prague and Czech Republic November 2011 Tours Prague and Czech Republic November 2011 Tour 1/ Prague Castle and Historic Library Prague Castle was founded in the last quarter of the 9th centrury. Residence of pricens and kings of Bohemia, since

More information

HRADEC KRÁLOVÉ REGION HRADECKO REGION. Archeopark of Prehistory in Všestary

HRADEC KRÁLOVÉ REGION HRADECKO REGION. Archeopark of Prehistory in Všestary EN HRADEC KRÁLOVÉ REGION HRADECKO REGION Archeopark of Prehistory in Všestary 1 Petr1888, CC BY-SA 4.0 2 The village of Všestary lies close to Hradec Králové towards Jičín. The first written reference

More information

Keywords for the study of Junior Cert art

Keywords for the study of Junior Cert art able abstract acrylic activity aesthetic/aesthetics analyze ancient animation applied arch arches architect architectural architecture art art process artist artistic artists arts artwork artworks assemble

More information

A SHORT HISTORY OF CHURCH BUILDING

A SHORT HISTORY OF CHURCH BUILDING A SHORT HISTORY OF CHURCH BUILDING From its beginning, a critical part of Christianity has been the gathering of people worshipping together. By virtue of this activity, the place where they worship has

More information

Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery State of Conservation Report

Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery State of Conservation Report Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery State of Conservation Report National Agency for Cultural Heritage Preservation of Georgia January 2014 This Report on the State of Conservation of the the Bagrati

More information

Lesson Plan. Playful Portraits

Lesson Plan. Playful Portraits Early Childhood (Ages 3 5) Lesson Plan Playful Portraits Molleno Altar Screen Altar Screen, Molleno, About 1825 Overview Students will explore Molleno s Altar Screen to learn more about portraits. They

More information

Note Taking Study Guide THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE

Note Taking Study Guide THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE SECTION 1 Note Taking Study Guide THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE Focus Question: What made the Byzantine empire rich and successful for so long, and why did it finally crumble? As you read this section in your textbook,

More information

CHRISTIANITY KS 2. Unit 10: Christians and the World. What this unit contains. Where the unit fits and how it builds upon previous learning

CHRISTIANITY KS 2. Unit 10: Christians and the World. What this unit contains. Where the unit fits and how it builds upon previous learning What this unit contains Where the unit fits and how it builds upon previous learning here are some places that are important to Christians in the UK and the wider world what makes them important and what

More information

Pilgrims and Pilgrimages

Pilgrims and Pilgrimages Pilgrims and Pilgrimages Pilgrimage to the Shrine of Our Lady of Walsingham The History of Pilgrimage to Walsingham and an outline of modern Christian Pilgrimage at today s Anglican Shrine In the year

More information

Living the Truth in Love. At the Threshold of the Apostles

Living the Truth in Love. At the Threshold of the Apostles Living the Truth in Love At the Threshold of the Apostles At regular intervals, every bishop is required to make an ad limina visit to meet with the Pope and to give him an account of the bishop's particular

More information

Żory - the past. and present

Żory - the past. and present Żory - the past and present The Chapel - at the site of the first church (before): (now): The story of the Old Chapel What we know about the old chapel is the fact that it once used to be a huge church

More information

World History I SOL Review Packet Part III

World History I SOL Review Packet Part III SOL 7 Byzantine Empire World History I SOL Review Packet Part III 1. Label Constantinople on the map below. 2. What was the significance of Justinian s Code? Codified R law and influenced E legal c 3.

More information

Krakow, Poland SUMMER 2016. What is a pilgrimage? Registration

Krakow, Poland SUMMER 2016. What is a pilgrimage? Registration World Youth Day Krakow, Poland SUMMER 2016 Blessed are the merciful, for they will receive mercy. Matthew 5:7 What is World Youth Day? World Youth Day began in the early 1980s with an invitation from St.

