67 The Human Skeleton

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2 67 The Human Skeleton Skull SCIENCE EXPLORER Focus on Life Science Prentice-Hall, Inc. Clavicle (collarbone) Scapula (shoulder blade) Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges Femur Tibia Humerus Ulna Sternum (breastbone) Ribs Vertebral column (backbone) Pelvic girdle Patella Radius Tarsals Metatarsals Fibula Phalanges

3 68 The Structure of a Bone Compact bone Outer membrane Bone marrow Compact bone Canal Blood vessels Spongy bone

4 69 Exploring Movable Joints Ball-and-socket joint Pivot joint SCIENCE EXPLORER Focus on Life Science Prentice-Hall, Inc. Hinge joint Gliding joint

5 70 The Three Classes of Levers FIRST-CLASS LEVERS Output force Input force Prentice-Hall, Inc. Fulcrum SECOND-CLASS LEVERS SCIENCE EXPLORER Focus on Life Science THIRD-CLASS LEVERS Fulcrum Input force Output force Fulcrum Input force Output force

6 71 Exploring Levers in the Body Prentice-Hall, Inc. First-class lever SCIENCE EXPLORER Focus on Life Science Third-class lever Second-class lever

7 72 The Skin SCIENCE EXPLORER Focus on Life Science Prentice-Hall, Inc.

8 73 The Food Guide Pyramid Fats, Oils, and Sweets (Use sparingly.) Milk, Yogurt, and Cheese Group (2 3 servings) Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, and Nuts Group (2 3 servings) Vegetable Group (3 5 servings) Fruit Group (2 4 servings) Fat (naturally occurring and added) Sugars (naturally occurring and added) Bread, Cereal, Rice, and Pasta Group (6 11 servings)

9 74 The Digestive System Prentice-Hall, Inc. Epiglottis Mouth Salivary glands Esophagus SCIENCE EXPLORER Focus on Life Science Liver Gallbladder Large intestine Small intestine Stomach Pancreas Rectum

10 75 Exploring the Heart Prentice-Hall, Inc. Major vein from upper body to heart Pacemaker Aorta Artery from heart to lungs SCIENCE EXPLORER Focus on Life Science Right atrium Right ventricle Left atrium Left ventricle Septum Major vein from lower body to heart

11 76 Artery, Capillary, and Vein Artery Capillary Vein Connective tissue Epithelial cells Epithelial cells Connective tissue Smooth muscle Smooth muscle

12 77 Exploring the Respiratory System Pharynx Nose Prentice-Hall, Inc. Epiglottis Trachea Larynx SCIENCE EXPLORER Focus on Life Science Lung Bronchus

13 78 Gas Exchange in the Alveoli Smaller branch of bronchus Blood rich in oxygen from lungs Blood rich in carbon dioxide from body Alveolus Oxygen moving into blood Red blood cell Capillary Carbon dioxide moving into alveolus Air in alveolus

14 79 Exploring a Kidney Excretory system Kidney Nephron Kidney Ureter Urinary bladder Urethra

15 80 Exploring the Immune Response T Cell Recognizes a Virus Some T Cells Attack Virus Other T Cells Activate B Cells Antibodies Destroy Pathogens

16 81 Exploring the Path of a Nerve Impulse Prentice-Hall, Inc. Sensory neuron Interneuron SCIENCE EXPLORER Focus on Life Science Receptors in ear Motor neuron Muscle in hand

17 82 The Brain Cerebrum Right half of cerebrum Left half of cerebrum Cerebellum Brainstem Spinal cord

18 83 The Electromagnetic Spectrum Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet

19 84 Camera SCIENCE EXPLORER Focus on Life Science Prentice-Hall, Inc.

20 85 The Eye Lens Iris Pupil Cornea Retina Optic nerve Blood vessels

21 86 The Ear Outer ear Middle ear Inner ear Hammer Semicircular canals Cochlea Anvil Auditory nerve Eardrum Stirrup Ear canal

22 87 Exploring the Endocrine System Female Male Hypothalamus Thyroid gland Pituitary gland Parathyroid glands Thymus Ovaries Adrenal glands Pancreas Thyroid gland Testes

23 88 The Male Reproductive System Bladder Tube Gland Urethra Penis Testis Scrotum Tube Urethra Penis Testis

24 89 The Female Reproductive System Oviduct Ovary Oviducts Bladder Uterus Cervix Urethra Vagina Ovary

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