More information

THE MONT-SAINT-MICHEL FOUNDATION

THE MONT-SAINT-MICHEL FOUNDATION THE MONT-SAINT-MICHEL FOUNDATION 1 «TO RESTORE THE SPIRITUAL AND CULTURAL ASPECT OF MONT-SAINT-MICHEL» A PROJECT SUPPORTED BY THE GENEROSITY OF PATRONS AN OUTSTANDING HISTORIC SITE 2 Nearly 3 million visitors

More information

The City map of Milan

The City map of Milan Milan The City map of Milan Milan Main city of northwestern Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy Most populated, developed region 1,308,500 inhabitants, Urban area = 4,000,000 people. Milan Milan's

More information

Prayers for a Virtual Pilgrimage with Pope Francis

Prayers for a Virtual Pilgrimage with Pope Francis Prayers for a Virtual Pilgrimage with Pope Francis Tuesday, September 22 Washington, DC As our shepherd Pope Francis begins his pilgrimage to the United States, please pray for the Church in our country.

More information

Home work. Fill in the Blanks Use your study sheet to find the correct answers. BETWEEN ANCIENT AND MODERN

Home work. Fill in the Blanks Use your study sheet to find the correct answers. BETWEEN ANCIENT AND MODERN Date: 1 BETWEEN ANCIENT AND MODERN The Middle Ages is the period between a and m history. The early period of the Middle Ages is known as the D Ages because the great c of G and R had fallen. Life during

More information

GRADUATE ASSISTANTSHIP in LITURGY AND MUSIC. College of Saint Benedict Campus Ministry

GRADUATE ASSISTANTSHIP in LITURGY AND MUSIC. College of Saint Benedict Campus Ministry GRADUATE ASSISTANTSHIP in LITURGY AND MUSIC Mission of Saint Benedict s Campus Ministry College of Saint Benedict Campus Ministry Campus Ministry supports this mission by accompanying students on their

More information

ROCHESTER CATHEDRAL. Who s who in Rochester Cathedral

ROCHESTER CATHEDRAL. Who s who in Rochester Cathedral ROCHESTER CATHEDRAL A cathedral is the main church of a diocese. A diocese is a group of churches looked after by a bishop. You can find a map of the Diocese of Rochester in the Cathedral crypt. Christians

More information

28 th ICAR THINGS TO DO IN ROME

28 th ICAR THINGS TO DO IN ROME 28 th ICAR THINGS TO DO IN ROME The International Society for Antiviral Research has partnered with the local Rome hosts and compiled multiple optional activities you can partake in. Each activity will

More information

Swot Analysis. Religious Tourism Training needs and population wider attitude in Italy

Swot Analysis. Religious Tourism Training needs and population wider attitude in Italy Swot Analysis Religious Tourism Training needs and population wider attitude in Italy Partner: COPE Released: July 9 th 2012 1 THE OPERATIVE PHASE Description of context (overview) A brief description

More information

PRE CONGRESS TOURS FOR RESERVATION PLEASE CLICK HERE

PRE CONGRESS TOURS FOR RESERVATION PLEASE CLICK HERE PRE CONGRESS TOURS FOR RESERVATION PLEASE CLICK HERE 02 Oct 2015 Cracow Sightseeing 11:00 Meeting point at Wawel Parking (11 Powiśle Street) 11:00 14:00 Old Cracow Sightseeing Medieval Cracow The historic

More information

mount tabor ECUMENICAL CENTRE FOR ART & SPIRITUALITY

mount tabor ECUMENICAL CENTRE FOR ART & SPIRITUALITY mount tabor ECUMENICAL CENTRE FOR ART & SPIRITUALITY mount tabor ECUMENICAL CENTRE FOR ART & SPIRITUALITY ABOUT The new Mount Tabor Centre was founded in 2013 at Barga, Italy, by the Community of Jesus,

More information

Romanesque Architecture. European Churches 1000-1200

Romanesque Architecture. European Churches 1000-1200 Romanesque Architecture European Churches 1000-1200 Romanesque Architecture The term "Romanesque" means like Roman. It refers to the architecture of the 11th and 12th centuries in medieval Europe to Roman

More information

Reflections From Our Graduates

Reflections From Our Graduates Reflections From Our Graduates Graduate Degrees in Theology Seminary & School of Theology Steeped in Tradition, Engaging the present, Shaping the future The laity is called to participate actively in the

More information

The sea protected the city on three sides. A huge wall protected the fourth. A chain was stretched across the north harbor for even more protection.

The sea protected the city on three sides. A huge wall protected the fourth. A chain was stretched across the north harbor for even more protection. Constantinople: The City of Constantine Constantine I was dissatisfied with Rome as his capital. He rebuilt Istanbul and renamed it Constantinople. Rome, Latin speaking, and pagan began its slow decline.

More information

TRIP PROPOSAL FOR. June 2009

TRIP PROPOSAL FOR. June 2009 TRIP PROPOSAL FOR TORUŃ ŚWIECIE GDAŃSK GDYNIA SOPOT - MALBORK June 2009 Blue Sky Travel sp. z o.o. KRS 54368 www.bluesky.pl Ul. Roosevelta 2, 60-829 Poznań Regon 634227081 magdalena.wohlgetan@bluesky.pl

More information

Late Medieval Period (WHI.12)

Late Medieval Period (WHI.12) Name Late Medieval Period (WHI.12) Label on Map: England, France, Spain, Russia, Holly Roman Empire, Paris, Rome, Mediterranean Sea, English Channel, Atlantic Ocean Term: Nation-state Describe: Draw: 1

More information

PROJECT NOTE. - aplication for MED programme - ConserveRevive of old town Lastovo building the historical core

PROJECT NOTE. - aplication for MED programme - ConserveRevive of old town Lastovo building the historical core PROJECT NOTE - aplication for MED programme - Internal project name: ConserveRevive of old town Lastovo building the historical core Interreg MED project name (proposal): Historical town centers: Building

More information

VYSOKÉ UČENÍ TECHNICKÉ V BRNĚ BRNO UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

VYSOKÉ UČENÍ TECHNICKÉ V BRNĚ BRNO UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY VYSOKÉ UČENÍ TECHNICKÉ V BRNĚ BRNO UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY FAKULTA STAVEBNÍ ÚSTAV BETONOVÝCH A ZDĚNÝCH KONSTRUKCÍ FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF CONCRETE AND MASONRY STRUCTURES PRIESTOROVÝ

More information

Unit 9 Lesson 5 Popes, Kings and Challenges to the Church

Unit 9 Lesson 5 Popes, Kings and Challenges to the Church Unit 9 Lesson 5 Popes, Kings and Challenges to the Church Lesson 5 Popes, Kings and Challenges to the Church Directions Read each False statement below. Replace each underlined word with one from the word

More information

Guide to Catholic Stained Glass Windows

Guide to Catholic Stained Glass Windows Guide to Catholic Stained Glass Windows S STAINED GLASS INC. G I Stained glass can remind us that there is something something beautiful beyond the world where we live. It can help us refocus on the things

More information

ROSKILDE CATHEDRAL DISCOVER UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE AND ROYAL TOMBS IN...

ROSKILDE CATHEDRAL DISCOVER UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE AND ROYAL TOMBS IN... DISCOVER UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE AND ROYAL TOMBS IN... ROSKILDE CATHEDRAL Roskilde Cathedral has been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List since 1995 a list including the most spectacular monuments

More information

The Iconography of the Pharmacy in the past and at present

The Iconography of the Pharmacy in the past and at present The Iconography of the Pharmacy in the past and at present Nina Aldin Thune I am currently writing my dissertation in art history about the architecture of the pharmacy. An important aspect of my research

More information

GE - Vyšší kvalita výuky

GE - Vyšší kvalita výuky Gymnázium, Brno, Elgartova 3 GE - Vyšší kvalita výuky CZ.1.07/1.5.00/34.0925 III/2 Inovace a zkvalitnění výuky prostřednictvím ICT Téma: Culture Autor: Mgr. Lenka Fialová Název: St. Vitus Cathedral Datum:

More information

The Trinity is a mystery. Even great theologians don t completely understand it, and some scholars spend their whole lives studying it.

The Trinity is a mystery. Even great theologians don t completely understand it, and some scholars spend their whole lives studying it. Holy Trinity Sunday In the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit Mathew 28:16-20 Sometimes when I m leading chapel for our preschoolers, I ask a question like: Who was born in Bethlehem? And one of

More information

TRIP PROPOSAL FOR. TORUŃ MALBORK GDAŃSK GDYNIA SOPOT March 7th-10th 2012 15 PARTICIPANS

TRIP PROPOSAL FOR. TORUŃ MALBORK GDAŃSK GDYNIA SOPOT March 7th-10th 2012 15 PARTICIPANS TRIP PROPOSAL FOR TORUŃ MALBORK GDAŃSK GDYNIA SOPOT March 7th-10th 2012 15 PARTICIPANS Blue Sky Travel sp. z o.o. KRS 54368 www.bluesky.pl Ul. Roosevelta 2, 60-829 Poznań Regon 634227081 m.wohlgetan@bluesky.pl

More information

Things to remember when talking with teens about history:

Things to remember when talking with teens about history: Church History Overview: To reunite all his children, scattered and led astray by sin, the Father willed to call the whole of humanity together into his Son s Church. The Church is the place where humanity

More information

World History Middle Ages Test

World History Middle Ages Test World History Middle Ages Test 1. Europe became a feudal society because a. Europeans needed to defend themselves against constant raids and invasions. b. overpopulation required that a more efficient

More information

A Ministry Serving Eastern Washington. Catholic Funeral & Cemetery Services of Spokane

A Ministry Serving Eastern Washington. Catholic Funeral & Cemetery Services of Spokane A Ministry Serving Eastern Washington Catholic Funeral & Cemetery Services of Spokane Catholic Funeral & Cemetery Services Caring for Families in Our Community. Living Our Mission Catholic Funeral & Cemetery

More information

How Do I Evangelize? Starting Evangelism Group in Your Church. By Victor Beshir

How Do I Evangelize? Starting Evangelism Group in Your Church. By Victor Beshir How Do I Evangelize? Starting Evangelism Group in Your Church By Victor Beshir When the Lord sent His disciples to evangelize, the gospel says: And He called the twelve to [Himself], and began to send

More information

Profile. Jerusalem University College

Profile. Jerusalem University College Profile Jerusalem University College 6 Profile History Located on Mount Zion, adjacent to the southwest corner of the Old City wall, Jerusalem University College had its beginnings as the Institute of

More information

GRADES: 4-5. Be like the stars of our faith-help care for the church! Tithe. to tithe is to share to tithe is to care

GRADES: 4-5. Be like the stars of our faith-help care for the church! Tithe. to tithe is to share to tithe is to care GRADES: 4-5 Be like the stars of our faith-help care for the church! Tithe to tithe is to share to tithe is to care Dear Student, As Orthodox Christians, we care about our faith and our church. One way

More information

How did the histories of the Byzantine Empire and Western Europe differ during the era of third-wave civilizations?

How did the histories of the Byzantine Empire and Western Europe differ during the era of third-wave civilizations? How did the histories of the Byzantine Empire and Western Europe differ during the era of third-wave civilizations? Western Europe. Frankish Kingdoms. Roman Catholic Church. Holy Roman Empire. Eastern

More information

Prayer Service to Celebrate the Ministry of Teachers During Catholic Schools Week 2015

Prayer Service to Celebrate the Ministry of Teachers During Catholic Schools Week 2015 Prayer Service to Celebrate the Ministry of Teachers During Catholic Schools Week 2015 You Will Need A large candle with the words Love, Kindness, Joy, Truth and Justice (the final page of this document

More information

Getting to know you. Intro. Chapter pg 1a. Presentation of Mary Advent Anticipation. to God, and accepted his call.

Getting to know you. Intro. Chapter pg 1a. Presentation of Mary Advent Anticipation. to God, and accepted his call. Intro. Chapter pg 1a Seasonal Getting to know you Call To Faith 6th Grade Activities will be in your boxes with supply needed to develop the activities. Title Overview Scripture Chapter Words Activities

More information

TRAVELING EXHIBIT K-12 EDUCATOR S GUIDE

TRAVELING EXHIBIT K-12 EDUCATOR S GUIDE SEPTEMBER 19 FEBRUARY 15 TRAVELING EXHIBIT K-12 EDUCATOR S GUIDE With one visit to Vatican Splendors, your students will experience 2,000 years of history as they see over two hundred works of art and

More information

PRAYER OF THE FAITHFUL 27 th Sunday in Ordinary Time October 6/7, 2007

PRAYER OF THE FAITHFUL 27 th Sunday in Ordinary Time October 6/7, 2007 27 th Sunday in Ordinary Time October 6/7, 2007 Celebrant: My sisters and brothers, trusting in the love and mercy of Almighty God, we bring all our needs before him: 1. For Pope Benedict and all bishops,

More information

Pracovná skupina 1 Energetický management a tvorba energetických plánov mesta

Pracovná skupina 1 Energetický management a tvorba energetických plánov mesta Pracovná skupina 1 Energetický management a tvorba energetických plánov mesta Metodológia a podpora poskytovaná v rámci Dohovoru primátorov a starostov Skúsenosti českých miest Skúsenosti mesta Litoměřice

More information

The Art of Ancient Rome

The Art of Ancient Rome The Art of Ancient Rome By the end of the sixth Century BC, under Etruscan rule, Rome became the largest and richest city in Italy. The Romans, however, were not happy under Etruscan rule, and in 509 BC

More information

From station to station. Dear Passengers,

From station to station. Dear Passengers, From station to station ESZTERGOM NAGYMAROS VÁC DÖMÖS VISEGRÁD TAHITÓTFALU LEÁNYFALU SZENTENDRE Buy a combined ticket Travel to the Danube Bend by boat and return by bus. Present your Eurolines ticket

More information

WORKSHEET FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

WORKSHEET FOR HIGH SCHOOLS WORKSHEET FOR HIGH SCHOOLS 1. Read the text and fill in the verb in correct form: Three Prague bridges The first mention of a wooden footbridge over the Moldau River can be found in the legend of St. Wenceslas

More information

Ninth Grade History & Social Science World History I

Ninth Grade History & Social Science World History I SEPTEMBER WHI.1 Historical Research and Geographical Analysis *(ongoing throughout year) identify, analyze, and interpret primary and secondary sources use maps, globes, artifacts, pictures identify major

More information

RESTORE, RENEW, REJOICE!

RESTORE, RENEW, REJOICE! RESTORE, RENEW, REJOICE! OUR LADY OF SORROWS PLANNING STUDY REPORT NOVEMBER 2012 Our Lady of Sorrows Parish and the Archdiocese of Toronto - Page 1 OUR LADY OF SORROWS PARISH PLANNING STUDY REPORT - NOVEMBER

More information

Human resources development in rural areas of the Czech Republic

Human resources development in rural areas of the Czech Republic Human resources development in rural areas of the Czech Republic Vývoj lidských zdrojů ve venkovském prostoru ČR L. Svatošová Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague Czech Republic Abstract: al development

More information

Napoleonic France, 1799 1815. Napoleon Bonaparte as a young Officer

Napoleonic France, 1799 1815. Napoleon Bonaparte as a young Officer Napoleonic France, 1799 1815 Napoleon Bonaparte as a young Officer 1 2 1796 Napoleon crossed the Alps & drove the Austrians out of Northern Italy. He then turned N. Italy into the Cisalpine Republic and

More information

The Frankish Empire. The Franks and the Origins of the Frankish Empire

The Frankish Empire. The Franks and the Origins of the Frankish Empire The Frankish Empire The Germanic tribe known as the Franks established and ruled the Frankish Empire, in the ancient territory of Gaul (largely encompassing modern-day France and parts of modern-day Germany),

More information

Bible Survey, part 3 The New Testament (The Gospels & The Acts of the Apostles)

Bible Survey, part 3 The New Testament (The Gospels & The Acts of the Apostles) Bible Survey, part 3 The New Testament (The Gospels & The Acts of the Apostles) OVERVIEW OF THE BIBLE WHAT each book is about WHEN each one was written HOW they are all interconnected Enhanced CD contains:

More information

Confirmation Preparation

Confirmation Preparation Confirmation Preparation A GUIDEBOOK FOR CONFIRMATION CANDIDATES AND PARENTS St. Bartholomew, St. Joseph, and St. Stephen Catholic Churches...that their hearts may be encouraged as they are brought together

More information

Chapter 15: Rome s Decline and Legacy Lesson 4: The Legacy of Rome p. 514 519

Chapter 15: Rome s Decline and Legacy Lesson 4: The Legacy of Rome p. 514 519 Name Hour Date Chapter 15: Rome s Decline and Legacy Lesson 4: The Legacy of Rome p. 514 519 Main Ideas Culture: Roman culture was a unique blend of Roman and Greek ideas. Science and Technology: Roman

More information

The Story of Atlantic School of Theology. Researched and Written by Yvette Swan, MDiv (Hons) AST Class of 2010 In honour of AST s 40th Anniversary

The Story of Atlantic School of Theology. Researched and Written by Yvette Swan, MDiv (Hons) AST Class of 2010 In honour of AST s 40th Anniversary The Story of Atlantic School of Theology Researched and Written by Yvette Swan, MDiv (Hons) AST Class of 2010 In honour of AST s 40th Anniversary The Story of Atlantic School of Theology AST Past Laying

More information

Protestant Reformation. The reform movement that divided the western church into Catholic & Protestant

Protestant Reformation. The reform movement that divided the western church into Catholic & Protestant Essential Questions: What were indulgences? Why was Martin Luther opposed to the sale of indulgences? Why did Roman Catholic Church officials respond to Luther s ninety-five theses with the eventual excommunication

More information

PASTORAL PLAN FOR HOLY TRINITY CATHOLIC HIGH SCHOOL 2015-2016. Ut Omnes Unum Sint That All May Be One

PASTORAL PLAN FOR HOLY TRINITY CATHOLIC HIGH SCHOOL 2015-2016. Ut Omnes Unum Sint That All May Be One PASTORAL PLAN FOR HOLY TRINITY CATHOLIC HIGH SCHOOL 2015-2016 Ut Omnes Unum Sint That All May Be One Principal: Humberto Cacilhas BHNCDSB Theme: Act Justly, Love Tenderly, Walk Humbly With Our God. - 1

More information

POST-CLASSICAL EUROPE. In Focus: Byzantium and the Middle Ages Third Wave Civilizations

POST-CLASSICAL EUROPE. In Focus: Byzantium and the Middle Ages Third Wave Civilizations POST-CLASSICAL EUROPE In Focus: Byzantium and the Middle Ages Third Wave Civilizations BYZANTINE CIVILIZATION: MODERN CONTEXT Reconciliation of 1964 Represents the path of European Civilization since the

More information

Visit guide: self-directed visits

Visit guide: self-directed visits Visit guide: self-directed visits Who are these materials for? These materials are for ESOL, EFL, EAL or IELTS tutors who are planning self-directed visits to the museum. We have provided some background

More information

: Architectural Lighting : Interiérové svietidlá

: Architectural Lighting : Interiérové svietidlá SEC Lighting : Architectural Lighting : nteriérové svietidlá : Shape Harmony : Tradition The company SEC accepts with enthusiasm the challenges of continuously changing world. n our opinion, luminaries

More information

Christ of Mercy EASTER PROGRAMME. March 4th to April 10th FRIDAY MARCH 4TH. CYCLE of Sacred Music

Christ of Mercy EASTER PROGRAMME. March 4th to April 10th FRIDAY MARCH 4TH. CYCLE of Sacred Music Christ of Mercy The Jubilee Year of Mercy, designated by His Holiness Pope Francis, invites us to be charitable, helping those close to us fulfil their needs, both spiritual and physical, according to

More information

THE ORDER OF THE MASS

THE ORDER OF THE MASS THE ORDER OF THE MASS The first part of the Mass is about getting to know everyone and welcoming everyone to God s house. It s called the INTRODUCTORY RITES. Entrance Song We sing to celebrate that we

More information

Anglo-Saxon Prose and Short Poetry. 05.23.13 English 2322: British Literature: Anglo-Saxon Mid 18th Century D. Glen Smith, instructor

Anglo-Saxon Prose and Short Poetry. 05.23.13 English 2322: British Literature: Anglo-Saxon Mid 18th Century D. Glen Smith, instructor Anglo-Saxon Prose and Short Poetry The Venerable Bede Bede (673-735) is known as the earliest prose writer and first historian for the island of England. His writings help established a sense of nationalism

More information

Garden design and restoration - rebuilding hystorical places Yvoire France

Garden design and restoration - rebuilding hystorical places Yvoire France Volume 17(3), 118-122, 2013 JOURNAL of Horticulture, Forestry and Biotechnology www.journal-hfb.usab-tm.ro Garden design and restoration - rebuilding hystorical places Yvoire France Szekely G. 1 * 1 Banat

More information

World Youth Day USA Krakow Kickoff July 7, 2015 Bishop Frank J Caggiano s Opening Remarks (Video Clip 1)

World Youth Day USA Krakow Kickoff July 7, 2015 Bishop Frank J Caggiano s Opening Remarks (Video Clip 1) World Youth Day USA Krakow Kickoff July 7, 2015 Bishop Frank J Caggiano s Opening Remarks (Video Clip 1) Thank you for coming here this afternoon to inaugurate the Pilgrim Year of Preparation for World

More information

2000 rue Sherbrooke O. H3H 1G4 @ 6pm, supper included (or 7pm for the meeting only)

2000 rue Sherbrooke O. H3H 1G4 @ 6pm, supper included (or 7pm for the meeting only) The Mission Jeunesse - Youth Ministry Office i s a c o o r d i n at i o n t eam, m an d at ed b y t h e A r c h b i s h o p o f Mo n t r eal to promote in the diocese, outreach to teenagers (13-17 years

More information

2. Prior to the Reformation, all Christians in Western Europe were. 3. What caused Catholics to cry out for reform?

2. Prior to the Reformation, all Christians in Western Europe were. 3. What caused Catholics to cry out for reform? Reformation Questions 7 th Grade Social Studies 1. When did the Reformation begin? a. at the time of Jesus Christ's birth b. in the early 1500's c. upon the Declaration of Independence of the United States

More information

The Albigensian or Cathcar Crusade

The Albigensian or Cathcar Crusade The Albigensian or Cathcar Crusade Occurred in Southern France (1209 1229) Effort by Roman Catholic Church to eliminate Heresy Papal Diplomat murdered by Cathcar Count Pope Innocent III declared Holy Crusade

More information

WELCOME TO GOD S FAMILY

WELCOME TO GOD S FAMILY WELCOME TO GOD S FAMILY To all who received him, to those who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God children born not of natural descent, nor of human decision or a husband

More information

SUGGESTED LEARNING CONTEXTS

SUGGESTED LEARNING CONTEXTS SUGGESTED LEARNING CONTEXTS Within the broad area of the place of religion in society teachers may choose from one or more o the suggested contexts (this list is not exhaustive): Religion in history e.g.

More information

The Nature of God. If God s presence is indicated by complexity God himself to do all this stuff must be complex and so must have a designer

The Nature of God. If God s presence is indicated by complexity God himself to do all this stuff must be complex and so must have a designer The Nature of God Teleological argument (intelligent design) Order and complexity via intelligent design by God. From Greek word telos meaning purpose suggests that the world has been designed for a purpose.

More information

Development and actual status of measures in the field of protected areas in the Czech Republic. Petr Pavelec - National Heritage Institute - Czech

Development and actual status of measures in the field of protected areas in the Czech Republic. Petr Pavelec - National Heritage Institute - Czech Petr Pavelec - National Heritage Institute - Czech Republic Old Town Square in Prague, during and after the bombing in 1945 The Second World War hit the Czech lands to a lesser degree than it did the surrounding

More information

Pope Leo and Attila the Hun

Pope Leo and Attila the Hun Pope Leo and Attila the Hun Central Historical Question: What happened at the meeting between Pope Leo and Attila the Hun? Materials: Raphael Painting Warm-up Background PowerPoint Copies of Documents

More information

christian symbols Throughout the course of Christian history, believers The dbu seal

christian symbols Throughout the course of Christian history, believers The dbu seal christian symbols Throughout the course of Christian history, believers have used symbols of the faith not only as personal reminders of their commitment to Christ, but also as a way to share the message

More information

Budapest: a first-class meetings and incentives tourism city in the heart of Europe

Budapest: a first-class meetings and incentives tourism city in the heart of Europe City Tourism Budapest: a first-class meetings and incentives tourism city in the heart of Europe Motaz Othman, ITM Historical Buildings and Bridges in Budapest With direct connections to most of the metropolitan

More information

These prayers and intercessions are intended to bring sisters to light throughout the liturgical year.

These prayers and intercessions are intended to bring sisters to light throughout the liturgical year. Prayers These prayers and intercessions are intended to bring sisters to light throughout the liturgical year. Advent This is a season for waiting and wondering. Help us to prepare our hearts for Jesus

More information

VBT-HOTEL IN MANCHESTER 6 tot 8 oktober

VBT-HOTEL IN MANCHESTER 6 tot 8 oktober - 1 - VBT-HOTEL IN MANCHESTER 6 tot 8 oktober Britannia Manchester Hotel (hotel in het voormalige Watts Warehouse) Portland Street, Manchester, M1 3LA Tel: +44-(0) 871 222 0017 Fax: +44-(0) 871 222 7704

More information

HANWORTH PARK Boundary: Date of Designation: Date of alteration and extension: Additional protection to the area:

HANWORTH PARK Boundary: Date of Designation: Date of alteration and extension: Additional protection to the area: HANWORTH PARK Boundary: See Map 8 Date of Designation: 06 March 1984 Date of alteration and extension: None Additional protection to the area: Listed buildings, Archaeological Priority Area; Scheduled

More information

Our Lady of Victory Parish Restoring Our Home In Faith

Our Lady of Victory Parish Restoring Our Home In Faith Our Lady of Victory Parish Restoring Our Home In Faith Message From Our Pastor May 15, 2010 Dear Parishioners and Friends of our Parish, Almost every time I meet a new visitor to Our Lady of Victory, that

More information

September 2005. Sponsored by: John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission Woonsocket, RI

September 2005. Sponsored by: John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission Woonsocket, RI Sponsored by: John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission Woonsocket, RI Worcester Historical Museum Worcester, MA September 2005 mawald/ld/0909700/graphics/covers/september05cover

More information

GRADES 9, 10, 11, 12 ANCIENT WORLD HISTORY

GRADES 9, 10, 11, 12 ANCIENT WORLD HISTORY Units of Credit: One Year (Elective) GRADES 9, 10, 11, 12 ANCIENT WORLD HISTORY Prerequisites: None Course Overview: World History is designed to trace the development of humans from earliest times to

More information

EGERAAT. heart of Budapest, new National Gallery and Ludwig Museum ERICK VAN. designed by. galvanizing the city: one building, two museums and more

EGERAAT. heart of Budapest, new National Gallery and Ludwig Museum ERICK VAN. designed by. galvanizing the city: one building, two museums and more ERICK VAN EGERAAT heart of Budapest, new National Gallery and Ludwig Museum galvanizing the city: one building, two museums and more June 2015 museum of fine arts műcsarnok (kunsthalle) house of terror

More information

Schools & Families Department. Find Out About The Cathedral

Schools & Families Department. Find Out About The Cathedral Schools & Families Department Find Out About The Cathedral What is a Cathedral? It is a giant church. Do a google search for different types of churches in Britain. There are lots of different shapes,

More information

EDUCATION IN MASTER STUDY PROGRAM NURSING IN SLOVAKIA

EDUCATION IN MASTER STUDY PROGRAM NURSING IN SLOVAKIA EDUCATION IN MASTER STUDY PROGRAM NURSING IN SLOVAKIA Iveta Matišáková 1, Katarína Gerlichová 1, Daniela Knápková 2 1 Faculty of Healthcare, Alexander Dubček University of Trenčín, Študentská 2, 911 01

More information

Causes of the Reformation

Causes of the Reformation Mr. Montreuil April 2015 1 The Big Picture I can explain how the Protestant Reformation impacted Europe religiously, politically, & socially. This Lesson I can critique the Medieval & Renaissance era Catholic

More information

Islam in China. History and Architecture

Islam in China. History and Architecture Islam in China History and Architecture The distribution of Muslim in China The population of Muslim in China is about 20 million.(1.5%) THE HISTORY OF MUSLIM IN CHINA In 651 A.D. Islam was brought to

More information

Cracow Incentive PROGRAMME PROPOSAL: Arrival to Balice Airport near Cracow. Transfer by bus, separate luggage transfer.

Cracow Incentive PROGRAMME PROPOSAL: Arrival to Balice Airport near Cracow. Transfer by bus, separate luggage transfer. Cracow Incentive Cracow - Poland's prime tourist attraction and a must in Central Europe boasts numerous worldclass monuments, charming vistas, delightful atmosphere, and the best restaurants. Piasts dynasty

More information

Chapter 10 Historic / Cultural Preservation

Chapter 10 Historic / Cultural Preservation Chapter 10 Historic / Cultural Preservation...10-1 Actions since adoption of the 1997 Comprehensive Plan...10-1 Goals & objectives...10-2 Historic & cultural resource recognition and protection...10-2

More information

ORDER OF MASS INTRODUCTORY RITES ENTRANCE SONG. In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Amen.

ORDER OF MASS INTRODUCTORY RITES ENTRANCE SONG. In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Amen. ORDER OF MASS INTRODUCTORY RITES ENTRANCE SONG In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit

More information